Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions - Determination to make minor amendment to Part 3 of Schedule 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act

NSW Scientific Committee

The Scientific Committee, established by the Threatened Species Conservation Act, has made a Determination to make a minor amendment to Part 3 of Schedule 1 (Endangered ecological communities) of the Act by inserting the Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions (as described in the determination of the Scientific Committee under Division 5 Part 2) and as a consequence to omit reference to the Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions (as described in the final determination to list the ecological community) which was published on pages 9406 to 9411 in the NSW Government Gazette No. 200 dated 17 December 2004. Minor amendments to the Schedules are provided for by Division 5 of Part 2 of the Act.

 

The Scientific Committee is of the opinion that the amendment is necessary or desirable to correct an omission in the Determination in relation to the Thackway and Cresswell (1995) reference.

 

The Scientific Committee has found that:

 

1. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is the name given to the ecological community associated with periodic or semi-permanent inundation by freshwater, although there may be minor saline influence in some wetlands. They typically occur on silts, muds or humic loams in depressions, flats, drainage lines, backswamps, lagoons and lakes associated with coastal floodplains. Floodplains are level landform patterns on which there may be active erosion and aggradation by channelled and overbank stream flow with an average recurrence interval of 100 years or less (adapted from Speight 1990). Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains generally occur below 20 m elevation in the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions. The structure of the community may vary from sedgelands and reedlands to herbfields, and woody species of plants are generally scarce. Typically these wetlands form mosaics with other floodplain communities, and often they include or are associated with ephemeral or semi-permanent standing water (e.g. Goodrick 1970).

 

The composition of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains is primarily determined by the frequency, duration and depth of waterlogging and may be influenced by the level of nutrients and salinity in the water and substrate. The community is characterised by the following assemblage of species:

Alisma plantago-aquaticaAzolla filiculoides var. rubra
Azolla pinnataBaumea articulata
Baumea rubiginosaBolboschoenus caldwellii
Bolboschoenus fluviatilisBrasenia schreiberi
Carex appressaCentipeda minima
Ceratophyllum demersumCyperus lucidus
Eclipta platyglossaEclipta prostrata
Eleocharis acutaEleocharis equisetina
Eleocharis minutaEleocharis sphacelata
Fimbristylis dichotomaGratiola pedunculata
Hemarthria uncinataHydrilla verticillata
Hydrocharis dubiaJuncus polyanthemos
Juncus usitatusLeersia hexandra
Lemna spp.Lepironia articulata
Ludwigia peploides subsp. montevidensisMarsilea mutica
Maundia triglochinoidesMyriophyllum crispatum
Myriophyllum latifoliumMyriophyllum propinquum
Myriophyllum variifoliumNajas marina
Najas tenuifoliaNymphaea gigantea
Nymphoides geminataNymphoides indica
Ottelia ovalifoliaPanicum obseptum
Panicum vaginatumPaspalum distichum
Persicaria attenuataPersicaria decipiens
Persicaria hydropiperPersicaria lapathifolia
Persicaria strigosaPhilydrum lanuginosum
Phragmites australisPotamogeton crispus
Potamogeton ochreatusPotamogeton perfoliatus
Potamogeton tricarinatusPseudoraphis spinescens
Ranunculus inundatusSchoenoplectus litoralis
Schoenoplectus mucronatusSchoenoplectus validus
Spirodella spp.Triglochin procera sensu lato
Typha orientalisUtricularia australis
Vallisneria spp.Wolffia spp.

 

2. The total species list of the community is considerably larger than that given above, with many species present at only one or two sites or in low abundance. The species composition of a site will be influenced by the size of the site, recent rainfall or drought conditions and by its disturbance history (including grazing, flooding, land clearing and pollution in the catchment). The number and relative abundance of species will change with time since flooding or significant rainfall, and may also change in response to changes in grazing regimes and land use in the catchment. At any one time, above-ground individuals of some species may be absent, but the species may be represented below ground in the soil seed banks or as dormant structures such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes, rootstocks or lignotubers. The list of species given above is of vascular plant species, the community also includes micro-organisms, fungi, cryptogamic plants and a diverse fauna, both vertebrate and invertebrate. These components of the community are poorly documented.

