Heritage

Camden Park

Item details

Name of item: Camden Park
Other name/s: Camden Park Park House and Garden; gate houses; workers' cottages (part - the core - of Camden Park Estate - see separate SHR listing for that)
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Location: Lat: -34.0903904774 Long: 150.7226438880
Primary address: Elizabeth Macarthur Avenue, Camden Park, NSW 2568
County: Argyle
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP213696
LOT2 DP213696
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Elizabeth Macarthur AvenueCamden SouthCamden   
Elizabeth Macarthur AvenueCamden ParkWollondilly ArgylePrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Union Fidelity Trustee Co.Private12 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

The Camden Park Estate is of social, historic, scientific and aesthetic significance to NSW and Australia. It shows a high degree of technical and creative excellence being a rare, and still relatively intact, example of a model rural estate of the early 19th century (continuing to serve this function until the 1950s). It is the oldest pastoral sheep stud in Australia.

The estate's considerable social and historic significance is also due to its ability to demonstrate the way of life, tastes, customs and functions of a 19th - early 20th century rural establishment. From its establishment the site was a particularly fine example of a colonial rural estate and served as a prototype for other 19th century estates.The intactness of the site's structures and their landscape settings enhances its role as a relatively unique survivor and as a site of archaeological and scientific importance. (LEP/ Heritage Study)

The site also has significance thorugh its historical associations with the Macarthur family - from its establishment by John and Elizabeth Macarthur in the early 19th century to the present day Macarthur-Stanham family - this relationship shown in both landscape and structures and being well documented and researched.

By the 1830s the estate of 28,000 acres included the greatest and most advanced mixed farm in NSW, at a time when Australian wools had almost ousted continental wools from British usage and the British manufacturers had a vast ascendancy in the world's woollen markets (Camden Park Estate, 1965)

Its extensive grounds planted in the tradition of 19th century English landscape parks holds a major botanical collection and its large, exceptional collection of rural buildings is especially important because of both the quality and rarity of the group. One nationally rare feature of the landscaping is a palo blanco tree (Picconia excelsa) a relative of the olive, from the Canary Islands - a large tree growing at the east of the house. This species is rarely found in NSW (specimens are in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Cooma Cottage, Yass and Denham Court, Ingleburn), and around Australia (Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne; Geelong Botanic Gardens; Marybank, Adelaide Hills). This tree is endangered in its natural habitat, the 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands. Stuart Read, pers.comm., 6/2006).

The Camden Park orchard site and cottages area contains the remnants of an early commercial and scientific horticultural collection which was established by William Macarthur and made an contribution to commercial horticulture in NSW and other colonies such as South Australia. The cottages are an integral part of the orchard complex which continued to function commercially until for 150 years and are important 19th century elements of the landscape.

Camden Park played a vital role in the fledgling Australian wine industry through its importation and distribution of vine cuttings throughout NSW and the Barossa Valley of SA. By 1853 Camden Park listed some 33 grape varieties for sale. (By 1841 William & James were producing more than 5000 gallons and that wintage won Gold Medals in England. In 1844 24,000 vine cuttings were sent from Camden Park to Adelaide, setting South Australia on a path to becoming an internationally acclaimed wine growing district. (Everett, (1) 2004). Camden Park became world-renowned for the quality of its wine and by 1845 was producing around 10,000 gallons per annum as a serious vineyard and one of the most highly regarded in the colony and with quite a reputation overseas. (Everett, (2) 2004)).

James & William Macarthur managed the estate with great enterprise, importing expert workers: Australia's first skilled wool-sorter from Silesia, shepherds from Scotland, vignerons from Nassau and dairymen from Dorset. They installed the first irrigation plant in Australia in 1830 and the first sheep wash and wool press. After changes of soil and climate in 1849 dictated sale of their merino stud, wheat was the stable until the mid 1860s. But rust and labour shortage led to a change to mixed farming - sheep and cattle fattening, mixed grains, wine, horses for India until 1857, and Australia's largest plant and tree nursery. The 2000 specimens of plants, shrubs and trees included the country's premier collections of domestic orchids and camellias, both of which William Macarthur was one of the first to introduce into Australia.

Two vineyards were planted in 1830 and 1841 and produced up to 16000 gallons a year including choice vintages, with as much as 30000 gallons in cellar sometimes. In 1832 the estate exported the first Australian brandy, and had 8 vintage and fortified wines varying from Muscat to Riesling at the Paris Exhibition of 1861. Also in the 1830s William Macarthur pioneered processes of drying fruit, "with which the British Isles were unacquainted". In 1857 Camden Park had a variety of all normal species of orchard fruits and nuts, 56 varieties of apple including cider making types, 31 kinds of pear, 23 citrus fruit varieties including Navel oranges, 16 table grapes apart from 32 wine varieties. Apricots, plums, cherries, quinces, figs, chestnuts, almonds and strawberries were also grown on the estate. (Camden Park Estate, 1965, modified Read, S., 2004)

The Camden Park garden and nursery is historically important as part of the original Macarthur family Camden estate. The garden is significant for its demonstration of the early nineteenth century estate garden design, including the following: The use of a hill site to take advantage of the views; the use of plantings to enframe views; and the planting of trees with ornamental form, demonstrating the influence of the early nineteenth century horticultural movement. The area has historical significance as the original Macarthur nursery renowned for the introduction and propagation of exotic plants in early Australia. Significant features include the following: the area of olive and plumbago shrubbery; the brick edged gravel carriage loop; structured vistas from the house entrance and garden entrance; specimen plants of Araucarias and camellias reputed to be the oldest in Australia; well blended later additions of herbaceous beds and rose garden; and ruins of the gardener's lodge, potting sheds and hothouses from the original nursery period. (Register of the National Estate, 1978)

