Heritage

Locomotive, Steam 5711

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 5711
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Valley Heights Locomotive Depot Museum, Valley Heights, NSW 2777
Local govt. area: Blue Mountains
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Valley Heights Locomotive Depot MuseumValley HeightsBlue Mountains   Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Locomotive 5711 has heritage significance as the sole survivor of the ‘Mountain’ class of heavy freight locomotive, final example of the locally-built modern goods engine prior to dieselisation and electrification. It represents the operation of heavy goods traffic over the main south, south coast and western lines prior to dieselisation and electrification, and is representative of the ultimate development of the heavy freight locomotive, when steam haulage was at its zenith. It demonstrates in its design and construction, a boldness to introduce a new era of steam motive power to NSW to effectively deal with increasing loads and demands. The American influences and other contemporary trends in its design are of a high technical significance, demonstrating the wide ranging specifications sought by NSWGR design personnel in their attempt to overcome the challenges posed by the need for increased power within the constraints of the loading gauge. . The construction of this class of locomotive during the great depression has high social significance demonstrating the policy of the Government to maintain employment. The locomotive is also historically significant as the first locomotive to be retained by the NSWGR for the NSWRTM after attempts to secure locomotive 3402 for preservation had failed.
Date significance updated: 13 Nov 09
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: E.E. Lucy, Harold Young and others
Builder/Maker: Clyde Engineering Company, Granville and Mort’s Dock and Engineering Company, Balmain
Construction years: 1929-1930
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 5711 is a three-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, coal-fired, superheated ‘Mountain’ type, 4-8-2 steam locomotive with bogie tender. Locomotive 5711 is fitted with tender TAB 5710, originally fitted to locomotive 5710 in 1930. The locomotive has a single piece cast steel frame, superheated round top boiler supplying steam to two outside and one internal cylinder driving 8 small diameter spoked wheels. It is fitted with fluted coupling and connecting rods, a low continuous running plate and rimmed chimney. The engine has been fitted with a mechanical stoker. The locomotive and tender are fitted with extended buffers with hooked drawgear on the locomotive and automatic coupler on the tender. The engine is provided with a single headlamp placed at the top of the smokebox. The locomotive's main driving axles run on grease block bearings with the remaining engine and tender axles, running on plain journal bearings with drip-feed oil axleboxes. It has a large bogie turret tender of riveted construction carrying coal and water supply.

The locomotive also features a mechanical stoker motor and coal feed screw, steam powered grate shaker, ashpan hopper doors hung outside the trailing truck, one piece cast steel engine frame, delta cast trailing truck, power assisted reversing screw, cylinders cast separately from frame, goosenecked leading drive axle, three piece centre big end, and an automatic transition coupler on the tender. Fittings include a steam air compressor, Ashton pop safety valves, steam injectors, whistle, hydrostatic lubricator, regulator handle, cab boiler fittings, cab valves, Westinghouse No.4 air brake valves, air reservoirs, automatic stoker, steam powered grate, steam turbo generator, electric headlight and marker lights spectacle plate windows, cab seats, boiler top mounted cast sand box, water range operating handles, extended buffers and hook drawgear on the locomotive.
The engine and tender (when in service in 1961) were painted overall black, with red running plate edges.

MECHANICAL
The locomotive has an inside one piece cast steel frame, a superheated round top boiler supplying steam to two outside and one internal cylinder driving 8 small diameter spoked wheels. It is fitted with Walschaert’s valve gear driving the outside cylinders, the inside cylinder valve events being actuated by Gresley conjugating valve gear with its distinctive lever and motion across the front of the engine. The cylinders drive Pennsylvania multiple bearing cross heads coupled to fluted connecting and coupling rods driving 8 small diameter balanced spoked wheels with grease block bearings. The locomotive is fitted with a Franklin Precision F Type Power Reverser and Simplex Type B stoker motor.

