Heritage

Bx011 : Hargrave-calver Group of Houses and Gardens

Item details

Name of item: Bx011 : Hargrave-calver Group of Houses and Gardens
Other name/s: Rosedale, The Den (18 View St); Nardi (14-16 View St); Tanfield (23 Hope St)
Primary address: 23 Hope St and 14A-16A & 18 View Street, Blaxland, NSW 2774
Local govt. area: Blue Mountains
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
23 Hope St and 14A-16A & 18 View StreetBlaxlandBlue Mountains   Primary Address
23 Hope StreetBlaxlandBlue Mountains   Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

Criterion (a) An item is important in the course, or pattern, of the local area’s cultural or natural history
The group of early twentieth-century properties in Hope Street and View Street, Blaxland, has high local heritage significance through the association with the Hargrave-Calver family, which independently developed the southern sector of central Blaxland. The situation so convenient to the railway station, opened in 1902, and to the services which grew up on the Great Western Highway, encouraged the second generation of the family to live separately but closely after the death of the Revd Joshua Hargrave in 1932. This gave a significant homogeneity to the building stock, although population growth in the Blaxland area after World War II has encouraged infill housing among the Hargrave-Calver properties. Those Hargrave-Calver houses which escaped destruction in the 1968 bushfire remain highly significant as the lynch-pin of the character of southern Blaxland.

The Revd Joshua Hargrave who created this group of houses and their gardens was one of the most significant figures in the creation of the village of Blaxland. A rare example of a learned and wealthy Anglican minister in the colony, combining a deep concern for the urban poor and for the Aboriginal people with a scholarly interest in the archaeology of the Bible lands, Hargrave was a private and understated figure in the Anglican communion who effectively administered significant parts of the church’s social mission in New South Wales and Queensland, while mixing freely in Sydney’s social circle. In retirement in Blaxland, Hargrave built the first church in the village and established a large family circle in the hitherto undeveloped southern part of Blaxland.

Inclusion guidelines satisfied:

+ is associated with a significant historical phase

+ maintains the continuity of a historical process

Criterion (b) An item has strong or special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in the cultural or natural history of the local area

The Revd Joshua Hargrave who created this group of houses and their gardens was one of the most significant figures in the creation of the village of Blaxland. A rare example of a learned and wealthy Anglican minister in the colony, combining a deep concern for the urban poor and for the Aboriginal people with a scholarly interest in the archaeology of the Bible lands, Hargrave was a private and understated figure in the Anglican communion who effectively administered significant parts of the church’s social mission in New South Wales and Queensland, while mixing freely in Sydney’s social circle. In retirement in Blaxland, Hargrave built the first church in the village and established a large family circle in the hitherto undeveloped southern part of Blaxland.

Inclusion guidelines satisfied:

+ is associated with a significant person

Criterion (c) An item is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in the local area
The Hargrave-Calver group of houses are important as a group of early twentieth century dwellings that provide some early character to Blaxland. Nardi, Tanfield and Rosedale (formerly The Den) are of interest as surviving small cottages which fulfilled the basic needs in a mountain retreat. 1 Hope Street by contrast is a more substantial house and a good example of a federation home, few of which survive in Blaxland.

At each of the four surviving houses (1, 23 Hope St., 14-16, 18 View St.) and at 11 Hope St. there is an attractive garden setting, established around regrowth of native vegetation. Although this is representative of retreats in the Blue Mountains generally, it is rare in Blaxland and retains heritage significance.

Inclusion guidelines satisfied:
+ exemplifies a particular taste and style

Criterion (f) An item possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of the area’s cultural or natural history
The group of houses exists in a garden setting established around regrowth of indigenous vegetation. Although this is representative of mountain retreats in general it is not found anywhere else in Blaxland.

Inclusion guidelines satisfied:

+ is the only example of its type

Criterion (g) An item is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of the area’s cultural or natural places; or cultural or natural environments

Each of the surviving houses in the group has a garden setting established around regrowth of indigenous vegetation associated with mountain retreats. This is representative of retreats in the Blue Mountains in general.