Finally the estate is of major landscape and environmental significance as a significant area of open space lining the Nepean River with landmark landscape features including the tree lined river meadows, ridge top Belgenny Farm Group, the driveways and the relic orchard and plantations site on the flood plain north-east of the mansion.
Rare - historic and aesthetic values
Representative - historic, aesthetic and scientific values
Associative values - historic and aesthetic

Camden Park House is of historic and aesthetic significance as one of the finest of the nation's early 19th century country homesteads. More particularly it is an outstanding exemplar of Australia's Colonial Regency style of architecture, this significance being enhanced by the quality of the design and craftsmanship and the degree to which it has retained important original fabric and features. The building is generally regarded as one of architect John Verge's finest achievements. The house's historic significance is also due in large measure to its role as the home of the Macarthur family from the days of John and Elizabeth, through a direct line of descendents to the present. (Source, State Heritage Inventory Public Presentation report, modified Stuart Read, 09/2004).
Date significance updated: 15 May 14
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: John Macarthur, Sir John Sulman (gate lodges), various
Construction years: 1820-1835
Physical description: Camden Park Estate is a significant area of open space on the Nepean River system to the south-east of the town of Camden. As a man-modified cultural landscape it contains extensive cultural features (all of heritage value), such as:
- tree lined river meadows (on flood plains);
- tree lined driveways;
- the relic orchard site;
- extensive productive pastures.

Many structures and building groups are located on various parts of the estate. The major items are listed below.

The estate is the relatively intact 400 acre core of a once huge (30,000 acre) colonial land grant, still being actively farmed by descendents of the same, Macarthur Family, which established it. SHR listing is surrounded by another core remnant of the original family estate, which in 1975 the NSW Department of Agriculture purchased. The Department has managed this 1583 hectares, now called the Elizabeth Macarthur Agricutlural Institute (EMAI), since then for research purposes.

FARM ESTATE COMPONENTS
Camden Park was and remains a farm estate based on British models. Its modified cultural landscape is a layered creation of both deliberate design, time and to some extent, limited management and benign neglect.

Mansion / House
Its chief architectural and social focus was the mansion, designed by John Verge and completed in 1835, after John Macarthur's death in 1834. Two storey Old Colonial Regency house of stuccoed sandstock brick with a sandstone portico to the driveway frontage, and a grand sandstone colonnade verandah (draped with wisteria) facing the garden. Windows feature sandstone surrounds and cornices and are fitted with louvred shutters. The main section of the house (and original section) is Palladian in form with symmetrical single storey windows flanking the central two storeyed block with a wide eaved, hipped roof.

A two storey wing was added to the northern range in 1880 and various alterations and additions made in the following years. Internally the house retains much of its early fabric and detailing including fine cedar joinery and furniture.

It has two service wings to the north, around a courtyard and driveway. These occurred in two stages each, stretching further north each time.

House is flanked with extensive local sandstone and slate paving, cedar panelling and furniture, family artworks, library, records and archives.

Gardens & Grounds:
The mansion is surrounded by extensive gardens and to the south were vineyards and a winery established by William Macarthur using especially imported German vignerons. These gardens are richly planted with some unusual and rare exotic species (eg: Chilean wine palms (Jubaea chilensis), Leichhardt's orchid/butterfly tree (Bauhinia hookeri (syn. Lysiphyllum hookeri)), unusual camellias (C. japonica 'Anemoniflora' and 'Aspasia Macarthur'), Chinese wisteria (on the garden front pergola (Wisteria sinensis), South African aloes (Aloe species) and Kaffir lilies (Clivia miniata), introduced Australian and Pacific species like hoop and bunya pines (Araucaria cunninghamii and A. bidwillii), rare Papua New Guinean klinki pine (A.hunsteinii), puzzle tree (Ehretia rigida) from South Africa, Bosea amherstiana 'Variegata' (2 plants), Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis), chir pine (P.roxburghii) from the Himalayas and much more. While a lot of detail planting has been lost, the garden is still of paramount importance to NSW and Australian horticulture, both economic and ornamental, and was instrumental in early trials with hybridisation of Cape Bulbs from South Africa, coral trees (Erythrina spp. and hybrids) and other genera, by both William Macarthur and his friend, entrepreneur and botanist, John Carne Bidwill.

Visiting John Gould Veitch of the famous English plant nursery said of it in 1864: " The collection of plants and fruits at Camden is by far the best I have seen in the colony. No means here have been spared to obtain the best varieties in each class. Even our (Veitch's) most recent strawberries are thriving here. The garden is divided into two parts, and is under the superintendence of two gardeners. That in immediate connection with the house is laid out in lawns and shrubberies, with an orange grove, the picture of health and luxuriance, and two greenhouses for the purpose of propogation, attached. Here may be found many rare plants. All the Californian and Japanese coniferae are doing well."

Veitch went on to list many choice species of climbers including Bougainvillea spp., shrubs including oleander (Nerium oleander cv.), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), rhododendrons and azaleas (R.spp.), roses 'in great perfection', trees including Magnolia spp., Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia), strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), and flowers, including annuals.

