St. Luke's Anglican Church | NSW Environment & Heritage

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St. Luke's Anglican Church

Item details

Name of item: St. Luke's Anglican Church
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Religion
Category: Church
Location: Lat: -33.9206594832 Long: 150.9234238040
Primary address: Elizabeth Drive, Liverpool, NSW 2170
Parish: St Luke
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Liverpool
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Gandangara
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP248558
LOT111 DP552031
LOT5 DP579937
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Elizabeth DriveLiverpoolLiverpoolSt LukeCumberlandPrimary Address
Northumberland StreetLiverpoolLiverpoolSt LukeCumberlandAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Anglican Parish of LiverpoolReligious Organisation29 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

Evidence of Governor Macquarie's initiatives in opening up settlement in NSW. One of the three oldest surviving Anglican churches in Australia. A fine example of Francis Greenway's public architecture in NSW. Widely regarded with St James, Sydney and St Matthew's, Windsor as a 'foundation' colonial church.

The clock in tower is rare in Australia, being one of 3 Thwaites (UK) clocks in Australia, sent (gifted) by King George III (one in Parramatta at the Former Female Factory, one in Hobart). (Brown, 2002)

St Luke's Anglican Church Group as part of Macquarie's original survey of Liverpool demonstrates the history of the early settlement of the city and is a physical link to the character of the early township. It also demonstrates the history of the Anglican Church from the early establishment of the Colony from which period it has been a centre for local worship. The group is associated with many key Colonial figures, including the Architect Francis Greenway and is representative of his early colonial architectural style. Located within the heart of Liverpool the group is a historic, aesthetically pleasing landmark in an otherwise modernised city centre. It is one of only three surviving early Anglican churches in the country. There is the potential to gain more information on the site from further architectural, archaeological and documentary research (LEP)
Date significance updated: 17 Dec 10
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: Francis Greenway
Builder/Maker: James Smith
Construction years: 1818-1820
Physical description: Church
Georgian brick church with tower, portico and additional chancel and vestries set in open grounds in the centre of Liverpool

The clock in tower is rare in Australia, being one of 3 Thwaites (UK) clocks in Australia, sent (gifted) by King George III (one in Parramatta at the Former Female Factory, one in Hobart).(Brown, 2002)

Grounds
Some paving (recent, otherwise mainly open and grassed, with mature lemon scented gums (Corymbia citriodora), stringybarks (Eucalyptus crebra), bloodwoods (Corymbia sp.), and a kurrajong, (Brachychiton populneum)(S.Read, pers. comm, 2002 visit).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Good condition
Date condition updated:08 Apr 98
Modifications and dates: 1824: interior completed
1856: church consecrated
1857: Chancel added
1860: porch on north side enclosed (formerly supported by four timber columns)
1870s: north portico replaced by enclosed porch
1890s: vestries added
Gallery added but later removed
1923: stone replica of original timber porch added
1975-78: Restoration works
Current use: Aboriginal land, Church
Former use: Church

History

Historical notes: Aboriginal occupation, Early European Settlement of the Liverpool Region
Some 40,000 years before European settlement of this region of the Georges River, this land was occupied by the Darug people and the neighbouring Tharawal and Gandangara peoples. The land was known as Gunyungalung. The Georges River has been seen by some as the natural (east-west) boundary between the Darug, or 'woods' tribe, (north of the river and east to the coast); the 'coast' tribes of the Tharawal (south of the river and east to the coast) and the Gandangara (west of the river, inland). Others argue that the region around Liverpool (where the river runs generally west to Botany Bay) signifies an important north-south cultural divide between the Darug peoples living north of the river and the Tharawal to the south of the river. The river demarcated rather than divided groups, providing an 'important corridor of mobility' that enabled transport, communication, economic and cultural interaction up, down and across the river on light, rapid bark canoes (Goodall & Cadzow 2009: 21).

The Georges River area first felt the impact of European settlement in the 1790s when early settlers around the Parramatta area sought out fertile soils for cultivation, moving south along Prospect Creek to the alluvial flats around Liverpool. Facing the steep banks and sandstone cliffs of sections of the Georges River, settlement penetrated slowly in the 1790s.

From the early 1800s the area saw Aboriginal hostilities against settler intrusions with raids on settler crops and stock led first by Pemulwuy of the Bediagal (until his death in 1804, likely at the hands of settlers). Some prominent settlers, who argued that the smaller settlers were the aggressors, themselves sought communication and interaction with Aboriginals, employing them as shepherds and allowing them to remain on the fringes of their landholding. Governor King's 1801 edict, however, prevented settlers harbouring Aboriginal peoples thus effectively excluding Aboriginals from the settled areas. Following the Appin massacre of 1816 the Gandagara and Tharwal kept their distance from the settlers, but they remained around the Georges River.

