Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2872 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2872

Item details

Name of item: Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2872
Other name/s: Perth House, Rose Cottage, Convict Hut
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Other - Residential Buildings (private)
Primary address: 85 George Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
 197180SP 
Lot100DP814413

Boundary:

Site fronts George Street; boundary of Lot 10, DP 814413, excluding building at rear
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
85 George StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

This AMU has high archaeological research potential.
This AMU contains multiple layers of physical evidence, beginning with a convict hut which occupied the site from c1792 until 1813 when William Aird, Superintendent of Public Works at Parramatta, built Rose Cottage as his own residence. The site was then part of the Government Lumber Yard and by 1841, James Houison built Perth House for George Oakes, a landholder of the Parramatta district and State Parliamentarian.
The physical archaeological evidence within this area may include structural features, intact subfloor deposits, open deposits and scatters, ecological samples and individual artefacts which have potential to yield information about all phases of the site's residential and work-related history, relating to major historic themes including Convicts, Cultural Sites, Housing, Townships and Labour.
While some physical remains at this site have been totally removed by archaeological excavation, and the construction of Perth House is likely to have disturbed previous remains, evidence is likely to survive intact in some areas.
This AMU is of State significance.
Date significance updated: 26 Oct 00
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Physical description: Perth House today is a single-storey sandstone residence, with a paved-stone verandah, set in generous grounds and plantings. There is a two-storey, stone out-building at the rear (see SHI 2240211).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The remains of the convict building and Rose Cottage are likely to remain intact beneath, and subject to the disturbance of, Perth House. Some archaeological evidence relating to Perth House itself has already been retrieved from the grounds (now redeveloped) and more is likely to survive intact in other areas of the yard and under the floor of the house.
This evaluation is based on historical resources available to, and field survey undertaken for, the Parramatta Historical Archaeological Landscape Management Study 2000 (PHALMS). Analysis of available information has been extensive but not exhaustive. Some elements of the site represented in historical records may not have been discussed within the parameters of the PHALMS project. A comprehensive archaeological assessment of this AMU has not been undertaken.
The ‘Recommended Management’ actions listed below indicate what may be required to manage archaeological resources within this AMU. Please note that all listed requirements may not apply to all parts of this AMU.
Date condition updated:11 Aug 00
Current use: Commerical Offices
Former use: Residential

History

Historical notes: The site was occupied by a convict hut from c1792 to 1813. By c1813, Rose Cottage had been constructed and occupied by William Aird, Superintendent of Public Works at Parramatta. By 1823, the allotment was labelled 'Government'. The site had been part of the Government Lumber Yard. By 1841, Perth House had been built by James Houison for George Oakes, a landholder of the Parramatta district and State Parliamentarian. (The remains of the convict building and Rose Cottage underly Perth House.)
In the 1880s, Perth House was rented by Mrs Bell who ran a small private school there (Kass et al 1996: 148).
In 1991-2, Perth House was restored as commercial offices, and a large multi-storey building developed at the rear. Open area and test or sample excavation of the yard areas was undertaken by Damaris Bairstow in 1989 in advance of redevelopment. The excavation revealed the remains of the original kitchen (of Perth House) about 1.4m south of the house. The kitchen seemed to have been built of stone, but the brick in demolition layers suggested that there were brick partition walls. The kitchen cellar was filled in the 1930s. The excavation also revealed part of an 1822-28 barrel drain which crosses the northwest corner of the site. The line of drain is shown on the 1844 plan and other sections of it have been recovered during other excavations throughout Parramatta.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict huts-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Why is there variability in the convict hut assemblages in Parramatta? What can this tell us about convict life?-Convicts Convict; Control; Consumption
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convicts/Commercial: To what extent did convicts participate in commercial life? Did they carry out work from home?-Convicts Convict; Control; Production
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convicts/Gender: In the married-convict, unmarried-convict and unmarried-female-convict huts of the 1790s, are there dif-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict-Includes settlement in town and country, in prison and in employment.
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Peopling the continent-National Theme 2
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Town Houses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing-Includes the range from individual homes or homesteads to group accommodation.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasehold Land after 1823-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasehold Land before 1823-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Townships-May include present, former or aborted settlements, streetscapes.
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working-National Theme 5
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Labour-Includes work practices and organised labour.
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Educating-National Theme 6
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Public/Private Education: Do public and private education differ in resources and expected outcomes?-Education
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Identity/Imperial: Does the development of education facilities in Parramatta reflect awareness of an imperial identity?-Education
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Education-Includes formal and informal, schools, mechanics institutes, secondary and tertiary educational institutions.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Consumption/Change: How did commerce and consumption patterns change?-Cultural Sites Consumption
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Class: How do people consciously express class identity through material culture?-Cultural Sites Consumption
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Developing cultural institutions and ways of life-National Theme 8
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Cultural sites-From low to high culture, significant for the creation or performance of art, music, literature, drama, film etc., local symbols.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This AMU provides evidence of a range of historical processes and activities relating to the history of Parramatta. Specific historical and associated values have not been assessed.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The archaeological resources of this AMU have no known aesthetic significance, although it is recognised that exposed in situ archaeological remains may have distinctive/attractive visual qualities.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The potential social values of this AMU have not been assessed. However, some places take on high social values as a result of community interest in archaeological investigations.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The archaeological resources of this AMU provide evidence of past human culture and activity, and therefore have potential to yield scientific and historical information.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This AMU is likely to include scarce physical evidence relating to early convict and government-official life.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This AMU includes archaeological resources which, as a set, provide a physical chronicle of the history of Parramatta.
Integrity/Intactness: The archaeological resources of this AMU are likely to be largely intact, but subject to major disturbance in some areas.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Statutory: DCP. Statutory: NSW Heritage Act (Section 60). Interpretation: Signage Temporary. Interpretation: Other Publication. Interpretation: Retention of Fabric. Site Requirement: Test Trench and Reassess. Site Requirement: Open Area Excavation. Site Requirement: In Situ Conservation.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Regional Environmental PlanPerth House Property, Moreton Bay fig & arch siteSchedule 6, Part 101 Sep 99  111
Local Environmental PlanPerth House & Stables & potenl archaeological site21121 Feb 97 20890
Local Environmental PlanPerth House and Stables 21 Jul 89 0844634
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 7101 Jan 93   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
PHALMS2001 Godden Mackay Logan  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Map 1791Hawkes River, showing the towns of Parramatta and settlements at Rose Hill, Field of Mars, Toongabbie
WrittenDamaris Bairstow1989Perth House: Historical Archaeology Report
MapG.C. Stewart1822Town of Parramatta Showing Urban Settlement (redrawn 1926 by Campbell)
PhotographLand and Property Information1998Aerial Photographs
PhotographLand and Property Information1951Aerial photographs
WrittenMeredith Walker1993City of Parramatta Heritage Study
MapSurveyor General's Office, Sydney1871Plan of the Environs of Parramatta, County of Cumberland, NSW
WrittenTerry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont1996Parramatta: A Past Revealed
MapW. Meadows Brownrigg1844Plan of the Town of Parramatta and the Adjacent Properties, as surveyed by W. Meadows Brownrigg, Surveyor

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2242872


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