Heritage

Centennial Park, Moore Park, Queens Park

Item details

Name of item: Centennial Park, Moore Park, Queens Park
Other name/s: Centennial Parklands, Sydney Common, Lachlan Swamps Water Reserve
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Parks, Gardens and Trees
Category: Urban Park
Location: Lat: -33.8982207683 Long: 151.2319794250
Primary address: Randwick, South Sydney and Waverley LGAs, Centennial Park, NSW 2021
Parish: Alexandria
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Randwick
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP1034716
LOT10 DP1034716
LOT11 DP1034716
LOT12 DP1034716
LOT13 DP1034716
LOT14 DP1034716
LOT2 DP1034716
LOT3 DP1034716
LOT4 DP1034716
LOT5 DP1034716
LOT6 DP1034716
LOT7 DP1034716
LOT8 DP1034716
LOT9 DP1034716
LOT12 DP1090187
LOT13 DP1090187
LOT16 DP1090187
LOT17 DP1090187
LOT3 DP1090187
LOT4 DP1090187
LOT5 DP1090187
LOT1 DP45644
LOT1723 DP45644
LOT1724 DP45644
LOT1725 DP45644
LOT1729 DP45644
LOT1730 DP45644
LOT1785 DP45644
LOT1786 DP45644
LOT1787 DP45644
LOT1763 DP821362
LOT1764 DP821362
LOT1765 DP821362
LOT1766 DP821362
LOT1767 DP821362
LOT1768 DP821362
LOT1769 DP821362
LOT1770 DP821362
LOT1771 DP821362
LOT1773 DP821362
LOT1774 DP821362
LOT1775 DP821362
LOT1776 DP821362
LOT1777 DP821362
LOT1778 DP821362
LOT1779 DP821362
LOT1780 DP821362
LOT1781 DP821362
LOT1782 DP821362
LOT1783 DP821362
LOT1784 DP821362
LOT1 DP869520
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Randwick, South Sydney and Waverley LGAsCentennial ParkRandwickAlexandriaCumberlandPrimary Address
 Queens ParkWaverleyAlexandriaCumberlandAlternate Address
 Moore ParkSydneyAlexandriaCumberlandAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Centennial and Moore Park TrustState Government 

Statement of significance:

Centennial Parklands is a unique place of exceptional National, State and Local heritage significance. It is a grand, linked open space of largely nineteenth-century landscape design intended for social and physical activity.

The Parklands has developed at the head of the Botany Bay catchment in an area originally part of the territory of the Gadi people on lands designated in 1811 as the Sydney Common. The Parklands retains evidence of the original landforms and plays a vital role in sustaining natural processes and biological diversity on a scale that is rare in the inner urban environment.

The Parklands has national significance as the place of the inauguration of the nation, the creation of a People's Park, events, persons and monuments of national importance. The place also has strong associations with convict heritage, pathways and transportation routes, water supply, horticultural and agricultural experimentation, nature conservation, military use, and a diversity of sport, recreation and cultures.

Summary of Natural Heritage
Centennial Parklands retains rare evidence of the original geodiversity, biodiversity, and ecosystems of the area known today as the eastern suburbs of Sydney. The natural basin in which the Parklands is situated retains its hydrological and ecological function as the head of the Botany Bay catchment. The waterbodies and vegetation in the Parklands continue to provide rare habitat for a wide diversity of indigenous flora and fauna within a highly urbanised area.
The Parklands provides habitat for rare and threatened species and contains remnants of an endangered ecological community, Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub, which covered much of the area prior to European contact. The natural significance of the Parklands underpins its value to current and future generations and to the regional environment.

Summary of Indigenous Heritage
Today's Parklands forms a part of a complex of Indigenous places used as a natural resource for social, ceremonial and subsistence purposes in the pre-colonial and post-contact periods.
The traditional Gadigal cultural landscape included a detailed knowledge of the land and resources of today's Parklands, which allowed the Gadi people as custodians to manage them and look after them properly. In return the land looked after the Gadi.

The springs, wetlands and remnant vegetation that can still be found in the Parklands today continue to represent an important biological resource which would have been a useful source of fresh water, plants and animals through the generations. It is therefore probable that the Gadi people used the area for camping, food collecting and other activities in the pre-colonial period. Known associations during the post-contact era include camping and food collecting visits, employment, military activities, sport, cultural events and leisure.