Inclusion guidelines satisfied:

+ has the principal characteristics of an important class of items

+ is part of a group which collectively illustrates a representative type
Date significance updated: 17 Jan 05
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Construction years: 1907-1919
Physical description: The Hargrave-Calver property on the east side of Hope Street and the north side of View Street has been extensively altered by sub-division and infill. Four houses associated with the family survive, 1 and 23 Hope Street, 14-16 and 18 View Street, with garden and walling features at 11 Hope Street.

1 Hope Street.

This substantial Federation house facing north to Hope Street is scheduled (in 2005) to be moved a few metres on the same block while retaining its external features. It has a roof of intersecting gables sheeted in corrugated steel. A bull-nosed verandah on the north and east sides of the house is terminated by the north-facing gable. The house is clad with splayed weatherboards. The front door is four-panelled with a toplight. Paired 3-pane casement windows open to the verandah. Elsewhere the windows are double-hung, with two windows in the north-facing gable. The gables are trimmed with fretwork bargeboards and a squared finial. The front steps have a rendered swept spandrel.

11 Hope Street

Some sandstone retaining walls survive, possibly from Hargrave's original garden. The garden of 11 Hope Street is of interest for its abundant mix of exotics and native trees.

23 Hope Street (Tanfield)

Tanfield is a single-storey cottage with a hipped roof facing north to Hope Street. It has a symmetrical front with paired 2-pane casement windows on either side of the front door, which has a toplight. A bullnose verandah is on the north and east sides of the cottage and is hipped at the west end of the north elevation. The house has a brick chimney, corbelled at the top. The cladding is rusticated weatherboards, with splayed weatherboards at the sides.

14-16 View Street (Nardi)

Nardi is a small cottage, not visible from either View Street or Hope Street, situated at the north end of the allotment which adjoins the back garden of 5 Hope Street. Nardi faces north and has a hipped roof with gablets on the north and east sides. The front verandah, which may have been added in the 1930s, has tapered purlins and fretwork timber brackets. The cottage is clad with rusticated weatherboards, although the different mouldings suggest some changes over time. It has a corrugated steel roof. There is a single chimney with a brick cowl and corlels. The front of the cottage has a 2-over-2-pane double-hung window and a pair of 4-pane casements. At the rear there is a 6-over-6-pane double-hung window and a 4-panel door with a skillion awning, The cottage is attractively secluded in a garden of mature native plants mingled with exotic species. A fine old eucalypt is a feature to the north of the cottage.

18 View Street (Rosedale, formerly The Den)

The core of the present brick and fibro cottage now called Rosedale is the study-museum built by Joshua Hargrave early in the twentieth century and known to the family as The Den. It lies on the extreme south-west corner of Hargrave's property and is today the last house on the east side of View Street, marching onto bushland. The north section of the present house is the early part and retains Hargrave's substantial brick chimney. Hargrave himself extended this original room and by the end of World War I The Den had expanded to something like the present long rectangle of the west elevation.The early part is in colonial bond brick with stretcher bond used on the south extension. A verandah runs along the front west, with timber posts and recent fretwork brackets. There is an interesecting gabled wing to the rear. The present roof is of corrugated steel.

When the cottage was bought by the Jones family in 1979, it had been seriously damaged by squatters and extensive renovations were undertaken. As a result replacement windows, shutters, a mantlepieceand fittings for the kitchen and bathrooms were acquired from demolition yards in Mascot and Penrith, representing different architectural periods. The 6-panelled front door on the west side of the south extensdion, the leadlight windows in the kitchen and the marble front-door tread are among the recycled items which do not relate to the Hargrave period. (Joones to Heritage Office, 2002)

A mature eucalypt is a feature of the front (west) garden and a number of eucalypts survive around the house, creating a smooth transition to the bushland to the south.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Reasonable
Date condition updated:02 May 02
Modifications and dates: Substantial later infill housing.

1 Hope Street DA for redevelopment approved 2004, heritage listing proposal removed following loss of building after fire (LEP2005 Amendment 1 Review 2009).