Governor Macquarie's policy was two-pronged. He authorised settlers around the Georges River to take action against Aboriginal raiders and later instructed the military to make pre-emptive strikes. He also sought conciliation, meeting with the Tharawal when he toured the Cow Pastures in 1810. Kogi of the Tharawal was one who met with Macquarie and who, like other Tharawal, developed close relationships with settlers around the Liverpool area. In 1816 Macquarie issued a call to Aboriginals of the Georges River to lay down arms in return for food, education and secure title to land in the Liverpool area. Kogi was one who took up this option, receiving a King Plate from Macquarie which identified him as "King of the Georges River". Land grants were the only means of effecting land transfer prior to the 1850 legislation that reserved Crown land exclusively 'for the use of Aborigines'. The are few records of land grants to Aboriginals arising out of the 1816 agreement but there is anecdotal evidence of Aboriginal freehold land along the Georges River until the late 20th century (Goodall & Cadzow 2009: 47-56).

In 1810 the Liverpool area was the frontier of settlement, with its alluvial and clay soils increasingly being cleared for farming. Small farming enclaves characterised the area around Liverpool which Governor Macquarie proclaimed on 2 November 1810 as the first of his new towns. The first land grants followed. Partly because of Aboriginal hostilities the area did not take off for settlement, however, until the 1830s.

The construction of Liverpool Weir in 1836 would have impacted on the different Aboriginal groups' use of the river as a communication channel. The weir would also have gradually changed the ecology of the river upstream.
(Keating, 1996; Goodall & Cadzow, 2009; www.liverpool.nsw.gov.au/aboriginalpeople.htm; Tuck & Douglas, 2002).

EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LIVERPOOL
In 1810, following the lead of the prominent pioneer Thomas Moore, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set out on a surveying expedition along the newly discovered Georges River. On the undulating Cumberland Plain and the banks of the Georges River, Governor Macquarie located the new township of Liverpool. From this township, of the developing colony (Cserhalmi, CMP Vol 1, 1994; Liverpool Heritage Study Vol 1, 1992).

St. Luke's Church:
Commissioned by Governor Lachlan Macquarie and designed by Francis Greenway, St Luke's Church was built in 1818-1819 as part of Macquarie's establishment plan for the town of Liverpool. It was the smallest of the three major church designs commissioned by Macquarie from Greenway, the others being St James in Sydney and St Matthew's at Windsor. A rectory was built about the same time but was replaced in 1840.

The site for Liverpool was marked out by Macquarie in 1810. St Luke's was one of the original public buildings for the town. Its foundation stone was laid in 1818. Its original builder Nathaniel Lucas died at an early stage and the job was taken over by James Smith. Rev Robert Cartwright was the first Minister and the first service was held on 18 October 1819. Governor Macquarie attended a service in December 1820. The building was not fully completed until the early 1820s. A rectory and school building, since demolished, were built close by.

The oldest extant associated building on the site is the church hall, part of which dates from the 1840s.

Rev. James Walker, described by William Woolls as 'one of the most learned men who ever came to the colonies', was an Oxford MA, had been chaplain at George Town, Van Diemen's Land, before Broughton in 1843 appointed him to the new incumbency of Marsfield and the headmastership of The King's School. Walker had studied botany in Europe, but neither published, wrote, described any species, assembled any collection, or performed any task by which posterity is able to judge the quality of any botanical labour he undertook. Walker's stay in Parramatta was not long. He left in 1847 to become the rector of St. Luke's at Liverpool.. But his stay was long enough to introduce a new vision and dimension to school master William Woolls' life. IT was from the Rev. Walker, Woolls said that he had 'first imbibed a taste for Australian botany'. Woolls would earn for himself a place among the distinguished Australian botanists of the 19th century (Thomson, 1986, 70-71).

Various additions and modifications were made to the church over the years. Greenway's original portico on the north side was replaced by a brick porch in the 1870s but this in turn was replaced by a replica of the original portico in 1923.

The church was subject to a major restoration in the 1970s.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Suburban Centres-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Alienating Crown Lands for religious purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Macquarie's town layout-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Colonial government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing community facilities-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - town and country planning-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Providing halls and other community facilities-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Greenway, emancipist architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Smith, builder-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Evidence of Governor Macquarie's initiatives in opening up settlement in NSW. One of the three oldest surviving Anglican churches in Australia.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
A fine example of Francis Greenway's public architecture in NSW.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Widely regarded with St James, Sydney and St Matthew's, Windsor as a 'foundation' colonial church.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
A rare surviving example of an early colonial public building.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Characteristic of the Greenway churches which marked sites of early settlement in NSW
Integrity/Intactness: Good
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act See File For Schedule
Refer to standard exemptions gazetted 23 October 1998.

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
* Internal changes to the rectory building.
Nov 29 1985
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0008602 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0008619 Feb 82 740716
Local Environmental PlanSt Luke's Anglican Church Group25125 Mar 94 50 
Cumberland County Council list of Historic Buildings 1961-67     
Register of the National EstateSt Lukes Anglican Church329521 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBrown, Shylie (compiler)2002A day with Clive Lucas & the Parramatta Regional Branch, National Trust (NSW)
WrittenCumberland County Council1963Historic Buildings Liverpool and Campbelltown
WrittenThomson, M.H.H.1986William Woolls - a man of Parramatta

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045188
File number: S90/03165 & HC 3234


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