"A few of the specimens of coniferae (conifers) and of evergreen shrubs here are the largest in the colony. Thuja aurea is the largest I have seen, it measures 7' each way. Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya pine) is undoubtedly the finest in cultivation. It forms a beautiful pyramid of the darkest green glossy foliage, 40' high by 35' through. Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar), Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Ficus indica (fig) and Magnolia grandiflora (evergreen or Southern magnolia or bull bay) are fine trees."

"The lower garden is devoted chiefly to vegetables and fruit, but also contains a number of flowering shrubs, and a large collection of bulbs. There is almost every variety of obtainable fruit suitable to the climate. Fruit is so plentiful that large herds of pigs are fed on it. Sir William has devoted special attention to bulbs. His collection contains numerous hybrids raised by himself, and the best imported varieties of hyacinth, tulip, crocus, anemone, ranunculus, alstroemeria, amaryllis, gladiolus, lily, iris etc."

Pleasure Gardens
Towards the end of the 19th century the area adjoining a lagoon to the north of the plant nursery was restored as the pleasure grounds, which were in existence by 1824.

Among the many plants these contain are:

Palo alto, (Picconia excelsa) (3: one on the house's rear lawn; 2 in the lower garden). These trees are endangered in their native Canary Islands rainforests due to land clearance. They are extremely rare (22 only are known) in Australia, with a handful in New South Wales: one specimen at Cooma Cottage, Yass; one at Denham Court, Ingleburn; one in the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (and its parallel gardens in Melbourne and Geelong) and a grove at Marybank in Adelaide's Hills (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 10/10/2010).

Terebinth pepper tree, (Schinus terebinthifolius); Surinam cherry, (Eugenia uniflora); dwarf pomegranate, (Punica granatum 'Nana');

Rare and unusual conifers including:
funeral cypress, (Cupressus funebris); klinki pine (Araucaria hunsteinii) from Papua New Guinea - this tree has lost its leader in a storm; previously was mistaken for a Bunya pine; 2 very large Canary Island pines (Pinus canariensis), chir or Himalayan pine (P.roxburghii), hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii)(Stuart Read, visit 5/2014).

A coastal redwood, (Sequoia sempervirens), was lost to the drought - a recent replacement has been planted (between the nursery and the Bidwill Garden. A 'Bidwill Garden' has been planted in the lower garden to commemorate hybrid plants created by, or wild plants collected by and/or named for John Carne Bidwill, including Barringtonia, Erythrina, Brachychiton and Araucaria species: bidwillii (Stuart Read, pers.comm., from two visits, 8 & 9/2010).

Queensland nut, (Macadamia integrifolia); heavenly bamboo, (Nandina domestica); Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis) hedges/arbor surrounding walkers on main path from rear lawn of house to lower garden/nursery); jacaranda, (J.mimosifolia) from Brazil; golden rayed lily of Japan, (Lycoris aurea); bottle tree, (Brachychiton rupestris) from Queensland; little kurrajong (B.bidwillii) from SE Queensland; Leichhardt's butterfly tree, (Bauhinia (syn.Lysiphyllum hookeri)) grown from seed collected by the explorer Ludwig Leichhardt (south-east of the house) near the 'Waratah' camellia (C.japonica 'Anemoniflora'), itself claimed to be the oldest living camellia bush in Australia.

Camellia japonica 'Cassandra' is another example of a recently-confirmed survivor in Camden Park's garden of heritage significance in its own right. In William Macarthur's 1850 note book it was recorded as 'scarlet crimson, four rows of outer petals, inner petals small and crowded with few white against kernel. Pretty flower, with few anthers'. An 1851 entry notes it as 'very large size'. Professor E.G.Waterhouse (renowned camellia expert, of 'Eryldene', Gordon) in his book 'Camellia Quest' (Ure Smith, 1947, 17-18) recorded a specimen growing at Camden Park; another at Melbourne Botanic Gardens. Waterhouse in 'Camellia Quest' also noted an incorrect name C.j.'Chandlerii Magnoflora' given to this cultivar which should be discarded. Recent research by the Camellia Research Society and Camellia Ark project (documenting Australia's rich resource of historic Camellia cultivars surviving) found that: since 1947 the Camden Park individual has died but been replaced with a new plant. At least two specimens have been identified inthe Melbourne Botanic Gardens. Two others survive in Lisgar Gardens, Hornsby (c.60 years old) and at the E.G.Waterhouse National Camellia Garden in Caringbah (c.40 years old). is currently being conserved under Australia's 'Camellia Ark' project (Utick, 2013).

The lower garden has recently been cleared of weeds and replanted by volunteers in the last few years (to 2010).

Bosea amherstiana 'Variegata' (2 plants: one on th elawn and one opposite the gate into the nursery)(John Hawker, pers.comm., 5/2014 confirms there are only a few plants of this species in Victoria, at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Mooleric near Birregurra and Williamstown Botanic Garden). This straggling shrub comes from the NW HImalayas (India, Nepal, Pakistan) and is named after the then Governor of Burma's wife, Lady Amherst (Stuart Read, note, 7/7/14).

Ehretia rigida, puzzle bush from South Africa - the only other known specimen of this small tree is in the garden of Yasmar, Haberfield (formerly the Ramsay family's rich collection of plants (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 5/2014).

Nursery Site (former)
Archaeological ruins and other remains north- north-east of the garden and mansion (plantings, layout, footings) of extensive commercial nursery created and run by William Macarthur in mid 19th century, a key source of plant material for the colony and country, actively importing and exporting plants, and propogating the results of William's extensive exploration and collecting trips in the district, region, country and South-Pacific Islands. Much overgrown today, but still discernable. Of paramount significance to the development of Australian horticulture, agriculture and acclimatisation and economic botany.