 

3. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is known from parts of the Local Government Areas of Tweed, Byron, Lismore, Ballina, Richmond Valley, Clarence Valley, Coffs Harbour, Bellingen, Nambucca, Kempsey, Hastings, Greater Taree, Great Lakes, Port Stephens, Maitland, Newcastle, Cessnock, Lake Macquarie, Wyong, Gosford, Hawkesbury, Baulkham Hills, Blacktown, Penrith, Fairfield, Liverpool, Wollondilly, Camden, Campbelltown, Wollongong, Shellharbour, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Eurobodalla and Bega Valley but may occur elsewhere in these bioregions. Bioregions are defined in Thackway and Cresswell (1995). Examples include Swan Bay, Gundurimba wetland, Bungawalbin Swamp, Dyraaba Creek and Tuckean Swamp on the Richmond floodplain; Southgate wetlands and Trenayr Swamp on the Clarence floodplain; Seven Oaks Swamp, Swan Pool, Kinchela Creek and Upper Belmore Swamp on the Macleay floodplain; Great Swamp on the Manning floodplain; Wentworth Swamp, Hexham Swamp, Wallis Creek and Ellalong Lagoon on the Hunter floodplain; Bushells, Pitt Town, Long Neck and Broadwater Lagoons on the Hawkesbury floodplain; Coomonderry Swamp on the Shoalhaven floodplain; Pedro and Old Man Bed Swamps on the Moruya floodplain; and Jellat Jellat Swamp on the Bega floodplain (Goodrick 1970).

 

4. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is dominated by herbaceous plants and have very few woody species. The structure and composition of the community varies both spatially and temporally depending on the water regime (Yen and Myerscough 1989, Boulton and Brock 1999). Wetlands or parts of wetlands that lack standing water most of the time are usually dominated by dense grassland or sedgeland vegetation, often forming a turf less than 0.5 metre tall and dominated by amphibious plants including Paspalum distichum (water couch), Leersia hexandra (swamp rice-grass), Pseudoraphis spinescens (mud grass) and Carex appressa (tussock sedge). Wetlands or parts of wetlands subject to regular inundation and drying may include large emergent sedges over 1 metre tall, such as Baumea articulata, Eleocharis equisetina and Lepironia articulata, as well as emergent or floating herbs such as Hydrocharis dubia (frogbit), Philydrum lanuginosum (frogsmouth), Ludwigia peploides subsp. montevidensis (water primrose), Marsilea mutica (nardoo) and Myriophyllum spp. (milfoils). As standing water becomes deeper or more permanent, amphibious and emergent plants become less abundant, while floating and submerged aquatic herbs become more abundant. These latter species include Azolla filiculoides var. rubra, Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort), Hydrilla verticillata (water thyme), Lemna spp. (duckweeds), Nymphaea gigantea (giant waterlily), Nymphoides indica (water snowflake), Ottelia ovalifolia (swamp lily) and Potamageton spp. (pondweeds). The threatened aquatic plants, Aldrovanda vesiculosa and Najas marina, also occur within this community. The composition and structure of the vegetation is also influenced by grazing history, changes to hydrology and soil salinity, catchment runoff and disturbance, and may have a substantial component of exotic grasses and forbs. Artificial wetlands created on previously dry land specifically for purposes such as sewerage treatment, stormwater management and farm production, are not regarded as part of this community, although they may provide habitat for threatened species.

 

5. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions has a distinctive fauna that includes frogs, fish, freshwater tortoises, waterbirds and a diversity of micro- and macro-invertebrates. The frog families represented are Myobatrachidae (southern frogs) and Hylidae (tree frogs), including the threatened Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea). Waterbirds include Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Pacific Black Duck (Anas superciliosa), Australian Grey Teal (Anas gracilis), Pacific Heron (Ardea pacifica), White-faced Heron (Ardea novaehollandiae), Great Egret (Ardea alba), Intermediate Egret (Ardea intermedia), Little Egret (Ardea garzetta), Straw-necked Ibis (Threskiornis spinicollis), Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica), Black-necked Stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus), Royal Spoonbill (Platalea regia), Yellow-billed Spoonbill (Platalea flavipes), Japanese Snipe (Gallinago hardwickii), Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), Dusky Moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa), Comb-crested jacana (Jacana gallinacea) and Purple swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio).

