Locomotive, Steam 1219 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Locomotive, Steam 1219

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 1219
Other name/s: 145
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Broadmeadow Locomotive Depot, Broadmeadow, NSW 2292
Local govt. area: Newcastle
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Broadmeadow Locomotive DepotBroadmeadowNewcastle  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Steam Locomotive 1219 has heritage significance as part of a very important class of locomotive ((Z) 12), the first in NSW to be built in relatively large numbers and from their introduction in 1880 became the mainstay of mainline passenger services for the next 20 years. Locomotive 1219 has historical significance as the last of its class in general service, and also through its association with the NSW Railways "Vintage Train" workings throughout the state in the 1960s. It is an attractive example of the British design and style of locomotives of the late Victorian era, and demonstrates, following modifications, an early attempt to develop a ‘family’ appearance for NSWGR locomotives with the adoption of the 'Thow' style cab. It is an example of an early form of motive power for mainline passenger service in the State, and is rare as one of only 3 remaining (Z) 12 class locomotives.
Date significance updated: 16 Nov 09
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: Beyer, Peacock and Company, Gorton Foundry, Manchester
Builder/Maker: Dubs and Company Ltd, Glasgow
Construction years: 1880-
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Steam Locomotive 1219 is a (Z) 12 Class 4-4-0 passenger type steam locomotive, fitted with TAB 438 tender. The locomotive is a two-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, saturated ‘American’ type steam locomotive. It has a riveted plate steel frame, saturated Belpair firebox boiler supplying steam to two inclined outside cylinders driving two large wheels via ‘Stephenson link Motion’. All wheels are spoked, run in plain journal bearings with drip-fed oil lubricators feeding the axleboxes. A tall chimney and dome is located on an extended smokebox with two extra locking dogs to secure the bottom of the door. The cab is enclosed with large porthole ‘Throw’ side windows, and features brass cab side numbers. It is currently fitted with a six-wheel tender with outside suspension and of riveted construction carrying coal and water. All wheels are spoked, running on plain journal bearings with drip-feed oil axleboxes. The locomotive is fitted with hooked drawgear and buffers. It is now painted in overall red-lined black.

Fittings on the locomotive include: a steam air compressor; headlight and marker lights; steam powered turbo generator; safety valves; steam injectors; whistle; hydrostatic lubricator; regulator handle; cab boiler fittings; cab valves; cab light fittings; spectacle plate windows; through water tender filling pipe work; fire iron holders on tender side; and water range operating handles.

The tender is a compensated tri-axle (P) class tender (TAB 458).

INTERNAL
The cab has timber seats.

MECHANICAL
The locomotive has inside plate steel riveted frames, a saturated Belpair firebox boiler supplying steam to two inclined outside cylinders driving two large spoked wheels with plain journal bearings. Power is transmitted from the cylinders through ‘Stephenson link Motion’, four bar crossheads and plain unfluted connecting and coupling rods. The connecting rods big ends are retained with large cotter pins.

The leading Bissel type short wheelbase bogie is of inside plate frame riveted construction with two spoked wheels with friction bearing axle boxes and leaf spring suspension. The two main driving wheels also feature leaf spring compensated suspension.

The tender is of a riveted fixed wheel base three axle configuration with spoked wheel outside plain journal axle boxes and leaf spring suspension with the rear two axles being compensated. The tender and locomotive are connected by a central forged steel drawbar and two safety link bars.