A cool house - part of the former orchid-growing facilities;

An 1870 orchid house - it's rectangular masonry remains are intact and quite prominent in the lower garden;

A c.1850 greenhouse (now adapted as a shade house);

A 'stove' (hot house);

A shed - rebuilt and in the process, finding an extensive brick paved floor, sump in one corner and a second door - plus t

The foundations alongside of another building - probably the first (1846) greenhouse - built here two years before the oldest/first glasshouse in the Sydney Botanic Gardens (Stuart Read, pers.comm., from Colin Mills, 8/2010).

Family Cemetery
On a small hill west of the mansion and south of Belgenny Farm group is the Macarthur family cemetery, surrounded by a fence and African olive trees (Olea europaea var. africana) which were probably hedges on the drives at one time. Also prominent are hoop pines and Chilean wine palms, making the site an important focal point from the garden of Camden Park House and from the Belgenny Farm Group.

Belgenny Farm group (See Farm Cottages, Outbuildings & hamlets also):
The centre of the agricultural operation of the Macarthurs was located adjacent to the original cottage, on a ridge north west of the mansion. Known as Old Belgenney, the Belgenny Farm Group was well established when visited by Robert Scott of Glendon, Hunter Valley, during the 1820s.

Drives
Along the main drives much new planting was introduced to evoke the character of a British estate. At one time China roses (Rosa chinensis) formed driveway and paddock hedges (a bush of China rose was last seen on Camden Park mid 1980s by Landscape Architect Michael Lehany). African olive trees (Olea europaea var. africana) lined the drive while great belts of exotic species (honey locust, (Gleditsia triacanthos), white poplars, (Populus alba) etc) edged the river meadows (along with native riparian vegetation such as river or she oaks, (Casuarina glauca)).

Vistas
Vistas were established through this landscape to church spires (St. John's at Camden, and indeed the town site of Camden, were donated and frequented by the Macarthur family), a windmill, and natural prominences. Selective removal and importantly retention of the local apple oaks or apple gums (Angophora floribunda & A. subvelutina), Forest Red Gums (Eucalyptus tereticornis), narrow leaved ironbarks (E.crebra) etc to enframe and crop vistas show a sophistocated sensibility and for its time, an advanced opinion of the established value of native flora, albeit those species with habits or forms emulating English oaks and other familiar trees 'of home'.

Orchard and experimental Plantations
Large orchards and plantations of economic species such as olive (Olea europaea), and cork oak (Quercus suber) were located to the east of the mansion adjacent to the Nepean River, and nearby were

Irrigated Paddocks
developed by James Macarthur, for cropping such as lucerne and maize.

Extensive Grazing Lands
The core wealth of the Macarthurs came from extensive land holdings both here and west of the Blue Mountains, on the best soils available, and with the best advice available. The Camden pastures formed much of the famed "Cow Pastures", the area of natural woodland and open grasslands south-west of the NSW/Sydney Cove settlement, to which imported cattle had escaped and gone wild, and which were protected by the Crown for the first several years after 1788, to allow natural increase. Macarthur managed to acquire over time some 30,000 acres (in 1864) in the Camden district alone, along with his Seven Hills (later Bella Vista) farm in Baulkham Hills, and Elizabeth Farm (1000 acres at its height) in Parramatta.

Grazing wealth came from early experiments with imported merino sheep, obtained from Spain, England and primarily from the Cape Colony at South Africa. As well as sheep and wool wealth, horses and cattle were bred, grazed, farmed for meat and milked, as well as being valued for their hides.

Gate Lodges
The estate had a number of gate lodges mostly in Federation style, some of which survive. The former lodge at Menangle, and two lodges on Remembrance Driveway (former the Hume Highway/Macquarie's Great Southern Road) are remaining examples. Designed by Sir John Sulman, built at the head of the Camden and the Menangle Farm estate drives.

Farm cottages, Outbuildings and hamlets
Dotted around the estate are groups of cottages, forming hamlets accomodating the various farm workers. The two chief groups are located overlooking the former plant nursery (north of the mansion) and the former orchard.

The township of Menangle (location of a former Macarthur Dairy and Factory and the famous 'rotolactor'), retains a number of estate buildings, including a cottage, a duplex and the Menangle Workshop (former Dairy building).

In the Camden LGA (north west corner of EMAI (outside Camden Park SHR boundary) and south of the Nepean River, estate elements include the:
- Belgenny Homstead (old / first house on the estate);
- octagonal shed;
- granary;
- burial ground (See Family Cemetery above);
- stone cairn;
- dove cote;
- weatherboard cottage;
- workmens' cottages;
- weatherboard buildings;
- Menangle Gate Lodge;

In the Camden LGA (as above, north west corner of EMAI, outside SHR boundary) are:
- Camden Park mansion;
- Menangle Gate lodge (former);
- Orchard site;
- Garden;
- Workmen's cottages;
- estate cottages;
- Macquarie Monument;
- Dairy No. 8;
- Dairy No. 9;
- Dairy No. 4.
Each of these has a separate SHI inventory sheet. Other places in Wollondilly LGA which have not been assessed include:
- Estate buildings located in Menangle village (see above under 'Farm Cottages, etc);
- a vineyard and winery site south of the Mansion.
(Source: State Heritage Inventory Public Presentation Report, modified by Stuart Read, 09/2004).
Date condition updated:07 Jul 14
Modifications and dates: 1820s Belgenny Farm well established (first cottage and outbuildings)
1824 pleasure grounds in place north of the plant nursery, north of the mansion
1831 Verge designs mansion
1832 work starts on mansion
1834 mansion completed
1850s Nursery in full swing, catalogues published (various dates, 1840s and 50s)
1864 30,000 acres farm
1880 northern range of service wing added to mansion
1950s on - change from former model farm estate to more modern arrangements - less 'live in' staff, workers etc.
1975 Dept. Agriculture buy 1583 hectares of estate around the central 400 hectare Camden Park estate lot, establish research station (Now the EMAI)