11 Hope Street, little sigificance remains at this site but does not appear to warrant separate listing (LEP2005 Amendment 1 Review 2009).
Further information: Addresses:
1 Hope Street
Tanfield, 23 Hope Street
Nardi, 14-16 View Street
The Den, 18 View Street
Current use: Residences
Former use: Country Retreats, Residences; Museum

History

Historical notes: The Revd Joshua Hargrave was a well-to-do retired Anglican minister, born in 1850, the son of a New England grazier, Richard Hargrave and his wife Mary Williams, whose father had been a member of the first elected government of New South Wales. (Cable) Richard Hargrave and his brother John, a foundation judge of the New South Wales District Court, had been born in London, the children of a prosperous hardware merchant and had come to Australia in the 1840s and 1857 respectively. Joshua Hargrave was born in Australia and baptised at Armidale, in the same year, 1850, as his cousin, Lawrence, the pioneer of aviation in Australia, was born to John Hargrave in London.(ADB, IV 345-6; IX 196-8)

Joshua was educated at Macquarie Fields, the distinguished boarding school in Sydney, from 1855 until 1866, when he joined the major commercial firm in the city founded by John Frazer, soon becoming a partner. Frazer himself was a prominent Presbyterian churchman and philanthropist, who on his death in 1884 left a substantial bequest to build a Presbyterian church in the Blue Mountains, at Springwood, near his country retreat of Silva Plana. Frazer and his friend Sir James Fairfax were powerful examples to the young Hargrave. (Men of Mark, I 72-5; Maddock, 2-3; SMH, 7 December 1932)

When he was twenty-five, Joshua Hargrave turned seriously to religion, became a lay reader at the Anglican church of St John at Parramatta and studied for the ministry at Moore College. In 1876 he was ordained as deacon by Bishop Barker, a lasting influence on his intellectual development, and in 1877 became a priest, starting his parochial career in Nowra at another St John's. The central period in Hargrave's ministry came when he returned to Sydney first as locum in 1880 and then as rector from 1882 until 1899 at St David's, Surry Hills. (Cable)

Throughout his career Hargrave showed a selfless dedication to the disadvantaged in society. His Surry Hills parish was poor. For sixty years up to his death in 1932 he was a trustee for the Sydney Ragged Schools and was consistently interested in the welfare and the material culture of Aboriginal people, both in the city and in his native New England. (SMH 8 December 1932; Neyle)

He was also much in demand as a church organiser. From 1880 until 1907 he was secretary of the Church Building Fund, in 1898-9 and again in 1908-9 secretary of the Board of Missions, from 1899 to 1901 full-time secretary of the Church Society and from 1909 to 1911 organising secretary of the Clergy Provident Society. (Cable) After he left his position with the Church Society in 1901, he returned to a poor parish as rector of St Silas, Waterloo, but in 1907, at the age of fifty-seven, he retired from parochial life, probably as the result of his wife's ill-health.

Joshua had in 1872 married a young widow, Marion Calver, who had three children. Joshua and Marion had four more and the Calver and Hargrave children grew up as a unitary family, although not all the Calver children survived to maturity. Marion had a heart problem and, as with so many others, a mountain retreat seemed appropriate to assist her. Her husband knew Frazer’s Silva Plana at Springwood and was doubtless aware of the retreats built by his fellow Anglican ministers, such as Archdeacon Boyce at Blackheath and Charles Baber at Katoomba. The idea of retiring to the mountains was not at all unfamiliar. It is not known whether Hargrave had already bought land in Blaxland before his retirement in 1907, but on balance it seems likely that he only began to settle there after 1907.