The double axle leading truck is of a variable resistance type with an inside plate frame of riveted construction with small spoked wheel axles riding in friction bearing axle boxes and leaf spring suspension. The trailing Delta style truck is fitted with outside friction bearing axle boxes. The driving axles and trailing Delta truck have a spring equalisation compensation arrangement.
The tender has a fabricated underframe with riveted tank and two cast double axle bogies with disc wheels. The tender and locomotive are connected by a central forged steel. The locomotive is fitted with air operated sanding equipment supplied from a boiler top mounted cast steel sandbox.
The locomotive is fitted with a Westinghouse cross compound air compressor and No.4 brake valve operating brake cylinders on both the engine and tender. The engine brake rigging is adjusted by lead screws behind the leading truck and applies eight large brake shoes bearing one on the outside of each of the four driving axles. The tender bogie’s brake rigging applies two inside bearing brake shoes to each axle. A mechanical hand brake is fitted to the locomotives tender. The tender bogies are of cast steel construction with outside oil filled friction bearing axle boxes. The locomotive is fitted with hooked drawgear and extended Turton buffers on the locomotive and a transition automatic coupler and extended Turton buffers on the tender.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Poor Condition
External Condition: Poor Condition
Internal Condition: Poor Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
The locomotive is in a stripped condition undergoing long term restoration with the majority of the fittings removed and stored at various locations. The tender tank was not present at the time of inspection along with the majority of the removed fittings and components therefore a complete assessment could not be carried out.

The locomotive’s front extended Turton buffers and hook draw gear are secure and serviceable with the shunters steps and grab irons complete. The smokebox of this locomotive is in good condition with the cast funnel, centre dart and hand wheel complete and operational. The Westinghouse cross compound air compressor remains attached securely to the smokebox. The boiler’s sheet steel clothing has been removed with sections stacked behind the locomotive depot in poor condition with corrosion evident. No clothing remains on the cylinders or air compressor. The locomotive's cab rests in the car park and is stripped of all fittings with corrosion present and the timber ceiling lining boards in moderate condition. The locomotive has an overall coating of road grime and surface corrosion on exposed steelwork with heavier oil and grease-based deposits below the running boards and around the wheels and motion.

The locomotive units underframe appears to be in moderate to good condition with surface corrosion evident, although there is no major damage or pitting present. A heavy build up of road grime is also present. The frame appears to be straight with no undue wear visible. The tender's underframe is in good condition with little wastage noticeable.

The locomotive's double axle leading truck appears complete with the disc wheels retaining an acceptable profile and exhibiting ½ tyre wear. The tender’s bogies are currently under restoration with all axles having been removed, axleboxes overhauled and brake rigging inspected and re-bushed. The disc wheels retain an acceptable profile with 1/3 tyre wear. The bogies appear to be clean and free of corrosion with no road grime build-up and a new black painted surface finish.

The locomotive unit currently has a black all over paint coverage with a red front buffer beam. All the boiler clothing has been removed with the boiler painted black recently with moderate coverage exhibited. The locomotive's underframe has a failing black surface finish with a heavy build up of road grime, and oil and grease present. Areas of exposed steel have surface corrosion present. The locomotive's fabricated tender frame has recently been cleaned back and repainted with a gloss black finish. The tender's cast bogies also have a cleaned back and repainted surface finish in black. The locomotive's cab is located at Valley Heights stored on the ground adjacent to the carpark. It has a failing chalky black external paint scheme with surface corrosion and rust blow out evident. The cab roof appears to have no remaining paint finish with the bare steel having surface corrosion present. The cabs internal surface has a red oxide finished lower portion, gloss black upper surface and faded green painted timber lined roof. The cabs timber floor boards and spectacle plate windows have been removed. Other components are stored in the open behind the depot, with the remaining clothing exhibiting surface corrosion with little protective paint present. The connecting rods and one coupling rod have a grey undercoat finish applied with rust blow out and surface corrosion evident. One of the air reservoirs is also located here with its black paint finish failing and chalky with rust blow out along the rivet lines and former retaining strap locations.

The majority of the smaller fittings have been removed from the locomotive when it was stripped prior to restoration beginning in the early 1980s. Components remaining are all in moderate to poor condition due to extended periods of external storage with corrosion present. The Westinghouse cross compound steam compressor is still attached to the fireman’s side of the smokebox however all associated pipework has been removed. All boiler and cab fittings have been removed including the Ashton pop safety valves, steam injectors, whistle, hydrostatic lubricator, regulator handle, Westinghouse No.4 air brake valves, air reservoirs, power assisted reversing screw, automatic stoker, steam turbo generator and electric headlight and marker lights. The boiler top mounted cast sandbox and distribution valves are in position though their condition is unknown. The extended buffers hook drawgear remain secure on the front of the locomotive's cast steel frame.

