Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2869 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2869

Item details

Name of item: Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2869
Other name/s: Civic Place; Town Hall Site
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Market building
Primary address: Macquarie Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Hectares (approx): 0.6
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
Lot10DP115297
Lot10DP128539
Lot10DP128540
Lot10DP201075
Lot20DP207682
Lot30DP207682
Lot10DP209425
Lot30DP211992
Lot40DP211992
Lot30DP221128
Lot10DP248787
Lot10DP264408
Lot20DP264408
Lot30DP264408
Lot40DP264408
Lot50DP264408
LotA0DP323787
LotA0DP324342
LotPT27A0DP412996
LotA0DP417015
LotB0DP417015
LotB0DP419250
Lot30DP510571
Lot10DP511141
Lot20DP511141
Lot10DP514282
Lot10DP549978
Lot20DP549978
Lot1000DP609944
Lot10DP626765
Lot10DP628809
Lot230DP651527
Lot70DP702736
Lot80DP702736
Lot90DP702736
Lot10DP731780
Lot20DP790386
Lot10DP791300
Lot10DP863571
Lot10DP914000

Boundary:

Civic Place, defined as the area bounded by Macquarie, Smith, Darcy and Church Streets
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Macquarie StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address
Church StreetParramattaParramatta  Alternate Address
Smith StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandAlternate Address
Darcy StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandAlternate Address

Statement of significance:

This AMU has high archaeological research potential.
This area contains a number of important public buildings and has been a significant public space since the early nineteenth century, identified as the site of the annual feast for Aborigines from 1816-30, the Market Place by 1823 and the Town Hall since 1880.
The physical archaeological evidence within this area may include built landforms, structural features, open deposits and scatters, ecological samples, individual artefacts and possibly intact subfloor deposits which have potential to yield information relating to major historic themes including Aboriginal post-contact, Agriculture, Commerce, Cultural Sites, Events, Government and Administration, Housing, Land Tenure, Persons and Townships.
Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be disturbed in part but substantially intact in other areas.
This AMU is of State significance.
Date significance updated: 08 Sep 00
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Physical description: The subject area contains a number of one- to three-storey commercial buildings along Darcy and Macquarie Streets (as well as a multi-storey Parramatta City Council building at 30 Darcy Street and a multi-storey office building on the corner of Smith and Macquarie Streets which are not included in this AMU). The Town Hall building fronts the Church Street Mall. The centre of the street block contains the Council Chambers and the library (with basement car park - not included in this AMU), as well as ground-level car parking areas and laneways. The area generally slopes down to the northeast.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The subject area has moderate potential to contain intact subsurface deposits. The construction of a number of buildings within the subject area would have disturbed archaeological deposits to some extent. The 1991 Archaeological Zoning Plan identified areas of no archaeological potential (including 19A Church Street, The Connection Arcade at 162 Church Street, 20 Darcy Street and 7 Smith Street). These areas have been reassessed as having at least low archaeological potential and have been included in this AMU to allow further investigation.
Archaeological evidence within the subject area is likely to include the remains of: dwellings, outbuildings, rubbish dumps or other evidence of the occupants of each allotment, spanning 1789 to the present day; structures or rubbish dumps associated with the Market or Pound which operated on the site from 1789 to 1879; artefacts related to the use of the site as the annual meeting place for local Aboriginal people and the colonial government; and original (ie pre-European) soil profiles which were revealed in an 1982 excavation. This excavation also revealed part of a historic drain on the boundary of Civic Place. The drain that fell in the portion of the pound was brick with cement mortar, but the northern portion (ie that falling within the Macquarie Street residences) was a sandstone box drain.
While the excavation was inconclusive about the construction sequence of the drain, it revealed a soil stratification which is considered to be original.
The ‘Recommended Management’ actions listed below indicate what may be required to manage archaeological resources within this AMU. Please note that all requirements may not be required for all parts of this AMU.
Date condition updated:30 Aug 00
Current use: Built public space and thoroughfare, public buildings, office buildings
Former use: Commercial and residential