The Hargrave estate embraced much of portion 21 in Strathdon parish, extending along Hope Street and down the whole of View Street into the bush. At this time Blaxland consisted of only a handful of houses, with a scattered population in the area totalling 88 in the 1911 census. The village does not appear at all in Sand's country directories until 1920 (Sands 1920, 39A). Hargrave built a large house for himself, called Meriden Hall, on what is now 11 Hope Street, and kept extending it eastwards. To supply separate accommodation for guests, he then built Nardi, a weatherboard cottage, to the west of Meriden Hall. (Neyle) Nardi does not appear on the rate records until after 1919, when the Hargrave land had been divided into a series of separate titles, but because of the nature of the estate the guest cottage may simply have remained unnoticed at first. (Low, 28 February 2002) The tennis court to the south of Nardi was built by one of the Calver family in the 1930s, after Hargrave’s death, with the help of friends from the Nobel explosives factory in Sydney who blasted the site. (Neyle)

Hargrave also built a separate study-museum building for his own personal use. He had a keen interest in anthropology and archaeology. In 1887 and 1904 he had spent time in the middle east as a member of the Palestine Exploration Society and brought back to Australia a number of artefacts from the Holy Land and Egypt. (SMH, 7 December 1932; Neyle) His interest in Aboriginal culture had prompted him also to collect spears and tools from the Armidale district, around his father's property at Hillgrove. (R. Calver) These various aspects of his intellectual interests, including curios such as a French bayonet of 1870 (E.H. Calver), more characteristic of clergymen in England than rectors in Australia, were displayed in his study-museum, called The Den. This building survives and is now 18 View Street: it had, to judge from the fabric, started as a small cottage with a large external west chimney, but was extended eastwards by Hargrave and had taken its present long rectangular form by the end of World War I. (R. Calver) The Den was partly built by Hargrave himself: family tradition recounts how his wife, Marian, had to stop him laying bricks directly on top of each other instead in any known bond, so that the building had some hope of staying up. (Quodling)

For his extended family and step-family, Hargrave built houses along Hope Street. At 1 Hope Street, his son Oswald helped to construct the surviving weatherboard, while at 7 Hope Street a house called Darrah had been built by 1919 for Marion Calver (Mrs Davey) and at the south end of 9 Hope Street there was a cottage called Orvieto, the same size as The Den, owned by Robert Calver, who used it as a country retreat. (Low, 28 February 2002).

There was no church in Blaxland, so in 1913 Hargrave built a small weatherboard chapel, for family worship, dedicated to St David, alluding to his Surry Hills parish. From 1916 onwards he made the chapel available to the rector of Springwood for regular public services. In 1928 this chapel in Short Street was bodily transferred by a bullock team to a new site on Taringha Street as the parish church of St David, on the site where the present church was built after Hargrave's building was destroyed in the 1968 bushfire. (Lambert, 16-17)

Hargrave was clearly much loved in Surry Hills and in recognition of the devotion of members of his congregation, he built Tanfield at 23 Hope Street as a home for Miss Smith and Miss Brown, two elderly ladies without means. (King) He is said also to have built cottages in Station Street for other former Surry Hills parishioners, but these, unlike 23 Hope Street, were destroyed in the 1968 fire. (Neyle)

Hargrave's wife died in 1923, but he lived on in Blaxland until 1932 when he died, aged 82, in a private hospital in Randwick and was buried in Waverley cemetery. He had had a quietly productive career in the Anglican church, never seeking promotion to rural dean or archdeacon en route to the bishopric which his qualities, social connections and administrative abilities might have suggested.

His landed property in Blaxland had already been partly reapportioned among the next generation of Hargraves and Calvers and the remainder was inherited by them. The Den, still containing his museum collection, was vandalised and partly robbed in the 1940s,while the principal house, Meriden Hall, at 11 Hope Street and the cottage Orvieto at 9 Hope Street, were burnt down in the 1968 bushfires, along with his church. Some of the artefacts remain in the Calver family and the church bell, which was saved, is still in use at the third St David's.

The Hargrave estate has since World War II been further subdivided and many infill houses have been erected along View Street and Hope Street. A SEPP 5 Development Approval was given in 2003 by the Land and Environment Court to build 15 villas on the corner of Hope Street and View Street, including 1 Hope Street. A corollary of the decision is sanction to move the Hargrave house at 1 Hope Street to a new location on the same block.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The group of early twentieth-century properties in Hope Street and View Street, Blaxland, has high local heritage significance through the association with the Hargrave-Calver family, which independently developed the southern sector of central Blaxland. The situation so convenient to the railway station, opened in 1902, and to the services which grew up on the Great Western Highway, encouraged the second generation of the family to live separately but closely after the death of the Revd Joshua Hargrave in 1932. This gave a significant homogeneity to the building stock, although population growth in the Blaxland area after World War II has encouraged infill housing among the Hargrave-Calver properties. Those Hargrave-Calver houses which escaped destruction in the 1968 bushfire remain highly significant as the lynch-pin of the character of southern Blaxland.