 

6. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions forms part of a complex of forested wetland and treeless wetland communities found throughout the coastal floodplains of NSW. A recent analysis of available quadrat data from these habitats identified several types of forested wetlands that are distinct from this treeless wetland community (Keith and Scott 2005). The combination of features that distinguish Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains from other endangered ecological communities on the coastal floodplains include its scarcity or complete absence of woody plant species and the presence of amphibious, emergent, floating or submerged aquatic forbs, grasses or sedges. It generally occupies low-lying parts of floodplains, alluvial flats, depressions, drainage lines, backswamps, lagoons and lakes; habitats where flooding is periodic and standing fresh water persists for at least part of the year in most years. The community also occurs in backbarrier landforms where floodplains adjoin coastal sandplains (e.g. Pressey and Griffith 1992). However, it is distinct from Sydney Freshwater Wetlands, which may include a component of woody plant species and are associated with sandplains in the Sydney Basin bioregion.

 

7. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains may adjoin or intergrade with several other endangered ecological communities, which collectively cover all remaining native vegetation on the coastal floodplains of New South Wales. These include Lowland Rainforest on Floodplain in the NSW North Coast bioregion, Subtropical Floodplain Forest of the NSW North Coast bioregion, River-Flat Eucalypt Forest on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions (including the formerly listed Sydney Coastal River-flat Forest in the Sydney Basin bioregion), Swamp Sclerophyll Forest on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions (including the formerly listed Sydney Coastal Estuary Swamp Forest Complex in the Sydney Basin bioregion) and Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions. For example, Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains are sometimes fringed by trees, such as Casuarina glauca (swamp oak) and Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark), indicating transitional zones to forested communities of the floodplains. The boundaries between these communities are dynamic and may shift in response to changes in hydrological regimes, fire regimes or land management practices (e.g. Johnston et al. 2003, Stevenson 2003). In addition, Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains may adjoin or intergrade with Coastal Saltmarsh of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions and Sydney Freshwater Wetlands of the Sydney Basin bioregion. The Determinations for these communities collectively encompass the full range of intermediate assemblages.

 

8. A number of vegetation surveys and mapping studies have been conducted across the range of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions. This community includes 'Fresh meadows', Seasonal fresh swamps', 'Semi-permanent fresh swamps', and 'Open fresh waters' in the general coastal wetlands classification of Goodrick (1970). In the Tweed valley lowlands, this community includes 'Eleocharis equisetina tall closed sedgeland' (E2) and 'Triglochin procera tall forbland to tall open forbland' (E3) of Pressey and Griffith (1992) and parts of the 'Floodplain Wetland Complex' (FL) that are dominated by herbaceous plants (Pressey and Griffith 1992). In the lower Hunter valley, 'Freshwater Wetland Complex' (map unit 46) of NPWS (2000) falls within this community. In the Sydney region, this community includes 'Freshwater wetlands on the floodplains' of Benson and Howell (1990); 'Freshwater reed swamps' (map unit 28a) of Benson (1992) and Ryan et al. (1996) in the Penrith-St Albans district; 'Lepironia freshwater swamp' (map unit 75 and part of map unit 79) of NPWS (2002a) in the Warragamba area; and 'Freshwater wetlands' (map unit 36) of Tozer (2003) on the Cumberland Plain. On the Illawarra plain, this community includes 'Floodplain Wetland' (map unit 54) of NPWS (2002b). In the Comprehensive Regional Assessment of southern New South Wales (Thomas et al. 2000), this community includes 'Coastal alluvial valley floor wetlands' (map unit 189). This community also includes those parts of 'Coastal freshwater lagoon' (map unit 313) of Tindall et al. (2004), on the south coast of NSW, and parts of 'Floodplain Wetlands' (map unit 60) of Keith and Bedward (1999), in the Eden region, that are dominated by herbaceous aquatic plants. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is included within the 'Coastal Freshwater Lagoons' vegetation class of Keith (2002, 2004). There may be additional or unmapped occurrences of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains within and beyond these surveyed areas.