History

Historical notes: Civic Place covers some parts of seven allotments granted prior to 1823.
The southern half of the Area, fronting Darcy Street, comprised two allotments and was leased to D'Arcy Wentworth and John Piper in 1799. Having built a house and made improvements, Wentworth's lease was renewed in 1806 and in 1819 he was granted both allotments. Following his death, the land, its 'dwelling houses and premises' were transferred to D'Arcy's son, William C Wentworth, in 1827. William mortgaged the property in 1829 and by 1844 a series of buildings had been constructed on the Church Street frontage (south of the local markets, now the site of the Town Hall). Any structures fronting Darcy Street may have been affected by the introduction of the railway and station which was opened in 1860. After William's death in 1861, the property was transferred to his son, Fitzwilliam, who subdivided it into seventy-three allotments in 1873.
The northern allotments were comprised of residences, public houses and the local market and pound. The earliest known dwelling house on this part of the site was on the northeastern allotment (Allt No. 32) and was listed for sale in 1819. In 1833, this allotment was then subdivided and the 'White Horse [Inn]' built on the western portion. (The Inn's buildings and yard were described in 1851 when it was up for sale.) The eastern half (fronting Smith Street) seems to have been used for residential purposes and by 1875 had a substantial house known as Myall Cottage (probably built after 1857 when John Neale bought the property, but perhaps earlier) which was offered for sale and sold to a haberdasher in 1876.
The other allotments fronting Macquarie Street also held residences, some shown on maps as early as 1823 (Allt 30) and 1835 (Allt 28). The dwelling on Allt 28 (often including Allts 27 and 1), probably the house 'Wynerne', was occupied by doctors, merchants and dealers between 1852 and 1901; ie those considered to be 'middle class'.
The allotment fronting Church Street and in the middle of the Civic Place Area was marked out by Governor Phillip for a market in his plan for Parramatta. A market fair was held here in 1813. It was later the site of the annual feast for Aborigines first held by Governor Macquarie and continued from 1816 to 1830. A building labelled 'Market Place' is identified on an 1823 map. By 1844, it had been extended and sometime between 1850 and 1870 had been replaced. In 1879, this area was set aside for the Town Hall and at some point the later Market building was relocated to the Western Road [sic].
The Town Hall was designed by GA Mansfield and built by Hart & Lavors. Construction began in 1881 and it was opened in 1883.
A new building at the rear of the Town Hall now houses the council administration.
A complex of drains has been investigated through excavation which suggests the laying, or repair to, the drainage system in different phases, perhaps a result of different ownership of each allotment. The drain within the portion of the original pound is brick with cement mortar and north of this line it is a sandstone box drain.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Burramattagal-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Native Feasts-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Indigenous/Interaction: What evidence is there about the lives of Aboriginal people and the nature of interaction in the-Aboriginal Contact Contact; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Aboriginal post-contact-May include sites of contact with Europeans, conflict, resistance, interaction and urban life.
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Peopling the continent-National Theme 2
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agriculture-Cultivation of land; includes crop-raising, forestry, stock-raising.
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Global economies-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Was Parramatta provincial or fashionable?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Core/Periphery: Is Parramatta exploited as a classic 'periphery' by the 'core' of Sydney? Do the 1820s mark a change in-Commerce Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Economic Function: What function does Parramatta perform as the result of its physical position in relation to Sydney an-Commerce Consumption; Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Global Market: Were the people of Parramatta participating in a global market place? Does this increase as the fruits of-Commerce Consumption; Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Commercial Centre: Does nineteenth-century commercial growth in Parramatta differ from Sydney's?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Do Parramatta residents utilise mass-produced or home-spun goods?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Do Parramatta residents consume local products, such as cordial?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Commerce-Includes banking, retailing.
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places: How are significant places marked in the landscape of Parramatta by, or for, different groups?-Monuments and Sites
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing-Includes the range from individual homes or homesteads to group accommodation.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Land tenure-Aboriginal and European; may include sub-divisions, fences, Survey marks etc.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Macquarie's town layout-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Townships-May include present, former or aborted settlements, streetscapes.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Water and drainage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Governing-National Theme 7
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Government and administration-Includes maladministration.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Developing cultural institutions and ways of life-National Theme 8
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Artefact Assemblages: Are there differences between the assemblages of emancipists and convicts, Aboriginal people, indu-Cultural Sites Consumption
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. 1800–1810: What does the archaeological record tell us about this period?-Cultural Sites
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Consumption/Production: Did Parramatta represent a community of net consumption or production?-Cultural Sites Consumption; Production
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Consumption/Change: How did commerce and consumption patterns change?-Cultural Sites Consumption
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Cultural sites-From low to high culture, significant for the creation or performance of art, music, literature, drama, film etc., local symbols.
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Marking the phases of life-National Theme 9
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Events-May include monuments, sites of special significance and social value.
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Persons-May include individuals, families, dynasties, birthplace, place of Residence, women's sites.