The maintenance of ongoing spiritual and other associations with Country continues to be important to Indigenous Australians who wish to care for this place as a cultural landscape.

Summary of Cultural Heritage
Centennial Parklands is highly valued for its space, scale, beauty and grandeur and for the rarity and diversity of its Natural, Indigenous and Cultural heritage. For many individuals, groups and the community as a whole, Centennial Parklands is a cultural landscape that continues to play an important and vital role in personal and social histories.

The place retains significant associations with the development of the early colony of NSW, the establishment and design of parks and gardens for the public good, and prominent events. These include the Centenary and Bicentenary of the establishment of the NSW colony, inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, the 2000 Olympic Games, the Paralympics and the Centenary of Federation celebrations in 2001.

Centennial Parklands is highly significant for its leisure and sporting heritage. The individual parks that make up the Parklands were specifically established to cater for public recreation and have been an important social and recreational resource for over a century.

Centennial Parklands now receives millions of visits annually, attracting people from surrounding residential areas, the wider Sydney region and beyond. The Parklands provides a unique area of open space that supports a diversity of activities that are rare in an inner urban area (Conybeare Morrison, 2005).
Date significance updated: 25 Sep 08
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Construction years: 1888-
Physical description: Centennial Parklands, comprising Centennial Park, Moore Park and Queens Park, are part of the Second Sydney Common dedicated in 1811 (Pearson et al, 1999).

Centennial Park:
Formed to commemorate Australia's centenary in 1888. Grandly laid out in late nineteenth century landscape style with boldly curved drives and lakes, but unfortunately much of its original detail has been destroyed or simplified. Few of its original sculptures remain. It retains its extensive boundary fence of an iron palisade set on a sandstone plinth and its imposing entry gates and piers. Nature of site and its determination of species give the park its distinct open arid character. Centennial Park is characterised by a circular drive with several smaller drives and nine lakes. Similar in style to American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead designs (nineteenth century America, including New York's Central Park). Garden development ranges from carefully tended flower bed to relatively wild areas.

Structures:
Federation monument 1901, two Corinthian columns 1898, park gates, superintendent's residence, two statues (RNE 1978).

Moore Park:
In 1866 Sydney City Council dedicated 378 acres /153ha of the north west section of Sydney Common as a recreation ground for the public to help alleviate growing pressures for outdoor activities, particularly organised sports. The area was named Moore Park in 1867 after Charles Moore, Mayor of Sydney City Council 1867-1869. Moore Park became the focus for major sporting events and entertainment facilities with the establishment of the Zoological Gardens in 1879, the Royal Agricultural Society Showground, and the first course of the Australian Golf Club in 1882.

At the time of dedication, Moore Park was bounded to the south by Lachlan Estate and Randwick Racecourse, to the west by Dowling Street, to the north by Old South Head Road, and to the east by the Lachlan Water Reserve. A road lined with stone pines marked this eastern boundary of the park and the western boundary of the water reserve. Two other roads crossed Moore Park prior to 1866; the first was known as Old Botany Road and was used by hunters and fisherman initially and later by pleasure seekers traveling to Coogee and Botany. The second road provided a western entrance to a cemetery that was located off South Dowling Street. The dedicated land encompassed the Tunnel Reserve (1827-1838), the Military Barracks and the Military Cricket Ground.

Moore Park consisted of a series of gently rolling hills, three water bodies and varied scrub vegetation. Commonly known as the Sand Hills, the land was prone to erosion. By the mid 19th century, the land was degraded and barren, more a result of years of timber getting, pillaging and dumping than of inherent environmental qualities. The removal of timber in particular had led to erosion problems, so that by the early 1860s Charles Moore the alderman and Charles Moore, the Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, collaborated to stabilize the soils with plantings of indigenous shrubs and couch grass. The shrubs failed, but the couch grass succeeded quickly, and sparked discussion about the loss of native vegetation.