 

9. The extent of the Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions prior to European settlement has not been mapped across its entire range. Estimates of wetland area also vary, depending on the scale of mapping (coarse scale maps may exclude many small wetlands), wetland definition and the occurrence of recent flooding. Mapping carried out by Kingsford et al. (2004), for example, focused on areas of open water and thus excluded many wetlands attributable to this community. One estimate based on a compilation of regional vegetation maps suggests that Coastal Freshwater Lagoons, which include Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains, currently cover 90-160 km2, representing less than 60-90% of the original extent of this broadly defined vegetation class (Keith 2004). However, the remaining area of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains is likely to represent much less than 60-90% of its original range, because this combined estimate for the Coastal Freshwater Wetlands class (Keith 2004) is likely to include a considerable area of freshwater wetlands on coastal sandplains, which are excluded from this Determination. Goodrick (1970) estimated that approximately 21 700 ha of 'Fresh meadows', 'Seasonal fresh swamps', 'Semi-permanent fresh swamps', and 'Open fresh waters' remained on NSW coastal floodplains in 1969, representing less than 39% of their original area. Continued clearing and drainage works in the 35 years since Goodrick's (1970) survey are likely to have resulted in a substantial diminution of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains. More detailed surveys have identified the following areas attributable to Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains: less than 150 ha on the Tweed lowlands in 1985 (Pressey and Griffith 1992); about 10 600 ha on the lower Clarence floodplain in 1982 (Pressey 1989a); about 11 200 ha on the lower Macleay floodplain in 1983 (Pressey 1989b); about 3500 ha in the lower Hunter – central Hunter region in 1990s (NPWS 2000); less than 2700 ha on the NSW south coast from Sydney to Moruya in the mid 1990s (Tindall et al. 2004), including about 660 ha on the Cumberland Plain in 1998 (Tozer 2003) and about 100 ha on the Illawarra Plain in 2001 (NPWS 2002); and less than 1000 ha in the Eden region in 1990 (Keith and Bedward 1999). The wetlands included in these estimates exist in various states of modification.

 

10. Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions has been extensively cleared and modified. Large areas that formerly supported this community are occupied by exotic pastures grazed by cattle, market gardens, other cropping enterprises (e.g. sorghum, corn, poplars, etc.) and, on the far north coast, canefields. On the Tweed lowlands, Pressey and Griffith (1992) estimated that less than 3% of the original Floodplain Wetlands remained in 1985. Similar estimates are likely to apply to Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains in other parts of the NSW North Coast bioregion (Pressey 1989a, 1989b). In the lower Hunter – central coast region, about two-thirds was estimated to have remained during the 1990s (NPWS 2000), while approximately 40% remained on the Cumberland Plain in 1998 (Tozer 2003). In the Sydney – South Coast region, about 70% was estimated to remain in the mid 1990s (Tindall et al. 2004), in the Eden region about 30% was estimated to remain during the 1990s (Keith and Bedward 1999).

 

11. Land clearing continues to threaten Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions. A small minority of the remaining area occurs on public land (e.g. Pressey 1989a, b; Pressey and Griffith 1992), with most occurring on productive agricultural land or in close proximity to rural centres. The remaining stands are severely fragmented by past clearing and are further threatened by continuing fragmentation and degradation, flood mitigation and drainage works, filling associated with urban and industrial development, pollution and eutrophication from urban and agricultural runoff, weed invasion, overgrazing, trampling by livestock, soil disturbance by pigs, activation of 'acid sulfate soils' and rubbish dumping (e.g. Goodrick 1970; Pressey 1989a, b; Pressey and Griffith 1992; Boulton and Brock 1999, Johnston et al. 2003). The native fauna of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains is threatened by predation, particularly by mosquito fish and cane toads. Anthropogenic climate change may also threaten Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains if sea levels rise and future flooding regimes change as predicted (IPCC 2001; Hughes 2003). Clearing of native vegetation; Alteration to the natural flow regimes of rivers, streams, floodplains and wetlands; Invasion of native plant communities by exotic perennial grasses; Predation, habitat destruction, competition and disease transmission by feral pigs; and Anthropogenic climate change are listed as Key Threatening Processes under the Threatened Species Conservation Act (1995).

