Convict Lumber Yard or Stockade Site | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Convict Lumber Yard or Stockade Site

Item details

Name of item: Convict Lumber Yard or Stockade Site
Other name/s: Stationmaster's residence and Paymaster's office; Convict Lumberyard; Stockade
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Manufacturing and Processing
Category: Yarding/ Loading Facility
Location: Lat: -32.9269237274 Long: 151.7858590740
Primary address: 98 Scott Street, Newcastle, NSW 2300
Parish: Newcastle
County: Northumberland
Local govt. area: Newcastle
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Awabakal
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT1 DP1156117
PART LOT2 DP1156117
PART LOT3 DP1156117
LOT4 DP1156117
LOT1 DP123946
PART LOT1 DP533984
LOT1 DP706760
LOT2 DP706760
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
98 Scott StreetNewcastleNewcastleNewcastleNorthumberlandPrimary Address
Watt StreetNewcastleNewcastleNewcastleNorthumberlandAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Foreshore Pty LtdPrivate26 Mar 99
Newcastle City CouncilLocal Government26 Mar 99
Royal Newcastle HospitalPrivate26 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

The Convict Lumberyard site, including the Stationmaster's residence and Paymaster's office, is of outstanding heritage significance for the following reasons:
- Its rare evidence of a convict industrial workplace and of convict structures thought to have been lost;
- Its potential to reveal, through archaeological excavation, further evidence of convict occupation and the later history of the site;
- Its evidence of the major themes of Newcastle's history, particularly convict history and railway and port history;
- Its contribution to the townscape of Newcastle and Newcastle East;
- Its potential to interpret Newcastle's history and for its association with its community;
- Its evidence of Aboriginal occupation which is now rare in the urban Newcastle area. (Walker 1989)
Date significance updated: 01 Oct 97
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: Multiple
Builder/Maker: Multiple
Construction years: 1801-1930
Physical description: Evidence of an Aboriginal open campsite mainly comprising stone tools was located on the site during the 1987 archaeological excavations.

Physical evidence of the convict occupation of the site also found during these excavations includes: a brick drain and stone sump; a kiln floor; a well; parts of the brick convict barrack (c. 1818); bricks from the collapsed convict hospital and various brick pathways.

Physical evidence of the railways occupation period is far more substantial with some of the structures remaining. These include: the large and imposing station master's residence; the two storey Paymaster's Office; the concrete slab remains from Brett's sailmakers' loft and some brick remains of the Railway Institute Hall. (Walker et.al. 1989: 25-29)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The site has very high archaeological potential.
The extant buildings are in good condition.
Modifications and dates: For modification dates, please see the history screen.
Current use: Enterprise Park
Former use: Lumber Yard, Convict Stockade and Railway Yard

History

Historical notes: This site has a particularly complex history. For this reason only an outline chronology (summarised from Turner, 1989) has been provided.
1801 - First convict settlement at Newcastle, on this site. Beginning of Lumber Yard operations.
1822 - Newcastle closed as a penal settlement. Site ceases to be used for convict internment, but lumber operations continue.
1831 - Lumber Yard closed down.
1832 - Lumber Yard reopened as a base for convicts building Nobby's breakwater. Known as 'The Stockade'
1840 - Transportation of convicts to NSW ceases.
1846 - Nobby's Breakwater is completed and convict occupation is phased out.
1857 - Great Northern Railway opened.
1858 - Goods yard brought into use at Circular Wharf.
1876 - Customs House constructed.
1879 - Berthing master's house constructed (now known as the Paymaster's office).
1885 - Traffic manager's residence (later called the station master's residence) and Stationmaster's residence constructed.
1887 - Additions to the Traffic manager's residence.
1892 - Bretts sail loft erected
1904 - Berthing master's Office converted to Booking Office, first floor probably added at this time.
1900-1930s - Two cottages erected on site for railway employees, various other buildings for the Railway Institute, including a hall in Scott Street alongside the Station master's residence, and a tennis court which occupied the site of the cottage nearest Scott Street.
1939 - Bretts sail loft demolished.
1940 - Booking Office now used as Paymaster's Office.
1947 - Railways and Tramways Institute opened new premises in Newcastle West .
1967 - Railway Institute Hall demolished.
1968 - Station Master's residence vacated.
1987 - Enterprise Park opened. First Archaeological excavation unearths remains of well, forge and brick paving.