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The significance of Civic Place is based on its association with the development of the township of Parramatta. The site contains a number of important public buildings and has been an important public space since the early nineteenth century, identified as the site of the annual feast for Aborigines from 1816-30, the Market Place by 1823 and the Town Hall since 1880.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The archaeological resources of this AMU have no known aesthetic significance although it is recognised that exposed in situ archaeological remains may have distinctive/attractive visual qualities.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The potential social values of this AMU have not been assessed. However, some places take on high social values as a result of community interest in archaeological investigations.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site has the potential to yield information related to its association with the development of public activities in the Parramatta township, including the Market or Pound and the later civic buildings, as well as the annual meeting for local Aboriginal people and the Colonial Government. The only structure which is known to have survived at the site is the historic drainage system. The site also has the potential to contain pre-European soil profiles.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The site has rarity value as it represents the development of public space in the Parramatta area. It is also unusual as the site of the annual Aboriginal feast between 1816-30.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This AMU includes archaeological resources which, as a set, provide a physical chronicle of the history of Parramatta.
Integrity/Intactness: Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be disturbed in part but substantially intact in other areas. Stratified archaeological resources are known to exist in situ within the subject area.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Statutory: DCP. Statutory: NSW Heritage Act (Section 140). Site Requirement: Test Trench and Reassess. Site Requirement: Open Area Excavation. Interpretation: On Site Participation. Interpretation: Signage Permanent. Interpretation: Other Publication. Interpretation: Retention of Fabric In Situ.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Regional Environmental PlanTown Hall and pot archaeological site 182 ChurchStSchedule 601 Sep 99  107
Regional Environmental PlanMurray'sbuilding & potl archaeological siteSchedule 601 Sep 99  107
Regional Environmental PlanBicentennial Square and adj buildings 182 ChurchStSchedule 601 Sep 99  107
Regional Environmental PlanLeigh Memorial Uniting Church (119 Macquarie St)Schedule 6, Part 101 Sep 99  113
Local Environmental PlanLeigh Memorial Uniting Church (119 Macquarie St)35921 Feb 97 20895
Local Environmental PlanMurray's Building (188 Church Street)10420 Feb 97 20884
Local Environmental PlanTown Hall & potentl archl site (182 Church Street)    
Local Environmental PlanBicentennial Sqr & adj buildings (182 Church St)10316 Feb 97 20884
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 104  95
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 103  95
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 102  95
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 105  96
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 106  96
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 107  96

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
PHALMS2001 Godden Mackay Logan  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
MapDetail Survey Branch, Department of Lands, Sydney, NSW1895Detail Survey Series of Parramatta
MapG.C. Stewart1822Town of Parramatta Showing Urban Settlement (redrawn 1926 by Campbell)
WrittenHigginbotham1989Historical and Archaeological Analysis of the Civic Place Site, Parramatta (check ref)
PhotographLand and Property Information1998Aerial Photographs
PhotographLand and Property Information1951Aerial photographs
WrittenMeredith Walker1993City of Parramatta Heritage Study
MapSurveyor G.W. Evans1804Plan of the Township of Parramatta (later annotated)
MapSurveyor General's Office, Sydney1871Plan of the Environs of Parramatta, County of Cumberland, NSW
WrittenTerry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont1996Parramatta: A Past Revealed
MapW. Meadows Brownrigg1844Plan of the Town of Parramatta and the Adjacent Properties, as surveyed by W. Meadows Brownrigg, Surveyor

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2242869


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