 

12. Large areas of habitat formerly occupied by Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains have been directly drained by construction of artificial channels (e.g. Pressey 1989a, Boulton and Brock 1999). By the early 1900s, drainage unions or trusts were formed on the major floodplains to enable adjacent landholders to arrange for co-ordinated drainage systems, which were designed and constructed by the former NSW Department of Public Works. Additional areas that have not been directly drained may have been altered hydrologically by changed patterns of flooding and drainage following flood mitigation works, particularly the construction of drains, levees and floodgates (Pressey and Griffith 1992). On the north coast of NSW, expansion of Melaleuca quinquenervia and Casuarina glauca into open floodplain swamps has been attributed to artificial drainage and shortening of the hydroperiod (Johnston et al. 2003, Stevenson 2003). These changes appear to be closely associated with enhanced acidity, altered ionic ratios, increased dissolved organic carbon and sulfide oxidation in the soil profile (Johnston et al. 2003). Conversely, alteration of tidal flows may have led to decreased soil salinity and localised expansion of Freshwater Wetland into areas that previously supported Coastal Saltmarsh or mangroves (Stevenson 2003). Re-instatement of tidal flows and other natural hydrological processes may therefore lead to contraction of Freshwater Wetlands. In addition, sedimentation and eutrophication of wetlands is associated with development of their catchments for intensive agriculture or urban or industrial infrastructure. Harmful runoff from developed catchments may include herbicides, pesticides, fertilisers, sewerage, industrial waste and polluted stormwater. The widespread degradation of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains has led to regional declines in their dependent fauna including Magpie Geese (Anseranas semipalmata), Cotton Pygmy Geese (Nettapus coromandelianus), Hardhead (Aythya australis), Black-necked Stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus), and Wandering Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna arcuata).

 

13. Very few examples of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains remain unaffected by weeds. The causes of weed invasion include physical disturbance to the vegetation structure of the community; the dumping of landfill, rubbish and garden refuse; eutrophication and polluted runoff from urban and agricultural areas; construction of roads and other utilities; soil disturbance by feral pigs and grazing by domestic livestock. In addition, mechanical and chemical methods of controlling aquatic weeds may threaten native components of the flora. The principal weed species affecting Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains include Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligatorweed), Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel bush), Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Hygrophila costata (glush weed), Ludwigia longifolia, L. peruviana, Nymphaea capensis (Cape waterlily), Panicum repens (torpedo grass), Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu) and Salvinia molesta, (Sainty and Jacobs 1981).

 

14. Small areas of Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions are contained within existing conservation reserves, including Ukerebagh, Tuckean, Tabbimoble Swamp, Hexham Swamp, Pambalong and Pitt Town Nature Reserves and Bungawalbin, Scheyville and Seven Mile Beach National Parks, although these are unevenly distributed throughout the range and unlikely to represent the full diversity of the community. In addition, wetlands within protected areas are exposed to hydrological changes that were, and continue to be initiated outside their boundaries. Some Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains are protected by State Environmental Planning Policy 14, although this has not always precluded impacts on wetlands from the development of major infrastructure.

 

15. Given the dynamic hydrological relationship between Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains, Coastal Saltmarsh and other endangered ecological communities on coastal floodplains, future management of water and tidal flows may result in the expansion of some communities at the expense of others. Proposals for the restoration of natural hydrological regimes and for the rehabilitation of acid sulfate soils may also result in changes to the distribution and composition of floodplain communities. Co-ordinated planning and management approaches across whole catchments will be required to address and resolve priorities between different management objectives.

 

16. In view of the above the Scientific Committee is of the opinion that Freshwater Wetlands on Coastal Floodplains of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is likely to become extinct in nature in New South Wales unless the circumstances and factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate.

 

 

Dr Richard Major

Chairperson

Scientific Committee

 

Proposed Gazettal date: 17/12/10

Exhibition period: 17/12/10 – 11/02/11

 

References

 

Benson DH (1992) The natural vegetation of the Penrith 1:100 000 map sheet. Cunninghamia 2, 541-596.