The locomotive's generally poor overall appearance is an indication of the mechanical condition. The locomotive's three main driving axles have good tyre profile and wear with the grease block bearings appearing complete with no reports of overheating during the locomotive's transfer in September 2008. The compensated spring gear also appears complete with thorough inspection not possible. The Walschaert’s valve gear is missing its eccentric and connecting rods with remaining motion suffering surface corrosion and a heavy build up of oil and grease. The Gresley conjugating valve gear appears complete with its distinctive lever and motion in place and secure. The Pennsylvania multiple bearing cross heads are still connected to the pistons with the Gudgeon pins still fitted. The locomotive's Westinghouse cross compound air compressor remains on the smokebox but all other pipework is missing. The brake cylinders and brake rigging appear complete with little wear evident to components. The locomotive's hook draw gear and extended Turton buffers are secure. The engine to tender forged drawbar appears in moderate condition with no extensive corrosion or structural damage visible to the locomotives drag box.

The double axle leading truck appears complete with wheels exhibiting good profile and wear. The superheated round top boiler fitted to the locomotive has had its tubes removed as well as all of the smokebox and boiler mounted fittings. All firebox grates have been removed though the firebox retains its 5 arch tubes and stoker table plate. The tender is stripped with the frame and bogies undergoing restoration. The wheel profile is good with material left for reprofiling.

INTERNAL CONDITION
No internal examination of the boiler was possible so its condition is unknown. The boiler has had its boiler tubes, superheater elements and flues removed and records indicate these have been scrapped. The fire grate, brick arch and smokebox fittings have been removed over the years and are apparently stored at various locations. The tender tank was not located at Valley Heights when the inspection was carried out but information supplied suggests that it is in poor internal condition with extensive corrosion present.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Paint on body may contain lead due to age of locomotive.
Date condition updated:19 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: 1929 - built by Clyde Engineering Company at their Granville plant, as works number 435
13 February 1930 - entered service
1933 - modifications made effecting valve events, and reducing the tendency of the engine to slip
1936 - Automatic water release ("Cardew") valves were fitted to the class
After 1945 - fitted with a mechanical lubricator mounted on the running plate replacing the cab-mounted hydrostatic lubricator.
1960 - Automatic water release valves removed
October 1962 - withdrawn from service
1970s - static restoration by RTM.
2008 - transfer to Valley Heights

The locomotive has had little modification over its service career. The Westinghouse air compressor was originally sited on the right hand running plate but was removed to the right hand of the smoke box, the latter feature being truncated to accommodate the compressor. The innovative nature of these engines saw them exposed to extensive testing with the results in improving the performance characteristics and time between overhauls. In this way the engines became test beds for the confirmation of hitherto, bold initiatives and the introduction of further refinements.
Further information: Static restoration began by NSWRTM in the early 1970s including tender being repainted. The locomotive was transferred to New South Wales Rail Transport Museum site at Thirlmere on 17th June 1975. A second restoration attempt was begun in the early 1980s with the intention of returning the locomotive to service. By 1985 the engine had been stripped and de-rusting of components was well under way, with the tender dismantled and stored in the workshop area. This restoration stalled due to technical, operational and financial constraints.

Many components have been reconditioned and are apparently stored with individuals associated with the restoration. No visible progress was made since the early 1990s.

A third attempt at restoration began in 2007 with the decision made to restore locomotive to static condition, with no work to prevent the locomotive's potential return to service.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Heavy Goods Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Locomotive 5711 was built by Clyde Engineering Company at their Granville plant, as works number 435. Built to the design of the Department of Railways, the locomotive was delivered in early 1930 and officially entered service on 13 February 1930. These locomotives differed from earlier NSWGR motive power with a number of innovations including American manufactured cast steel frames, three cylinder design utilising Walschaert’s and Gresley conjugating valve gear, automatic stoker and power reversing gear. The D 57 Class were significantly more powerful than their Standard Goods predecessors which they displaced, and accordingly their introduction led to a significant increase in freight train loads and operations on those routes. The class of 25 was allocated to two depots, Enfield (10) and Goulburn (15), for running between Enfield and Thirroul, and the steeply graded western line over the Blue Mountains. From 1932 the class entered service on the main south line between Moss Vale and Cootamundra and from 1946 working extended to Junee. The class was restricted to these areas by its high axle loading of over 22 tons and banned from all other tracks. Their dominance of heavy goods working over these lines persisted during the 1940s, finally being rendered obsolete by the electrification of the western line to Lithgow from 1957 and the dieselisation of the Illawarra and main south. The last of its class in traffic, 5711 hauled its final train from Junee to Goulburn on 23 September 1961. This locomotive was withdrawn from service the following October and was condemned, along with the rest of the class that remained on 30 July 1963.