2006/9: new Shade House (dubbed 'The Stove'), a polythene structure raised over the footings and pit (existing) of part of a former Stove House of William Macarthur's in the lower garden (and alongside the former (buried) boiler house's footings), which will be used for propogating plants from the garden/estate's collection (Hill, S., pers. comm., 1/9/6).

2007/5: The Clivia walk in the garden being replaced (3 bays of it). A volunteer is making drawings of the structure and taking b & w photos for archival purposes, as recommended by the CMP.

2007/7: Volunteers are currently clearing the wilderness between the stables (to the north-west) and the House Gardens proper, some lovely old trees (predominantly Araucarias - hoop pine (A.cunninghamii), Bunya pines (A.bidwillii), a rare New Caledonian klinki pine (A.hunsteinii), Cook's pine (A.columnaris) and one large Chir pine (Pinus roxburghi)) but predominantly African olive, pigeon berry and cats claw creeper (Doxantha unguis-cati). Volunteers have discovered an old rustic arch, probably late Victorian, in quite good condition, the shape and size of which strongly suggest that a road or wide pathway once ran through it. The 1947 aerial photograph clearly shows such a road. It is understand that the bulk of the glasshouses were demolished in 1947 or 1948 and the photograph shows both the small greenhouse and the stove house still standing in 1947. The cool house, the glasshouse between the stove and the bush house, also appear to be standing at the time the photograph taken. Volunteers have recently cleaned out the boiler houses at the end of the orchid house and behind the stove. It was known that there was a boiler still down there in the latter and this turns out to be an early 20th century Britannia model made in Hull, England that clearly replaced all others (which were less efficient) in c1905. This may have come from the Stove boiler pit, or the Orchid house boiler pit. Also found was a second boiler, a large saddle boiler, probably c.1870 that once stood in the boiler house belonging to the orchid house. Volunteers now have boilers dating from c1840 (fitted into the first greenhouse completed in the 1840s), 1870s and early 20th century which it is planned to display in some way, together with the vast amount of cast iron pipework and fittings uncovered.
(http://hortuscamden.com/essays/view/thomas-harris- 1884- 1948 , viewed 11/10/2012).

c.2009 Bush House erected on site/footprint of original - new structure but sympathetic to form and single sloping roof of the original. Original vertical posts retained and used for climbing plants - new posts placed beside them (Stuart Read, 5/8/2010).
Camden Park retains three boilers (c.1840s, c.1870s/80s and 1905)(Peter Porter, pers.comm., 5/8/2010).
Current use: pastoral property, grazing, cropping, private residence
Former use: production nursery, economic plantations, experimental botany, horticulture

History

Historical notes: When the first fleet arrived in Sydney Cove in 1788 they found the soil unsuitable for farming and soon looked towards the heavy clay and loam soils of the Cumberland Plain (to the west) to sustain the colony. Early agricultural settlements were located on the rich alluvial soils of the Nepean, Hawkesbury and Georges River areas, as well as South Creek near St.Marys and at the head of the Parramatta River where the settlement of Rose Hill (later Parramatta) was established about six months after the fleet landed. A settlement at the Hawkesbury was established in 1794.

By 1804 much of the Cumberland Plain had been settled and Governor King began to look for other regions in the colony for favourable arable land. The only suitable land within the Cumberland Plain was the area known as the Cowpastures, located in the southwestern corner. This area was named after the discovery in 1795 of cows from the first fleet which had wandered off into the bush. The Cowpastures had remained unoccupied due to the official decree that reserved the land for the wild cattle (to encourage their increase).

In December 1803 Governor and Mrs King visited the Cowpastures for themselves and the Sydney Gazette reported that Mrs King was the first 'white lady' to have crossed the Nepean River. The track to the Cowpastures led from Prospect and on 17/9/1805 James Meehan, under instructions from Governor King, commenced a survey of the track from Prospect to the Nepean Crossing and a rough road followed the marked line. This became known as Cowpasture Road, later the Hume Highway, most of which is today part of the Camden Valley Way.

Several visits to the area by the colonial gentry took place at this time, which resulted in their desire to acquire some of this rich land for themselves. They saw the area as containing very good grazing land. Captain Henry Waterhouse described the area in a letter to John Macarthur in 1804 as follows: " I am at a loss to describe the face of the country other than as a beautiful park, totally divested of underwood, interspersed with plains, with rich luxuriant grass".

Earlier Europeans had described 'large ponds covered with ducks and the black swan, the margins of which were fringed with shrubs of the most delightful tints'. The Europeans thought the flats were perfect for cattle and the hills would carry sheep. They admired the absence of underbush - probably achieved through Aboriginal burning off - and felt comfortable with a landscape that reminded them of an English gentleman's park.