 

Benson DH, Howell, J (1990) 'Taken for granted: the bushland of Sydney and its suburbs.' (Kangaroo Press, Sydney.)

 

Boulton AJ, Brock MA (1999). 'Australian freshwater wetlands: processes and management.' (Gleneagles Publishing, Glen Osmond.)

 

Goodrick GN (1970) A survey of wetlands of coastal New South Wales. Technical Memorandum No. 5. CSIRO, Canberra.

 

Hughes L (2003) Climate change and Australia: trends, projections and impacts. Austral Ecology 28, 423-443.

 

IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Report from Working Group II. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva.

 

Johnston SG, Slavich PG, Hirst P (2003) Alteration of groundwater and sediment geochemistry in a sulfidic backswamp due to Melaleuca quinquenervia encroachment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 1343-1367.

 

Keith DA (2002) 'A compilation map of native vegetation for New South Wales. NSW Biodiversity Strategy.' (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.)

 

Keith DA (2004) 'Ocean shores to desert dunes: the native vegetation of New South Wales and the ACT.' (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney.)

 

Keith DA, Bedward M (1999) Vegetation of the South East Forests region, Eden, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6, 1-218.

 

Keith DA, Scott, J (2005) Native vegetation of coastal floodplains – a broad framework for definition of communities in NSW. Pacific Conservation Biology 11, in press.

 

Kingsford RT, Brandis K, Thomas RF, Crigton P, Knowles E, Gale E (2004) Classifying landform at broad spatial scales: the distribution and conservation of wetlands in New South Wales, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 55, 17-31.

 

NPWS (1999) Forest ecosystem classification and mapping for the upper and lower north east Comprehensive Regional Assessment. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Coffs Harbour.

 

NPWS (2000) Vegetation Survey, Classification and Mapping: Lower Hunter and Central Coast Region. Version 1.2. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

 

NPWS (2002a). Native vegetation of the Warragamba Special Area. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

 

NPWS (2002b) Native vegetation of the Wollongong.escarpment and coastal plain. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

 

Pressey RL (1989a) Wetlands of the lower Clarence floodplain, northern coastal New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 111, 143-155.

 

Pressey RL (1989b) Wetlands of the lower Macleay floodplain, northern coastal New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 111, 157-168.

 

Pressey RL, Griffth SJ (1992) Vegetation of the coastal lowlands of Tweed shire, northern New South Wales, species and conservation. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 113, 203-243.

 

Ryan K, Fisher M, Schaeper L (1996) The natural vegetation of the St Albans 1:100 000 map sheet. Cunninghamia 4, 433-482.

 

Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL (1981) 'Waterplants of New South Wales.' (Water Resources Commission of NSW, Sydney.)

 

Speight JG (1990) Landform. In: 'Australian soil and land survey. Field handbook' Second edition (Eds. RC McDonald, RF Isbell, JG Speight, J, Walker, MS Hopkins), pp9-57. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

 

Stevenson, M (2003) Remote sensing and historical investigation of environmental change and Melaleuca encroachment in Tuckean Swamp, north-eastern NSW. Unpublished report. School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore.

 

Thackway R, Cresswell ID (1995) (eds) 'An interim biogeographic regionalisation of Australia: a framework for establishing the national system of reserves.' (Version 4.0 Australian Nature Conservation Agency: Canberra).

 

Tindall D, Pennay C, Tozer MG, Turner K, Keith DA (2004) Native vegetation map report series. No. 4. Araluen, Batemans Bay, Braidwood, Burragorang, Goulburn, Jervis Bay, Katoomba, Kiama, Moss Vale, Penrith, Port Hacking, Sydney, Taralga, Ulladulla, Wollongong. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation and NSW Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

 

Thomas V, Gellie N, Harrison T (2000) Forest ecosystem classification and mapping for the southern Comprehensive Regional Assessment. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan.

 

Tozer MG (2003) The native vegetation of the Cumberland Plain, western Sydney: systematic classification and field identification of communities. Cunninghamia 8, 1-75.

 

Yen S, Myerscough PJ (1989) Co-existence of three species of amphibious plants in relation to spatial and temporal variation: field evidence. Australian Journal of Ecology 14, 291-304.

Page last updated: 28 February 2011