It was noted at Enfield in 1964 for the NSW Rail Transport Museum from where it was transferred to Thirlmere on 17 June 1975. Static restoration was begun in the early 1970s with a second more ambitious attempt to restore the locomotive to operational condition getting under way in the early 1980s. By 1985 the locomotive had been stripped before technical, operational and financial constraints saw progress grind to a halt. Another attempt at static restoration was begun in 2007 with the locomotive moved by rail to Valley Heights on 15 September 2008. Restoration is ongoing with the tender bogies and underframe nearing completion.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Transporting troops and equipment-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Locomotive 5711 has historical significance as it is associated with the last phase of steam-hauled heavy freight operations, prior to dieselisation of the main southern line and electrification of the western line in the late 1950s. The locomotive demonstrates in its design and construction, a boldness to introduce a new era of steam motive power to the State to deal with increasing loads and demand. It demonstrates the trend of the NSWGR to look to America for design solutions to the challenges posed by the local conditions of steep gradients and ordinary permanent way. The construction of this class of locomotive during the great depression has high social significance demonstrating the policy of the Government to maintain employment. The locomotive is also historically significant as the first locomotive to be retained by the NSWGR for the NSWRTM after attempts to secure locomotive 3402 for preservation had failed.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Locomotive 5711 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Locomotive 5711 has a high level of aesthetic significance as it demonstrates a power and scale wholly consistent with its role in hauling the heaviest goods trains, and demonstrates an emerging hybrid styling, resulting from a refinement and softening of the American influences, resulting in an ‘’Australian" style. It demonstrates the creation of a ‘family likeness’ in styling and details with subsequent classes; by its first use of the now "standard" style cab subsequently fitted to rebuilt 35 and 36 classes, and the 38 and 58 classes.

Locomotive 5711 has technical significance. As a three-cylinder locomotive, it demonstrates an attempt by the designers, to achieve the highest output within the limits of the loading gauge, and is significant as a state-of-the-art heavy freight steam locomotive of the 1930s. It demonstrates the maturity of the design branch of the NSWGR at the time, the design being worked up in-house and was contemporary with the best overseas locomotive practice and introducing a number of innovative American features to the NSWGR. The design of the 57 Class represents a major development of the heavy goods locomotive, through the introduction of three cylinders and a number of US-inspired innovations, and was a quantum leap in technology and power relative to the Standard Goods locomotive. Its introduction led in turn to the need for significant design improvements in goods rolling stock and heavier track.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Locomotive 5711 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Locomotive 5711 has a high level of research significance. The locomotive has the potential to reveal information regarding the introduction of a number of innovative American features to the NSWGR to develop a state-of-the-art heavy freight steam locomotive in the 1930s. It is also of research significance as it demonstrates measures by the State to deal with increasing loads and demand by introduction of steam-hauled heavy freight operations, prior to dieselisation of the main southern line and electrification of the western line in the late 1950s.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Locomotive 5711 is rare as the sole survivor of the ‘Mountain’ class of heavy freight locomotive, final example of the locally-built modern goods engine prior to dieselisation and electrification.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Locomotive 5711 is a representative example of a 57 class steam locomotive, an example of a ‘best practice’ heavy freight steam locomotive from the 1930s. It is representative of the first modern class of steam engine designed to deliver heavy freight haulage on the NSW rail system.
Integrity/Intactness: Locomotive 5711 has a moderate level of integrity and intactness. The locomotive had few modifications during its years in service, but is now extensively dismantled, although it is still able to demonstrate significance under the criteria listed above.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenMackey, C1998The 57s and 58s. Three Cylinder Power on the NSWGR
WrittenOberg, L1996Locomotives of Australia
WrittenPeter Berriman2006Steam Locomotive 5711 CMP

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807235


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