John Macarthur received the first land grant in the Cowpastures region in 1805 for his role in the early wool industry in the colony. Lord Camden rewarded him with 10,000 acres and Macarthur chose the highly coveted Cowpastures for his grant, though Governor King tried to prevent him taking it. Macarthur also organised a 2000 grant for his friend Walter Davidson, who allowed Macarthur to use his land freely after Davidson returned to England. In this manner Macarthur controlled 12 miles of riverbank on the site where the wild cattle had first discovered the best pasture near Sydney. Later purchases and exchanges increased the Macarthur land there to over 27,000 acres, an endowment that Governor Macquarie greatly resented.

Other early grants were in the Parishes of Minto and in adjoining Evan, Bringelly, Narellan and Cook. These all lay west of Parramatta (Godden Mackay Logan, 2012, 20-21).

James Macarthur and family members have recounted stories of Aboriginal corroborees near Camden Park in 1839, 1846 and 1850 (Godden Mackay Logan, 2012, 20).

Govenor Macquarie drew up plans in 1820 for establishment of a town in the area, to be named Campbelltown after his wife Elizabeth's maiden name. With their forced return to England in 1822 these plans never came to fruition and it was not until the arrival of Governor Darling in 1827 that plans were again reinstated and the first settlers were allowed to take posession of their town land in 1831. In the early 1850s the railway line from Sydney to Goulburn was completed, with a station opening at Campbelltown in 1858. When Leppington House was offered for lease in 1865, one of its selling points was that it was near a railway. Campbelltown now provided easy access to Sydney and its markets and grew as the centre of the district. Although Camden was established in 1836, with no railway line it remained a small town.

The large estates that flanked Cowpasture Road (later Camden Valley Way) and the Northern Road were run largely as sheep and cattle farms, with wheat and other grain crops being grown as well until the 1850s. The houses were often built on surrounding ridges or hills, providing sweeping views of the countryside and ensuring that any passing traveller could appreciate the owner's status by viewing their impressive country mansions from the road. This land use pattern of large farm estates and small towns, established in the nineteenth century, remained largely the pattern of development of the area up until the late 1990s. Aerial photographs of the area in 1947 show a rural landscape with some limited urban development on either side of (then) Camden Valley Way (ibid, 22-23).

Viticulture and agriculture:
In 1816, the Royal Society for the Arts in England had offered medals for wine from New South Wales. As early as that year, Blaxland (at Brush Farm in Ryde) was sending wine to Governor Macquarie to keep him informed about the possibility of an Australian wine industry. Blaxland certainly knew of the grape varieties brought back to Australia in 1817 by John, James and William Macarthur and o ftheir plantings at Camden Park. But their first vintage was not until 1824 (Blaxcel, 14/10/10).

In 1825 James Busby wrote the first of a number of books on viticulture and wine making. In 1833, he brought 437 grape cuttings back to NSW and made these widely available (through the Botanic Gardens, Sydney). Busby, who had been trained in vineyard management, grape varieties and wine making in France, referred to Mr Blaxland's vineyard as being a showplace in the Sydney Basin. He commented on the generosity of Blaxland to share his knowledge and cuttings from his vineyard. Cuttings from Brush Farm provided early vines for Wyndham Estate (at Dalwood) in the Hunter Valley. It was not until the 1830s that William Macarthur sent 34,000 vines from Camden Park estate to the Barossa Valley in South Australia, to begin the wine industry in that state (ibid).

The estate and Macarthur family were instrumental (along with Brush Farm, Ryde via Gregory Blaxland and the Sydney Botanic Gardens, via James Busby) in establishing the Australian wine industry. Camden Park became world-renowned for the quality of its wine. It played a vital role in the fledgling Australian wine industry through its importation and distribution of vine cuttings throughout NSW and the Barossa Valley of SA. By 1841 William & James were producing more than 5000 gallons and that wintage won Gold Medals in England. In 1844 24,000 vine cuttings were sent from Camden Park to Adelaide, setting South Australia on a path to becoming an internationally acclaimed wine growing district. By 1853 Camden Park listed some 33 grape varieties for sale (Everett, (1) 2004). Camden Park became world-renowned for the quality of its wine and by 1845 was producing around 10,000 gallons per annum as a serious vineyard and one of the most highly regarded in the colony and with quite a reputation overseas (Everett, (2) 2004)).

John Gould Veitch, esteemed English nurseryman described Camden Park on a visit in 1864:
"Camden Park, the Seat of Sir William Macarthur, November 17, 1864 - Sir William Macarthur, who is now almost as well known in Europe as in Australia, is a most enthusiastic amateur in horticulture. Camden Park is situated in the centre of an estate of 30,000 acres of fine arable and pasture land. It is 40 miles from Sydney and easily accessible by rail, the station of Mena(n)gle being within 4 miles of the house. Camden House stands on an elevation of some 200 feet. The approach to it is poor, and not in keeping with the other portion of the grounds. The gardens are extensive and kept in good order. The collection of plants and fruits at Camden is by far the best I have seen in the colony. No means here have been spared to obtain the best varieties in each class. Even our (Veitch's) most recent strawberries are thriving here. The garden is divided into two parts, and is under the superintendence of two gardeners. That in immediate connection with the house is laid out in lawns and shrubberies, with an orange grove, the picture of health and luxuriance, and two greenhouses for the purpose of propogation, attached. Here may be found many rare plants. All the Californian and Japanese coniferae are doing well."

Veitch goes on to list many choice species of climbers including Bougainvillea spp., shrubs including oleander, lilac, rhododendrons and azaleas, roses 'in great perfection', trees including Magnolia spp., Chinese elm, Strawberry tree (Arbutus), and flowers, including annuals.

