Nature conservation

Biodiversity Reform

North Coast - conservation status analysis

This page shows the conservation status of the bioregion, based on protection of landscapes within formal conservation management mechanisms.

The numbered landscapes referred to in the text are described briefly in the table at the bottom of the page. These landscapes were identified in the State Conservation Monitoring Project. In this project, a total of 1167 landscapes were described, combining three layers: ruggedness, geology and subregions.

Landscape-scale conservation

The North Coast Bioregion is covered by 136 landscapes (NPWS in prep). While the majority of the landscapes occupy less than 1 per cent of the bioregion, the dominant landscape is Landscape 388, occupying 934,300 hectares or 16.45 per cent of the bioregion.

National parks and nature reserves

Of the 136 landscapes in the North Coast Bioregion 107 are included in the system of national parks and nature reserves. Forty-five landscapes have greater than 20 per cent of their bioregional area in the reserve system. No landscapes across the full range of ruggedness and with varying geology have 100 per cent of their area included.

One landscape (Landscape 22) has between 90 and 99 per cent of its area included in national parks and nature reserves and 19 landscapes have between 50 and 89 per cent of their bioregional area in the reserve system (one between 80 and 89 per cent, 4 between 70 and 79 per cent, 4 between 60 and 69 per cent and 10 between 50 and 59 per cent). Landscape 388, the largest landscape by area within the bioregion, also occupies the largest area of a landscape conserved in national parks and nature reserves.

Historic sites

Three low ruggedness landscapes are represented in historic sites in the bioregion. As is usually the case, historic sites involve only small areas and percentages of landscapes. Each of these landscapes is also represented to a greater or lesser degree within the reserve system. These landscapes are:

  • Landscape 226 with 326.42 hectares or 0.14 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 270 with 147.96 hectares or 0.18 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 2 with 8.42 hectares or 0.65 per cent of its bioregional area.

Aboriginal areas

Four landscapes with varying ruggedness and geology are represented in Aboriginal areas. A greater area of these are also represented in the reserve system. The areas and proportion of each of these landscapes is listed below:

  • Landscape 473 with 113.45 hectares or 0.06 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 440 with 9.76 hectares or 0.03 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 497 with 2.11 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 92 with 0.30 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area.

State recreation areas

Five of the North Coast landscapes are represented in state recreation areas. All of these landscapes are also represented to varying degrees in national parks and nature reserves. The areas and proportion of these landscapes in state recreation areas is listed below:

  • Landscape 380 with 65.43 hectares or 0.16 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 428 with 28.45 hectares or 0.02 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 388 with 26.43 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 270 with 9.04 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 13 with 6.50 hectares or 0.06 per cent of its bioregional area.

Crown reserves

The areas of Crown reserves managed by the NPWS in the North Coast Bioregion encompasses 16 landscapes of varying ruggedness and geology. All are also represented to varying degrees in the system of national parks and nature reserves.

  • Landscape 78 with 5183.53 hectares or 1.79 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 428 with 3353.34 hectares or 1.97 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 98 with 2957.45 hectares or 1.44 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 380 with 2430.59 hectares or 5.97 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 79 with 2376.32 hectares or 0.90 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 77 with 2277.11 hectares or 2.54 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 440 with 1396.09 hectares or 3.76 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 76 with 565.68 hectares or 0.90 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 388 with 469.44 hectares or 0.05 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 446 with 300.00 hectares or 2.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 322 with 211.92 hectares or 0.15 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 421 with 133.75 hectares or 0.09 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 460 with 107.11 hectares or 1.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 494 with 55.73 hectares or 0.14 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 462 with 36.20 hectares or 0.10 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 90 with 8.08 hectares or 0.15 per cent of its bioregional area.

Flora reserves

Twenty-three landscapes are represented in flora reserves (388, 322, 494, 271, 64, 78, 62, 76, 462, 58, 421, 473, 79, 61, 98, 68, 77, 11, 440, 268, 594, 266 and 10). They have a variety of ruggedness (low to high), varying geology and are sourced from several subregions. All are also represented in the reserve system. Flora reserves contribute to the conservation of less that 2.1 per cent of the bioregional area of each landscape in all 23 cases.

Voluntary conservation agreements

VCAs on land in the North Coast Bioregion cross 25 landscapes. The majority of these landscapes are low ruggedness with varying geology and the source subregions. As with VCAs generally, the areas conserved are relatively small. Eight of these have lower than 5 per cent representation in this system and are listed below:

  • Landscape 497 with 0.03 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 16 with 0.37 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 1 with 1.55 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 23 with 2.06 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 4 with 26.73 hectares or 0.11 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 594 with 26.89 hectares or 0.07 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 557 with 32.43 hectares or 0.04 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 79 with 39.60 hectares or 0.02 per cent of its bioregional area.

Wildlife refuges

Sixty-three landscapes are represented in the wildlife refuge program. This makes it the largest contributor (albeit a less certain contribution both in terms of security and degree of active management) to inclusion of the range of landscapes in conservation mechanisms outside of the reserve system.

Five of these are not represented at all in national parks and nature reserves. (Their area and proportional representation in wildlife refuges are listed below and a description of these landscapes is included in the text box) while 39 others have less than 20 per cent of their bioregional area in this system of reserves. Landscapes not also represented in national parks and nature reserves include:

  • Landscape 125 with 0.01 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 45 with 87.97 hectares or 8.00 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 66 with 165.94 hectares or 6.64 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 59 with 195.40 hectares or 6.30 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 161 with 1321.36 hectares or 38.86 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 160 with 1923.98 hectares or 35.08 per cent of its bioregional area.