The Revd Joshua Hargrave who created this group of houses and their gardens was one of the most significant figures in the creation of the village of Blaxland. A rare example of a learned and wealthy Anglican minister in the colony, combining a deep concern for the urban poor and for the Aboriginal people with a scholarly interest in the archaeology of the Bible lands, Hargrave was a private and understated figure in the Anglican communion who effectively administered significant parts of the church’s social mission in New South Wales and Queensland, while mixing freely in Sydney’s social circle. In retirement in Blaxland, Hargrave built the first church in the village and established a large family circle in the hitherto undeveloped southern part of Blaxland.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Hargrave-Calver group of houses are important as a group of early twentieth century dwellings that provide some early character to Blaxland. Nardi, Tanfield and Rosedale (formerly The Den) are of interest as surviving small cottages which fulfilled the basic needs in a mountain retreat. 1 Hope Street by contrast is a more substantial house and a good example of a federation home, few of which survive in Blaxland.

Each of the surviving houses has a garden setting established around regrowth of indigenous vegetation associated with mountain retreats. Although this is representative of the mountain retreats in general, it is rare in Blaxland and retains heritage significance.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The group of houses exists in a garden setting established around regrowth of indigenous vegetation. Although this is representative of mountain retreats in general it is not found anywhere else in Blaxland.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Each of the surviving houses in the group has a garden setting established around regrowth of indigenous vegetation associated with mountain retreats. This is representative of retreats in the Blue Mountains in general.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Council should place Interim Heritage Orders on 14-16 View Street and 18 View Street, on which development applications are pending ,so that more information about the significance of these items of local heritage importance can be obtained before any decision is made.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanLEP2005 Amd1BX01130 Jun 10   
Heritage study BX011   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Springwood, Blaxland, Hazelbrook HA2002BX011Jack, Hubert, Lavelle, MorrisRIJ, PH & CM Yes
Technical Audit BM Heritage Register2008BX011Blue Mountains City CouncilCity Planning Branch No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Map 1951Plan of Part of Hargrave's Land in Blaxland
Map  Map of Parish of Strathdon, County Cook
Oral History 2002Interview by R Ian Jack with Ralph Calver, 2/6 Lyons Road, Drummoyne, 30 April
Oral History 2002Interview by R Ian Jack with Laura Williams, 18 View Street, Blaxland, 26 April
Oral History 2002Interview by Ian Jack with Margaret R Neyle nee Calver 8 Yawung Avenue, Baulkham Hills, 30 April
Oral History 2002Interview by R Ian Jack with Richard King, 27 View Street, Blaxland, 1 May
Written 1932Obituary of Joshua Hargrave in Sydney Morning Herald, 8 Dec
Written 1888Australian Men of Mark, Volume 1
WrittenA Inglis1983Hargrave, Lawrence (1850-1915), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol 9
WrittenE H Calver Typed note on Hargrave's The Den
WrittenJ M Bennett1972Hargrave, John Fletcher (1815-1885), in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4,
WrittenJ Maddock1995The Frazer Memorial Presbyterian Church: A History (2nd Edition)
WrittenJohn Low2002Letter to Jyoti Somerville, 28 February
WrittenJyoti Somerville2002Report to BMCC, 20 February
WrittenK J Cable Biographical Register of Anglican Clergy in New South Wales
WrittenL T Lambert1989A History of Christ Church, Springwood
WrittenMargaret R Neyle nee Calver2002Letter to BMCC, 25 April
WrittenR A Jones, owner2002Letter to NSW Heritage Office, 30 June

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1170531


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Branch or respective copyright owners.