Heritage

Locomotive, Steam 78

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 78
Other name/s: 1004 (From 1928), Variously M78, 78X, Public Works 13
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Thirlmere Railway Precinct, Thirlmere, NSW 2572
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Thirlmere Railway PrecinctThirlmereWollondilly  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Steam Locomotive 78 has heritage significance, as a unique example of an early locomotive built in the Workshops of the New South Wales Railways in 1877. The locomotive is associated with the 1 class, on whose design it is based, and being constructed on new frames supplied by the legendary locomotive builders Robert Stephenson and Company. Its local construction demonstrates the capability and workmanship of the railway workshops of the period, and may have considerable research potential. Locomotive 78 is a very attractive example of the influence of an early English style of locomotive imported for local use, and is very similar to the original locomotives used on the NSW Railway in 1855. It has the potential to reveal significant information regarding early manufacturing techniques and is rare as a unique survivor of this early period of local locomotive construction.
Date significance updated: 13 Nov 09
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: J. McConnell, Robert Stephenson and Company, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England
Builder/Maker: Railway Workshops, New South Wales Railways
Physical description: MECHANICAL
Locomotive 78 is a two-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, coal-fired, saturated 0-4-2 steam locomotive. It has large diameter wheels for speed and is fitted with a six-wheel tender with outside springs of riveted construction. It is built on an inside plate mainframe, with inside cylinders fitted with inside Stephenson link valve motion. All wheels are spoked. The engine is of typically British outline, with a low running plate and splashers covering the driving wheels. The locomotive is fitted with a stovepipe chimney, dome and large safety valve cover, the cab being quite open with a spectacle plate and sheet steel radiused roof. It is fitted with buffers and retains the original hook drawgear. The paint scheme is overall lined Brunswick green with red front buffer beam and brass road numbers on the chimney, but painted in cream on the cab sides and tender rear.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Good Condition
External Condition: Good Condition
Internal Condition: Good Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
The frames are in good condition with an intact anti-corrosive paint system. Cylinders are in good condition with intact anti-corrosive paint system in place. Driving, wheels are in good condition. There is minor surface corrosion on all machined surfaces. All items of motion are in good condition, though minor surface corrosion is evident on all items. Connecting rods and valve gear is missing.
The buffer beam is of laminated construction and is starting to open up.

Boiler cladding is in very good condition with an intact paint system, though the external boiler condition is largely unknown. Those parts of the boiler shell visible appear rust-free. The boiler dome and safety valve cover are non-ferrous and have been brightly polished and lacquered. The clear protective coating has now generally broken down and the brass has tarnished. This was also noted in the cab where the firebox cover strip is tarnished.
Brakes are intact.
The cab roof and structure is in good condition with paint system intact.

INTERNAL CONDITION
Boiler and smokebox internal condition is unknown. All boiler mountings in the cab appear intact and in very good condition.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Lead is presumed present where any older paint survives.
Date condition updated:11 Nov 09
Modifications and dates: December 1877 - Built by New South Wales Railways Works, Sydney, and entered service, allocated the road number 78, as part of the M(36) class. Fitted with a spectacle plate on the tender for tender first running.
1889 - Withdrawn.
September 1896 - Sold to a contractor for construction work on the Bogan Gate to Condobolin section of the western line.
1898 - Returned to Railway ownership.
March 1900 - Sold to the Department of Public Works and allocated the number 13.
1917 - Returned to railway ownership.
c.1924 - Renumbered 1004.
Unknown Date - Removed from service and placed on display at Enfield Depot.
1971 - Removed from display at Enfield and transferred to the NSW Rail Transport Museum.
1975 - Arrived at Thirlmere.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Steam Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Locomotive 78 was built by New South Wales Railways Works, Sydney in 1877. It was one of four locomotives built to replace the prototypical No. 1 class built during 1870-71 by Morts Dock at Balmain. No. 78 and its three sisters were built around frames, wheels and boiler plate supplied new by Robert Stephenson and following erection the locomotive entered service in December 1877, being allocated the road number 78, as part of the M(36) class. The second order of the class was built to replace the pioneering Nos, 1-4, whose tenders were rebuilt for service and allocated to Nos. 75-78.

No. 78 was placed in suburban service, being fitted with a spectacle plate on the tender for tender first running. After some years in this service, the class was displaced by the new F(351) class, number 78 being withdrawn sometime in 1889. In September 1896 number 78 was sold to a contractor for construction work on the Bogan Gate to Condobolin section of the western line. Following this period it returned to Railway ownership in 1898, but was then sold to the Department of Public Works in March 1900 and allocated the number 13, this department being responsible for railway construction.

The locomotive saw further service on southern line construction work. Service associated with railway construction continued with the engine being transferred to Grafton after 1904. On the transfer of construction work to the NSWGR in 1917, locomotive 78 came back into railway ownership, being transferred to the Glenreagh-Dorrigo construction project. Some time after 1924, 78 was given the number 1004 and was later removed from service and placed on display at Enfield Depot. It was removed from display at Enfield some time in 1971 and then transferred to the NSW Rail Transport Museum, arriving at Thirlmere in 1975.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway administration-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Federation and railways-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Remembering railway accidents-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Locomotive 78 has historical significance as it was built by New South Wales Railways Works, Sydney in 1877 as one of four locomotives to replace the prototypical No. 1 class built during 1870-71. The locomotive has historical significance for its use throughout the state in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in various railway construction projects, including the Bogan Gate to Condobolin section of the western line, the Glenreagh-Dorrigo construction project, and works around Grafton.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, locomotive 78 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Locomotive 78 has aesthetic significance as a very attractive example of the influence of an early English style of locomotive imported for local use, and is very similar to the original locomotives used on the NSW Railway in 1855.

Locomotive 78 has a high level of technical significance. It is an early locally built engine and may hold evidence about techniques and materials from this period.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Locomotive, Steam 78 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Locomotive 78 has research significance as a very early example of a locally built engine with the potential to reveal significant information regarding early manufacturing techniques.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Locomotive 78 has rarity significance. The engine is a unique survivor of this early period of local locomotive construction.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Locomotive 78 is an excellent representative example of its type. The locomotive is representative of a small number of locally produced engines built at this time, and displays the aesthetic qualities associated with early English locomotive design and construction.
Integrity/Intactness: Locomotive 78 retains a high degree of intactness, with the boiler, frames, cab, smokebox, running gear and many parts being original. The locomotive has a moderate level of integrity and has been restored in preservation. The restoration, though mainly cosmetic, was substantial in terms of intervention with fabric.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenRTM2002Steam Locomotive 78 CMP
Writtenwww.personal.usyd.edu.au/stephen/trains/X10/1004.shtml X10 Class

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807203


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