"A few of the specimens of coniferae (conifers) and of evergreen shrubs here are the largest in the colony. Thuja aurea is the largest I have seen, it measures 7' each way. Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya pine) is undoubtedly the finest in cultivation. It forms a beautiful pyramid of the darkest green glossy foliage, 40' high by 35' through. Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar), Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Ficus indica (fig) and Magnolia grandiflora (evergreen magnolia or bull bay) are fine trees."

"The lower garden is devoted chiefly to vegetables and fruit, but also contains a number of flowering shrubs, and a large collection of bulbs. There is almost every variety of obtainable fruit suitable to the climate. Fruit is so plentiful that large herds of pigs are fed on it. Sir William has devoted special attention to bulbs. His collection contains numerous hybrids raised by himself, and the best imported varieties of hyacinth, tulip, crocus, anemone, ranunculus, alstroemeria, amaryllis, gladiolus, lily, iris etc."

"Camden Park is famed for its wine. Extensive vineyards are under cultivation. The principal grapes grown are those from Germany. The wine is made by men from the Rhenish wine districts.

"Mr Ferguson's (Australia) Nursery is situated near the village of Camden. Mr F. learnt his business at Chatsworth and other large English gardens. He was then for several years in charge of Sir William Macarthur's establishment."(Morris, 1994).

English botanical artist and great traveller Marianne North commented on an Australian (Qld., NSW, Vic., WA, Tas.) visit in 1880-1: "...certainly the most lovely garden in Australia. Three generations of Macarthurs had devoted themselves to it. The present Sir William had spent thousands on its orchid-houses, and had exchanged plants with every botanical garden in the work. I shall never forget my first walk in that garden. The verandah which ran round the house was one mass of blooming blue wistaria (sic: Wistera sinensis); close by were great jubaea-palms from Chili (sic: Chile; Jubaea chilensis, Chilean wine palm): a monster I had never seen before. There were quantities of Japanese and Chinese plants, and quite a grove of camellias in full bloom, strawberries with ripe fruit, lemons, bananas, apples, figs, olives, every variety of climating contributing to fill that garden. There were acres of bulbs and different herbaceous plants scattered about the park in different directions by themselves in unexpected places, and large vineyards for wine-making, which I feared would not be kept up when the old gentleman died." (North, 1980, 164; notes added by Stuart Read, 2/12/2009).

History of ownership
In 1821 the Macarthurs built Belgenny Farm House, a timber 'cottage ornee'. This house and the related outbuildings, known as the 'Camden Park Home Farm', form one of the oldest surviving groups of farm structures in Australia. In 1832, after Macarthur had finally decided to make Camden the 'family seat', he commissioned architect John Verge to design a house of a stature suitable for one of the colony's leading and wealthiest families. The house was completed in 1835, shortly after John Macarthur's death in 1834. Sons James and William Macarthur took up occupancy in the new house, while their mother Elizabeth continue to reside at Elizabeth Farm in Parramatta, in which she had a life interest. Many of the furnishings still seen in the house were acquired by James Macarthur on a subsequent trip to England, where he met his wife Emily Stone. Their only child Elizabeth was to inherit the estate. She later married captain Arthur Onslow, and through that marriage their son James Macarthur-Onslow was to inherit both Camden Park and Elizabeth Bay House in Sydney. The current owners are the Macarthur-Stanham family.

It is likely that Camden Park is the oldest post-1788 property still owned and occupied by descendants of its original family. It has an annual open weekend, held on the second last full weekend of September (Scott Hill, in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camden_Park%2C_New_South_Wales, 2006)

House and gardens
Camden Park house is a two-storey Palladian structure with single-storey pavilions to either side. It is built of stuccoed sandstock brick, with window and door architraves and other detailing of locally cut stone, including Marulan mudstone. The roof is of slate, while the service wings had the first documented use of corrugated iron in the colony. The house has a colonnaded verandah and sandstone portico. The dining room has a finely detailed arched apsial end, and there is a large drawing room, library and breakfast room connected 'en fillade' with views to the gardens and landscape beyond. The 'geometric' staircase is to one side, not centrally placed, perhaps reflecting its rural nature. The service wings stretch to the side, rather than the rear as is conventional with colonial houses, and have a central courtyard beneath which are large cisterns. They originally had no external windows or doors, only a strong gate at one end, reflecting the secure nature of the house. Large cellars stretch the entire length and width of the main block of the house, and were partly used for storing the estates considerable wine production. The extensive vineyards were later destroyed after a phloxera outbreak. There is a large brick stable and, on a hill directly facing the front of the house, the family mausoleum where John and Elizabeth Macarthur and most of their children are buried. Members of the family in the direct line are still buried here.

The gardens surrounding Camden Park are the largest and most intact Australian colonial garden in existence. They are largely the creation of Sir William Macarthur, who was a keen horticulturalist and operated a sizeable commercial nursery from the estate. Catalogues of plants for sale give us an excellent idea as to the contents of colonial gardens. Many trees date from the 19th century, including a bauhinia planted by Ludwig Leichardt, the oldest camellia in the country - the camellia anemoniflora or 'waratah' camellia - and unnusual jubaea palms. Camden Park has always been associated with camellias. William produced the first Australian cultivar here, the camellia 'Aspasia macarthur'.

The gardens and landscape are a combination of the colonial picturesque - which in the Cowpastures area had a decidely 'arcadian' quality - and the gardenesque. Vistas from the house stretch out to nearby Mt Annan, Mt Gilead, the church spire at Camden, and the family cemetary.