Further archaeological investigations were carried out in June 1989 and October 1992.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working for the Crown-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Experiencing secondary punishment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating the Irish convict experience-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Trading along the NSW coast-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Forestry-Activities associated with identifying and managing land covered in trees for commercial purposes. Sawmilling-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Forestry-Activities associated with identifying and managing land covered in trees for commercial purposes. Coastal timbergetting-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Forestry-Activities associated with identifying and managing land covered in trees for commercial purposes. Timber getting-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Maintaining maritime transport routes-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Building and maintaining jetties, wharves and docks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Development in response to railway lines-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating convicts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing industrial workers-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating prisoners and internees-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for industrial managers and owners-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Living on the fringes without formal occupancy-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planned towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing towns in response to topography-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Railways to inland settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Ports and shipping infrastructure-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working with hand tools and implements-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in factories-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working at enforced labour-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on the waterfront-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in ports and on shipping-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - customs-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - building and administering rail networks-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - managing the convict system-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site is significant for:
- Its major evidence of the convict period of Newcastle's history, when Newcastle was the place for secondary punishment of convicts.
- Its evidence of a convict workplace and possibly the oldest pyhsical evidence of an industrial workplace in Australia.
- Its evidence of the role of NSW Railways in the development of Newcastle and its port.
- Its evidence, in the stationmaster's residence, of the practice of government instrumentalities of providing accomodation for its employees.
- Its evidence of operation of the NSW Railways as an institution, particularly in relation to payments of employees and its care of buildings. (Walker et.al 1989: 42)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The site is significant for:
- Its aesthetic accomplishment as evidenced in the design and form of the Stationmaster's residence, which is a good example of a late Victorian residence.
- The contribution the extant buildings make to the townscape, much of which comprises buildings connected with the railways of the past.
- The view which it provides of the harbour and the foreshore, both from within the site and from Parnell Street. (Walker et.al. 1989: 43)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The site is significant for:
- The association of the site with the Newcastle Community, particularly through its involvement involvement and support for the archaeological excavation and for the conservation of the site.
- The potential of the site, combined with documentary and oral evidence, to interpret major aspects of the history of Newcastle from convict settlement to the present. (Walker et.al. 1989: 43)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site is significant for:
- Its evidence of the technical accomplishment of convict buildings in early 19th century Newcastle.
- Its potential to yield information, not available through documentary sources, about the convict occupation of the site.
- Its potential to yield information about uses of the site after the closure of the convict stockade.
- Its evidence of Aboriginal occupation which is now rare in the urban Newcastle area. (Walker et. al. 1989: 42-44)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This site provides: rare evidence of a convict stockade/convict workplace; rare evidence of an early industrial site and physical evidence (now becoming uncommon) of payment practices of large organisations. (Walker et. al. 1989: 43)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Stationmaster's residence is representative of the standard of design and accommodation provided for important employees in the NSW railways in the 1870s and 1880s. (Walker et.al. 1989 43)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
All activities within Nos 90 and 88 Scott Street, except-
(1) Those activities which require any excavation of the land;
(2) extension to the building;
(3) demolition.
Sep 30 1988
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Park Maintenance


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
Park maintenance, activities which do not require significant disturbance or removal of the soil.
Nov 11 1988
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
Park maintenance, activities which d not require significant disturbance or removal of soil.
Dec 11 1988
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0057002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0057030 Sep 88 1495160
Local Environmental PlanConvict Lumber Yard - Stockade Site 08 Aug 03 124 
Register of the National Estate 1650221 Oct 80   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Newcastle Archaeological Management Plan 0013Suters Architects et al.SL No
Newcastle City Wide Heritage Study1996217Suters Architects Snell  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAHMS 88-90 Scott Street, Newcastle NSW - Historical Archaeological Assessment & Research Design
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Newcastle East Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenBairstow, Damaris1990Newcastle Lumber Yard - Station Master's House Paymaster's Office - (Report); and - Addendum to 1989 Excavation Report
WrittenBairstow, Damaris1987The Newcastle Lumber Yard
WrittenEdward Higginbotham & Associates1998Report on the Archaeological Test Excavation of the Convict Lumber Yard & Stockade, Newcastle, NSW
WrittenEdward Higginbotham & Associates1997Historical & Archaeological Assessment of the Convict Lumber Yard & Stockade, Newcastle, NSW
WrittenFenwick, P., Midler, D., Lavelle, S., NPWS, Awabakal Land Council2004Interim Report - Disturbance of Convict Lumberyard Site, Newcastle
WrittenFenwick, Peter1992Newcastle Customs House - Report on the location, excavation and conservation measures related to the archaeological remains exposed on the eastern boundary of the Customs House Site, 27/10/1992
Management PlanGodden Mackay1994Newcastle East Convict Lumberyard Site - Archaeological Advice for Design Development
WrittenMeredith Walker, Dr D. Bairstow, Dr J. Turner and Eckford Johnson and Partners1989The Convict Lumber Yard, the Stationmaster's Residence and the Paymaster's Office: A Conservation Policy
WrittenNewcastle City Council2000The Convict Lumber Yard - a place of convict history under the ground (brochure)
WrittenNewcastle City Council1994Urban Design Strategy for Newcastle Convict Lumber Yard Precinct
WrittenO'Brien, Christine - Natural & Cultural Heritage P/L1994Convict Lumber Yard Site - Interpretation Report
TourismTourism NSW2007Convict Lumberyard View detail
TourismVisit Newcastle2006Newcastle East Heritage Tourist Walk View detail
WrittenWalker, Meredith1989The Convict Lumberyard Site: a Preliminary Report on its Future Use and Interpretation and Implications for the Development of the former Railway Lands

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5044978
File number: S90/01042; EF14/5038


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