The locomotive is fitted with a Westinghouse air braking system, operating a brake cylinder on both the engine and tender. The engine brake rigging applies four large brake shoes bearing one on each side on the rear of the two driving axles. The tender brake rigging applies inside bearing clasp brakes to all axles. A mechanical hand brake is fitted to both the tender and engine. The locomotive is fitted with hooked draw gear and standard Turton buffers.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Moderate Condition
External Condition: Moderate Condition
Internal Condition: Moderate Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
Externally the locomotive is in moderate condition exhibiting years of neglect with many fixtures missing or damaged and the paint system failing with corrosion present. The locomotive unit has a failed timber cab roof with the steel frame exposed. The cab floor timbers have also failed with the steel foreplate resting on the tender floor. The locomotives front timber buffer beam is showing signs of decay with splitting present due to exposure however the buffers and hook draw gear are secure and serviceable. The modified extended smokebox of this locomotive is in moderate condition with extra locking dogs in position but the centre dart and hand wheel are missing. The boilers sheet steel clothing is in moderate and secure condition above the running boards with the brass dome cover secure. The clothing on the bottom of the boiler when viewed from between the frames exhibits large areas of corrosion and failure with plastic sheeting fixed over a section to prevent the boiler lagging from becoming dislodged. The clothing on both cylinder covers exhibits rust blow out. The cab of the locomotive is in poor condition due to the failed roof structure with cab sides and seat boxes exhibiting corrosion in areas. The tender tank is generally in poor condition with extensive areas of corrosion visible as well as previous repair patches both riveted and welded. The coal slope sheet has failed around the shovelling plate with extensive corrosion visible within the tank. The water filling collar is in position and secure with lid as well as the rear timber coal boards. Marker lights remain on the rear of the tender as well as the original tender tab plate. The locomotive has an overall coating of road grime and surface corrosion on exposed steelwork with heavier oil and grease based deposits below the running boards and around the wheels and motion.

The locomotive units underframe appears to be moderate to good condition with surface corrosion evident though no major damage or are pitting present. The frame appears to be straight with no undue wear visible. The draw box area beneath the cab floor appears severely corroded with a large build up of debris present beneath the former cab floor. The tender underframe is severely corroded and pitted between the outside frames due to the failure of the tender tank above with a heavy build up of road grime also present. The underslung riveted air reservoir appears to be in moderate condition with mild surface corrosion present.

The locomotives Bissel leading truck appears complete with the spoked wheels retaining an acceptable profile and exhibiting near new diameter with little wear. The spoked driving wheels appear to have near new tyres with excellent profile, while the tenders spoked wheels and tyres also retain good wear and acceptable profiles. All the plain journal bearings appear complete and there is no record of overheating occurring during the movement of this locomotive in April 2009.

The external Black paint finish of the locomotive is 80% complete however severely degraded and failing. The boiler clothing is generally in moderate condition with a chalky black finish and surface corrosion present. The locomotive unit's underframe, wheels and motion are heavily covered with grease, oil and road grime with failing flaked paint especially present between the frames with large areas of exposed steel with surface corrosion present. The locomotive cab has a failing black paint system on the walls with the roof being totally missing. The Red painted timber buffer beam on the front of the locomotive has a failed paint finish with timber deterioration present. The timber floor in the cab has failed with a number of boards missing and the remaining boards severely degraded. There are remains of the canvas porthole window side curtains with the spectacle plate bronze window frames remaining minus glass. The black external paint finish of the tender is badly degraded with peeling paint and rust blow out evident throughout. The top and cab bulkhead surfaces have no protective finish remaining with surface corrosion evident. The underframe and axles of the tender have a highly soiled and degraded black finish contaminated with oil and grease externally, with no protective coating remaining on any surface between the side frames.

The fittings on this locomotive have suffered through years of neglect with many missing or damaged. The steam powered Westinghouse air compressor is missing from its bracket on the driver’s side of the boiler. The headlight and marker lights on the locomotive are in position though their internal fittings and lenses are missing while those on the tender appear to be complete. The boiler top mounted turbo generator, safety valves and five chime whistle are complete. The under floor injectors are complete with pipe work in position apart from the cover on the driver's side strainer box. The majority of the boiler back head fittings in the cab are missing including water gauge glasses, pressure gauges and regulator handle. The locomotive's hydrostatic lubricator is in position though with components missing. Air pressure gauges and cab mounted valves are also missing. The cab light fittings are missing though sections of the conduit and the main switch remains suspended from the collapsed roof structure. The cab side brass numbers are in position and secure. The tender fire iron holders injector water range operating handles and handbrake are complete as well as the through water connection.

