Heritage

Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2887

Item details

Name of item: Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2887
Other name/s: Arthur Phillip High School and Parramatta Public School, Former Convict Barracks
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Law Enforcement
Category: Convict Place
Primary address: Macquarie Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
 197180SP 
Lot10DP115296
Lot20DP115296
Lot30DP115296
Lot30DP17466
Lot40DP17466
LotA0DP328174
Lot27A0DP449406
Lot10DP505486
Lot120DP706694
Lot620DP758829
Lot630DP758829
Lot63A0DP758829
Lot640DP758829
Lot650DP758829
Lot230DP7809
Lot240DP7809
Lot250DP7809
Lot260DP7809
Lot10DP80558
Lot10DP80784
Lot100DP814413
Lot4130DP820541
Lot4140DP820542

Boundary:

Bounded by Macquarie, Smith, Little and Charles Streets and Barrack Lane. The subject area is on both sides of Macquarie Street.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Macquarie StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address
Charles StreetParramattaParramatta  Alternate Address
Smith StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandAlternate Address
Little StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandAlternate Address

Statement of significance:

This AMU has exceptional archaeological research potential.
Used as the convict lumberyard, prisoners' barracks and military barracks, this site was of major importance as a workplace and living area during a critical phase of the convict and colonial period. Through later school use, the site has continued its government association.
The physical archaeological evidence within this area may include built landforms, structural features, intact subfloor deposits, open deposits and scatters, ecological samples and individual artefacts which have potential to yield information relating to major historic themes including Convicts, Defence, Government and Administration, Housing, Law and Order and Welfare.
Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be subject to minor disturbance. The sports field in the northeast corner of the site has been subject to major disturbance.
This AMU is of State significance.
Date significance updated: 07 Sep 00
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Physical description: The original school building is listed on SHI (2240360) as a Victorian Free Gothic brick school building with needle spire on a square entry tower. The prominent gable has an elaborate fretwork barge board.
Arthur Phillip High School is located at the western end of the subject area and contains two-three-storey classroom blocks and the original school building located around the boundary of the allotments within DP 115296 and DP 820542, with a central courtyard.
Parramatta Public School is located at the eastern end of the subject area, with a three-storey classroom block fronting Macquarie Street and single-storey and demountable classrooms on piers around the boundary of the area, with a central courtyard.
The school property extends to the north side of Macquarie Street, with a bitumen yard (basketball court) and demountable buildings in DP 820541 and a grassed sports field in Lots 62-64, DP 939368. There has been some levelling in this area because of the slope down to the north.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The sports field on the northern side of Macquarie Street was identified in the 1991 AZP as having no archaeological potential (Lots 62-64, DP 939368). This area has been levelled, with a steep slope down from Macquarie Street. The remaining sections of the subject area are likely to contain relatively intact subsurface deposits.
This evaluation is based on historical resources available to, and field survey undertaken for, the Parramatta Historical Archaeological Landscape Management Study 2000 (PHALMS). Analysis of available information has been extensive but not exhaustive. Some elements of the site represented in historical records may not have been discussed within the parameters of the PHALMS project. A comprehensive archaeological assessment of this AMU has not been undertaken.
The ‘Recommended Management’ actions listed below indicate what may be required to manage archaeological resources within this AMU. Please note that all requirements may not be required for all parts of this AMU.
Current use: School
Former use: Prisoners barracks, military barracks, lumberyard