Historic recognition
A 1919 Royal Agricultural Society plaque honouring twelve agricultural pioneers includes Gregory Blaxland along with Sir Joseph Banks, John Macarthur, Samuel Marsden, James Busby, Alexander Berry and others (Blaxcel, 14/10/10).

In 1982 the Heritage Council Restoration Steering Committee considered a report prepared by Cox, Tanner Architects in relation to repairs to stonework at Camden Park, resolving to refer it to the Government Architect's Branch for comment. It was foreshadowed that the owners would seek financial assistance from the Heritage Conservation Fund for repair works to buildings, outbuildings and the garden (HC, 1982).

In 1983-4 a National Estate Programme grant enabled the preparation of a conservation study of Camden Park's garden and grounds. This was carried out by the Landscape Section, Government Architect's Office, NSW Public Works Department and produced a seven-volume study. Assistance was given by botanists from the National Herbarium of NSW, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney. The project was supervised by the Environment Protection Division of the Department of Environment and Planning.

In his 1981 survey of historic Gardens in NSW (for the National Trust of Australia (NSW) again with National Estate grant funding), James Broadbent described Camden Park as 'The most complete survival of a substantial early nineteenth century country estate left in New South Wales...The importance of this garden and its complexity requires a detailed physical and historical survey...'. It is 'not the only substantial private garden of a very important colonial family but also a notable horticulturist's private botanic garden and one of the largest plant nurseries in the colony. The preservation of these three aspects is of the utmost importance'. The study formulated overall conservation management guidelines, conservation policies and options for future management (Betteridge, 1984, 11).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Experiencing life opportunities after emancipation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. German wine making practices-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Growing vines and maintaining vineyards-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Processing wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Marking the transition from pastoralism to agriculture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new breeds of stock-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Arboretums - collections of trees for ornament or forestry-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Orcharding-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Dairy farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Pastoralism - grazing sheep, cattle, goats or other animals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming with convict labour-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Dairying-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Woolgrowing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Developing stock blood lines - merino sheep-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Horticultural experimentation, hybridising and acclimatisation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Researching botany and botanical processes-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Researching new agricultural production techniques-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Researching new agricultural industries-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Researching native flora-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planning relationships between key structures and town plans-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing and operating manorial villages-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Operating and maintaining private family burial grounds-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John and Elizabeth Macarthur, pastoralists-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Macarthur, pastoralist, horticulturist, gentry-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentInclude in a Conservation Area within an LEP 
Recommended ManagementPrepare or include in a Development Control Plan (DCP) 
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementProduce an Archaeological Zoning Plan (AZP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementDocument and prepare an archival record 
Recommended ManagementRestrict access 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP prepared by Tanner Kibble Denton Architects, February 2014  
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Record converted from HIS events


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(a) Buildings or structures constructed after 1940
(b) Horticultural and agricultural management;
(c)Eradication of noxious animals and noxious plants;
(d) Pasture improvement, not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
(e) Stock grazing, not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation; and
(f) Maintenance and repair of existing farm fences.
May 3 1985
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0034102 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0034103 May 85 0781930
Regional Environmental PlanHawkesbury-Nepean River REP 07 Nov 97   
Local Environmental Plan 11923 Aug 91   
Register of the National Estate 324921 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAustralian Dictionary of Biography "Sir William Macarthur 1800-1882"in Australian Dictionary of Biography
WrittenBetteridge, Chris1984'Garden Study of Camden Park'
WrittenBlaxcel, Greg.2010Letter to the editor, Northern District Times
WrittenBurnett, Brian and Johnson, Janice2013They worked at Camden Park: a listing of the employees, leaseholders and tenant farmers known to have worked on the Camden Park estate
WrittenCamden Council1993Camden Significant Tree and Vegetated Landscape Study
WrittenCamden Park Estate P/L1965Camden Park Estate 1795-1965
WrittenClough, Professor Richard1992'Mr Bidwill's Erythrina' View detail
WrittenDepartment of Planning, Sydney1988Belgenny Farm. Camden Park Estate
WrittenEnvironmental Design Group, State Projects, Public Works Department of NSW1993Camden Park Garden and Grounds Report
WrittenEnvironmental Design Unit, Government Architect's Office1985Landscape Report on Belgenny Farm and Camden Park Estate
WrittenEverett, David (2)2004Frere's Vineyard - Vine Pedigree X, in Macarthur News
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2012East Leppington Rezoning Assessment - Heritage Management Strategy - draft report
WrittenHeritage Council of NSW1982Heritage Council Annual Report 1982
WrittenHoward Tanner & Associates1989Camden Park Estate Conservation Plan
WrittenMacarthur, William1845Catalogue of Plants Cultivated at Camden
WrittenMills, Colin2010Hortus Camdenensis - an illustrated catalogue of plants grown by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between c.1820 and 1861 View detail
WrittenMorris, Colleen1994'Through English Eyes, extracts from the journal of John Gould Veitch during a trip to the Australian colonies' View detail
WrittenNorth, Marianne1980A Vision of Eden: the life and work of Marianne North
WrittenSpencer, Roger et al.1995Horticultural Flora of South East Australia, Vol.2 Chapter 1
WrittenTanner Architects2009Camden Park House, Camden Park, Menangle, New South Wales : proposal for immediate works to conserve and repair the historic stonework
WrittenUtick, Stephen (unpub.)2013C. (Camellia) japonica 'Cassandra'
WrittenWalsh, Brian and Hawkins, Ralph2013Convict Tools: working at Camden Park and Tocal

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045133
File number: S90/06361, S90/03430


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