Despite the locomotive's generally poor overall appearance externally the mechanics are in surprisingly good condition with all the tyres in near new condition. The saturated Belpair firebox boiler is complete though its internal condition is unknown. The ‘Stephenson Link Motion’ valve gear has components removed with the majority stored in the tender coal space except for one missing eccentric with all having mild surface corrosion present. The four bar crossheads appear complete with the pistons still fitted to the cylinders. The unfluted coupling rods have been removed with one lying in the tender coal space while the other is precariously balanced across the rear of the cab. The bronze bearings of all the motion appear to still be intact. The Bissel leading truck appears complete with both its leaf springs and those of the main drivers visibly in good condition. The Westinghouse air compressor is missing along with the brake valve operating handle, although the rest of the Westinghouse air braking system appears operational, due to the fact that this locomotive was moved by rail to Broadmeadow in April 2009. Both mechanical hand brakes are operational. The forged draw bar and two safety link bars are in position and serviceable.

The tenders running mechanical equipment appears to be in moderate to good condition with no obvious missing components or faults visible in spring gear or axle boxes. The underframe mounted air reservoirs appear secure though the water tank mounted above is in very poor condition. All buffers and hook drag gear are complete and secure.

INTERNAL CONDITION
No internal examination of the boiler is possible so its condition is unknown, however the firebox appears complete with all tubes still fitted and the majority of the fixed grate bars in position. The brick arch has been removed at some time. The internal condition of the tender is poor with extensive corrosion and failed baffles being present due to the failure of the coal space sheeting allowing water penetration.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Asbestos lagging is still fitted to the locomotive boiler with an extremely temporary and ad-hock method of containment employed (Space invader expandable foam) which is already failing, and yellow danger stickers. A large section of the boiler clothing beneath the belly is being held in place by black plastic and gaffer tape.

Paint on body may contain lead due to the age of the vehicle.
Date condition updated:07 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: 1879 - Built by Dubs & Co., Glasgow, as works No. 1270.
March 1880 - Entered service on NSWR as road number 145.
1899-1911 - Converted to left-hand drive. Rebuilt with Belpair firebox. Enclosed cab fitted with Throw porthole windows.
- Fitted with 6 wheel tender TAB No. 458 originally from (P) 458
- Steam powered turbo generator fitted allowing an electric head light, marker lights and cab lights to be fitted.
1924 - Renumbered 1219.
December 1956 - Fitted with extended smoke-box due to heavy steaming being encountered on the Inverell branch.
- Original town and country whistle replaced with five chime type.
- The paint scheme has changed over the years from green to black.
1975 - Transferred to Rail Transport Museum.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Express Passenger Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Steam Locomotive 1219 was constructed by Dubs and Company Ltd at their Glasgow plant, as works number 1270 in 1879, one of 26 locomotives supplied by this manufacturer as part of the second order placed by the NSWR for this design of locomotive.

The first batch of 30 ordered were delivered from Beyer Peacock Manchester beginning in 1877. This design however dates from an 1862 order by the Tudela & Bilbao Railway in Spain to Beyer Peacock Ltd Manchester for the delivery of eight 4-4-0 tank locomotives and forty one 2-4-0 tender locomotives. These locomotives were to become the inspiration for what would be known as the ‘Metropolitan’ 4-4-0 tank locomotives built for London’s Metropolitan Railway by Beyer Peacock in 1864.

The Metropolitan Railways Chief Mechanical Engineer from 1860 was John Fowler, a major figure in early British railway construction and John Whitton’s mentor and brother in law. He was also the NSWR consulting and inspecting engineer in the UK, and it was this relationship combined with Beyer Peacock's quality in design and manufacture of locomotives that were to see both this design and many subsequent orders delivered to the NSWR over the next 90 years.

Shipped to Australia in a stripped down condition Dubs & Co. works No.1270 was unloaded at West Circular Quay before being hauled to the Eveleigh Workshops for erection, entering service on the NSWR, as road number 145 in March 1880. It was engaged in mainline passenger services on both through and mail trains. So successful was the class in this service that they handled it until displaced by the advent of the standard classes, introduced by William Thow in the 1890s. Following relegation from the mainline a number were converted from 1896, to 4-4-2 tank engines for working the Sydney suburban system, then short of motive power due to expansion. From 1899 onwards a number of major modifications were made to the remaining tender engines by replacing the boilers, enclosing the cabs and converting them to left hand drive. They were then employed on lightly ballasted branch lines hauling all types of traffic. This locomotive was renumbered to 1219 in 1924.