History

Historical notes: Prior to 1809, leases that were granted to individuals at Parramatta were mainly on large acreages surrounding the Government town centre. While there were some free settlers in the town, it was prisoners' huts that dominated the town allotments. The first permanent dwellings constructed in the new town were concentrated along the principal streets of George, Macquarie and Church. Allotments in George and Macquarie Streets were the site of a number of convict huts that were later occupied by free persons. Each of the convict huts was accompanied by a garden plot. From the earliest settlement, both the convicts and the garrison had been encouraged to plant gardens to relieve the pressure on the Government stores and to provide fresh produce to the town.
In 1811, the newly arrived Governor Macquarie laid out the town of Parramatta in a grid pattern, extending Pitt and Macquarie Streets and creating Phillip Street. Between 1810-14, Smith Street was also created and aligned. Part of Macquarie's plan for Parramatta was the removal of all convicts into a barracks that was completed in 1821. This opened up the town to increased settlement, as the former huts were vacated. Macquarie also implemented a system whereby, to obtain a town lease, the applicant needed to provide building plans prior to the approval of the lease. While the civilian population continued to rise from 1810, investment was hindered by this leasehold system.
By 1822, the subject area north of Macquarie Street was identified as 'Prisoners' Barracks'. Male convicts employed by the government were accomodated in these barracks, which were part of the lumber yard. The barracks comprised three blocks, the main faced south and was very close to the street, while the west wing, one of two flanking the main block, was close to Barrack Lane. Each was 208 feet long, forming a courtyard which sloped down towards George Street. The lumber yard comprised workshops, sawpits, stables, store and offices, all enclosed within a high brick wall. The convicts were either tradesmen who worked at the lumber yard, labourers who worked on roads and public works and in the grounds of Government House or weavers who worked with the women in the Female Factory. In 1827, there were about 300 convicts working for the government at Parramatta. By 1829, only 100 convicts lived in the barracks. The facilities at the lumber yard were used by both the civil and military authorities. The lumber yard was gradually reduced due to pressure from the British Government to use private contractors. By 1833, the convict barracks housed soldiers, not convicts, and the remaining gangs slept in the old commissariat store in George Street until the gaol was built. With the appointment of Captain George Barney of the Royal Engineers in 1836, major building works and road construction were managed by military engineers and the lumber yard was closed. The premises were then used for military purposes (Kass, et al, 1996, pp 99-100).
The area south of Macquarie Street was identified as 'Military Barracks'. By 1814, the army barracks near the Landing Place required replacing. A new site was marked out closer to the centre of the town on the rising ground to the south of Macquarie Street. Watts designed a group of three main buildings around a carriage loop facing a parade ground, with a gate and guardhouse at the Macquarie Street entrance. The north-facing, two-storey central block, designed to hold 100 soldiers, was brick with a shingled, hipped roof (Kass et al, 1996: 84).
The 1844 Plan of the Town of Parramatta identifies the area north of Macquarie Street as 'Lumber Yard' and 'Military Hospital' and the area south of Macquarie Street as 'Military Barracks' with land granted to J Hassall along the eastern section of the subject area. Lancer Barracks incorporates the southern portion of these earlier, larger barracks.
The original section of the school was built in 1876 (architect: G Mansfield). It opened as a school in 1876 and became the public school in 1873. The site has been continuously occupied as a school, housing, and at different times, primary, secondary and commercial evening schools. It was extended in 1890 and altered in 1911 when the Gothic windows were enlarged and the arabesques removed.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. What is the extent of biodiversity in Parramatta's pre-European landscape?-Environment (Natural) Control
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Environment/Contact: What do we know of the Contact Environment?-Environment (Natural) Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Gaol Town: How does the eighteenth-century gaol town of Parramatta compare with Sydney and the later, free town?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Free/Forced: What differences are there between the lives of free and forced or institutionalised settlers?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict barracks-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict health-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict-Includes settlement in town and country, in prison and in employment.
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Peopling the continent-National Theme 2
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Industrial Revolution: Is there evidence of eighteenth- or early nineteenth-century agriculture?-Agriculture Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gendered spaces-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods To what extent was industry or manufacture a part of town life in Parramatta? How does this compare with other towns an-Industry Production
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing-Includes the range from individual homes or homesteads to group accommodation.
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Is there noticeable difference in the quality of workmanship between convict and contract or free workmen?-Labour Production; Convict
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Work Transition: Does the material culture of the workplace reflect transitions from pre-modern to industrialised work p-Labour Production
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Public/Private Education: Do public and private education differ in resources and expected outcomes?-Education
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Identity/Imperial: Does the development of education facilities in Parramatta reflect awareness of an imperial identity?-Education
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Military Involvement: What is the level of involvement of the military in the town and the townspeople's lifeways?-Defence Convict; Control
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Defence-May include Aboriginal battle sites, war memorials.
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Governing-National Theme 7
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Colonial government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Government and administration-Includes maladministration.
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Punishment: What are the material remains of punishment? Do they reflect punishment of the body, or reformation of the m-Law and Order Convict; control
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes What differences in crime and punishment were there between the penal period and civil period?-Law and Order Convict; control
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Prison colony-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Crime and punishment-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Law and order-Includes protest.
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations Welfare-Includes charitable and self-help institutions.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This AMU provides evidence of a range of historical processes and activities relating to the history of Parramatta. Specific historical and associated values have not been assessed.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The archaeological resources of this AMU have no known aesthetic significance, although it is recognised that exposed in situ archaeological remains may have distinctive/attractive visual qualities.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The potential social values of this AMU have not been assessed. However, some places take on high social values as a result of community interest in archaeological investigations.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The archaeological resources of this AMU provide evidence of past human culture and activity, and therefore have potential to yield scientific and historical information.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This AMU is likely to include scarce physical evidence relating to the history of Parramatta.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This AMU includes archaeological resources which, as a set, provide a physical chronicle of the history of Parramatta.
Integrity/Intactness: Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be subject to minor disturbance. The sports field in the northeast corner of the site has been subject to major disturbance.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Statutory: DCP. Statutory: NSW Heritage Act (Section 140). Site Requirement: In Situ Conservation. Site Requirement: Test Trench and Reassess. Site Requirement: Open Area Excavation. Interpretation: Signage Temporary.

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementPrepare or include in a Development Control Plan (DCP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Regional Environmental PlanArthur Phillip High School & pot archl siteSchedule 6, Part 101 Sep 99  113
Local Environmental PlanArthur Phillip High School (175 Macquarie Street)36021 Feb 97 20895
Local Environmental PlanConvict Barracks Wall (100 (rear) Macquarie Street35716 Feb 97 20882
Local Environmental PlanCottages (100 (rear) Macquarie Street)35821 Feb 97 20895
Local Environmental PlanConvict Barracks Wall (100 (rear) Macquarie Street35716 Feb 97 20882
Archaeological zoning planArthur Phillip High SchoolParramatta Central 9601 Jan 91  91-92
Archaeological zoning planArthur Phillip High SchoolParramatta Central 97  92
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 95  91

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
PHALMS2001 Godden Mackay Logan  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Map 1791Hawkes River, showing the towns of Parramatta and settlements at Rose Hill, Field of Mars, Toongabbie
MapDetail Survey Branch, Department of Lands, Sydney, NSW1895Detail Survey Series of Parramatta
MapGC Stewart1822Town of Parramatta Showing Urban Settlement (redrawn 1926 by Campbell)
PhotographLand and Property Information1998Aerial Photographs
PhotographLand and Property Information1951Aerial photographs
WrittenMeredith Walker1993City of Parramatta Heritage Study
MapSurveyor General's Office, Sydney1871Plan of the Environs of Parramatta, County of Cumberland, NSW
MapSurveyor GW Evans1804Plan of the Township of Parramatta (later annotated)
WrittenTerry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont1996Parramatta: A Past Revealed
MapW Meadows Brownrigg1844Plan of the Town of Parramatta and the Adjacent Properties, as surveyed by W Meadows Brownrigg, Surveyor

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2242887


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