Property agreements

Thirty-nine landscapes have been included win property agreements. One landscape (Landscape 27 with 30.97 hectares or 1.07 per cent of its bioregional area) is not represented in any of the other conservation mechanisms. A small area (3.31 hectares or 0.11 per cent of its bioregional area) of one landscape (59) which is also represented in the wildlife refuge program, does not also occur in the reserve system. Twelve others have less than 5 per cent representation in the reserve system; their areas, proportions and descriptions are included below and in the text boxes.

  • Landscape 661 with 0.55 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 620 with 1.19 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 24 with 1.71 hectares or 0.05 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 380 with 3.71 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 93 with 6.54 hectares or 0.23 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 79 with 7.30 hectares or <0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 557 with 8.51 hectares or 0.01 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 23 with 12.96 hectares or 0.04 per cent f its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 497 with 19.45 hectares or 0.05 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 65 with 44.36 hectares or 0.09 per cent of its bioregional area;
  • Landscape 26 with 66.45 hectares or 0.18 per cent of its bioregional area; and
  • Landscape 16 with 131.47 hectares or 0.11 per cent of its bioregional area.

Conservation and clearing

Almost one third, 2,184,000 hectares or 38.46 per cent of the North Coast Bioregion has been cleared of native canopy vegetation. More than half (75) of the 136 landscapes are more than 30 per cent cleared (4 are 100 per cent cleared, 23 in the 70-99 per cent range of clearing, 28 in the 50-70 per cent clearing range and 20 between 30 and 49 per cent cleared).

Twenty-three of the landscapes in the North Coast Bioregion are not in any of the mechanisms surveyed. Those landscapes having low representation in the more secure forms of conservation management (national parks/nature reserves, flora reserves, voluntary conservation agreement and property agreement (if perpetual) and particularly those which are highly cleared) are priorities for conservation or restoration.

Profiles of landscapes referred to above
Landscape numberDescription
1
Landscape 1 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ3 - Murwillumbah (Qld - Southeast Hills and Ranges).
2
Landscape 2 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ4 - Southern Coastal Lowlands.
4
Landscape 4 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion SEQ3 - Murwillumbah (Qld - Southeast Hills and Ranges).
13
Landscape 13 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of coastal sands occurring in subregion SEQ3 - Murwillumbah (Qld - Southeast Hills and Ranges).
16
Landscape 16 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous & associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion SEQ10 - Richmond - Tweed (Qld - Scenic Rim).
23
Landscape 23 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ10 - Richmond - Tweed (Qld - Scenic Rim).
24
Landscape 24 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ10 - Richmond - Tweed (Qld - Scenic Rim).
26
Landscape 26 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion SEQ11 - Woodenbong.
45
Landscape 45 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid igneous intrusives occurring in subregion SEQ10 - Richmond - Tweed (Qld - Scenic Rim).
59
Landscape 59 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (coarse grain) occurring in subregion NNC1 - Nymboida.
65
Landscape 65 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous & associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion NNC1 - Nymboida.
66
Landscape 66 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion NNC1 - Nymboida.
76
Landscape 76 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
77
Landscape 77 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (coarse grain) occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
78
Landscape 78 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
79
Landscape 79 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
90
Landscape 90 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
92
Landscape 92 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous & associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
93
Landscape 93 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of coastal sands occurring in subregion SEQ10 - Richmond - Tweed (Qld - Scenic Rim).
98
Landscape 98 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (coarse grain) occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
125
Landscape 125 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid igneous intrusives occurring in subregion SEQ12 - Clarence Basin.
160
Landscape 160 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of ultra basic igneous intrusives occurring in subregion NNC1 - Nymboida.
161
Landscape 161 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of ultra basic igneous intrusives occurring in subregion NNC1 - Nymboida.
266
Landscape 266 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
270
Landscape 270 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of coastal sands occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
322
Landscape 322 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (fine grain-non calcareous) occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
380
Landscape 380 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous and associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
388
Landscape 388 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
421
Landscape 421 is an area of high ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
428
Landscape 428 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous and associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
440
Landscape 440 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid igneous intrusives occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
446
Landscape 446 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid igneous intrusives occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
460
Landscape 460 is an area of high ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid igneous intrusives occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
462
Landscape 462 is an area of high ruggedness with a dominant geology of basic/intermediate igneous & associated sediments & metasediments occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
473
Landscape 473 is an area of moderate ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid metamorphics occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
494
Landscape 494 is an area of high ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (fine grain-non calcareous) occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
497
Landscape 497 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid metamorphics occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
557
Landscape 557 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of acid volcanics (extrusives) & associated sediments occurring in subregion NNC2 - Manning - Macleay.
594
Landscape 594 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (mixed grain) occurring in subregion SB2 - Hunter.
620
Landscape 620 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of eastern alluvials occurring in subregion SB2 - Hunter.
661
Landscape 661 is an area of low ruggedness with a dominant geology of sedimentary (fine grain-non calcareous) occurring in subregion SB2 - Hunter.

Page last updated: 26 April 2016