Final withdrawal of the class occurred in the late 1950s with a few retained into the 1960 as motive power for the ‘Vintage Train’. An initiative of the NSWGR it commenced tour operations in 1960 and lasted until the advent of the Public Transport Commission in 1974. Locomotive 1219 was one of the locomotives allocated for this service along with sisters 1210 and 1243. Following withdrawal in November 1965, Locomotive 1219 was allocated for retention by the then Technological Museum, but was ultimately transferred to the Rail Transport Museum in 1973, finally arriving at Thirlmere on 24 June 1975. The locomotive was moved by rail to Broadmeadow in April 2009.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Steam Locomotive 1219 has a historical significance as part of the 12 (Z) Class of locomotive that was the first in NSW to be built in relatively large numbers: from their introduction in 1880 they became the mainstay of mainline passenger services for the next 20 years. From the turn of the century with more modern locomotives replacing them on mainline services, they were to find a new use on branchline connections off mail trains for the next 50 years. Locomotive 1219 was the last of its class in general service, being finally withdrawn in November 1963. Locomotive 1219 is also significant through its association with the Railways Vintage Train workings throughout the state in the 1960s.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Steam Locomotive 1219 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Steam Locomotive 1219 has a high level of aesthetic significance as it demonstrates the British design and style of locomotives of the late Victorian era. It also demonstrates, following modifications, an early attempt to develop a ‘family’ appearance for NSWGR locomotives with the adoption of the 'Thow' style cab. The locomotive has a distinctive appearance, with the tall chimney, high wheels, inclined cylinders, raked running plate and 6 wheel tender demonstrating the features of an elegant late nineteenth century locomotive.

Steam Locomotive 1219 has a high level of technical significance as it demonstrates the popular trends in British railway practice and locomotive design of the late 19th century. The locomotive features round top boilers with Salter safety valves, and driving wheels at 5’6" (being four inches smaller then the English counterparts allowed the engines ease of travel on the rougher permanent way standards of the NSWGR). These locomotives were also the first type of locomotive to be fitted during construction with Westinghouse air brakes.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Steam Locomotive 1219 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Steam Locomotive 1219 has a moderate level of research significance. The locomotive has the potential to reveal information regarding the adoption of late-nineteenth century British locomotive design and practices on the NSW Railways. Progressive for NSWR yet conservative by British standards, this class of locomotive incorporated many design features of the earlier tank locomotives of London’s Metropolitan Railway from 1865.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Steam Locomotive 1219 is rare as an example of an early form of motive power for mainline passenger service in the State, and is one of only 3 remaining (Z) 12 class locomotives.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Steam Locomotive 1219 is an excellent representative example of the group of Z12 class tender engines that were modified for further service on branch lines by the fitting of improved boilers, enclosed cabs and conversion to left hand drive. It is representative of the class of engines used for many years on NSW tramways and branch lines.
Integrity/Intactness: Steam Locomotive 1219 retains a moderate level of integrity and intactness. This locomotives appearance has altered since its construction in 1880. The locomotive has had an enclosed cab fitted, Belpair style boiler installed, smokebox extended, electric lighting fitted, tender changed and many other minor modifications throughout its service life of 85 years. These modifications however do not greatly affect the locomotives original 4-4-0 design, which remains unchanged. The locomotive still has its original design of riveted plate steel frame, Bissel short wheelbase leading truck, spoked wheels, inclined outside cylinders, four bar crosshead and plain unfluted connecting and coupling rods. The locomotive retains its friction bearing axles throughout as well Westinghouse braking system and mechanical hand brakes.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage Consultants  Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenJim Turner1998Early Australian Steam Locomotives 1855 - 1895
WrittenLeon Oberg1996Locomotives of Australia
WrittenR.G. Preston1984Tender to Tank
WrittenRTM2002Steam Locomotive 1219 CMP

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807210


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