Four of the sand hills were conspicuous enough to be named: Mount Steele, Mount Rennie, Constitution Hill and Mount Lang. However, in the process of transforming the common into parkland, these hills were modified greatly. Today Mount Steele is the least altered of the four; Mt. Rennie was reconfigured as a platform for Golf Clubhouse in 1926, Mt. Lang, across from
the NSW Cricket Ground, was terraced and ramped for unknown reasons and disappeared after the 1940s. The fate of Constitution Hill is not clear. The Moore Park Golf Course (established in 1926 and continuously modified) has taken advantage of and modified the gently rolling topography in establishing fairways.

Queens Park:
Queens Park was created by the Centennial Celebration Act 1887. By 1895 it contained an eleven hole golf course which was removed to Botany in 1899. Since the 1930s Queens Park has been used as a sports field by Christian Brothers College, Waverley and various local sporting groups (PoM, V1: 9-10, 1997).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The original park was 405ha, but it has been gradually whittled away to the present 294ha. Of the original 31 statues, few remain. Later additions and alterations to its planting and adjustments to its layout to cater for twentieth century pressures.
Date condition updated:20 Oct 99
Modifications and dates: 1/1999 Moore Park East Bus Station (and public forecourt landscaping) opened

11/2011 (1903) Comrie Memorial Fountain reconstructed in new location in Federation Way, Moore Park, near main Centennial Park gates
12/2011 volunteer archivist Christine Shergold completed two years of work sorting, cataloguing and digitising a collection of over 1000 historic images of Centennial Parklands (mostly 1887-1951 photographs, also publications, banners, mounted pictures, memorabilia from exhibitions, park 'finds' such as bottles etc).
Further information: Management Strategy 6: seek co-operation of appropriate authorities to - link Centennial Parklands with nearby heritatge sites and precincts, Management Strategy 7: seek co-operation of key stakehgolders to the positioning of Centennial Parklands, including - the Heritage Commission - other Government and semi-government authorities (PoM, V1, 32-33, 1997)
Current use: Parklands, recreation, sporting fields
Former use: Common, water reserve, zoological gardens, sporting fields

History

Historical notes: The Centennial Parklands, as it stands today, represents 190 years of colonial history. The settlers had an immediate impact on the lives of the Gadi people whose clan territory takes in most of the Sydney peninsula. Gadi country extends between what is now Darling Harbour and South Head, and includes Centennial Park, Moore Park and Queens Park.

Close to where Centennial Park and Moore Park are today, an area that became known as the Kangaroo Ground was recorded on a map engraved by J. Walker in 1791 or 1793. This map shows the location of what the English called the Kangaroo Ground, in the clan territories of the Gadi. The richer soils and park like atmosphere observed here by Tench and others would almost certainly have been created through regular firing by the Gadi to keep the undergrowth clear and attract kangaroos and other large game to the area for hunting.

Sydney Common
Centennial Parklands, comprising Centennial Park, Moore Park and Queens Park, are part of the Second Sydney Common dedicated in 1811 (Pearson et al, 1999).

As the settlement of Sydney began to develop it became necessary to set aside common land on the outskirts of the town. On 5th October 1811 Governor Macquarie proclaimed the 490 acres to the south of South Head Road as the Sydney Common, for use by the public. The common land contained a vital resource in the form of a constant supply of pure water due to the natural aquifers present in the Botany Sands system. In 1820, Macquarie set aside the water reserve in the east of the Sydney Common. Between 1827 and 1838, Lachlan Water Tunnel (Busby's Bore) was built providing a supply of freshwater to a terminal in Hyde Park. It remained Sydney Town's sole source of water supply until 1858, when it was supplanted by a scheme to pump water from the Botany Swamps, located further to the south.

Lachlan Swamps & water supply
The swamps, located within the Sydney Common, were naturally aquified and were an ideal source of water. In recognition of this precious resource, the Lachlan Water Reserve was founded in 1820. The Tank Stream supply of water for Sydney was inadequate and had a high level of pollutants, in 1825, the colonial government set up an enquiry into the use of the Lachlan Swamps to provide a water supply to Sydney. John Busby, a mineral surveyor, was appointed to design a water system to convey the water from the swamps to the town centre. Busby originally considered conveying the water using iron pipes, but assessed this would be too expensive. Finally he proposed a long underground tunnel be constructed, entirely through Crown Land.

Busby's Bore
The Lachlan Water Tunnel, better known as Busby's Bore, was Sydney's first piped water supply. The 'Bore' or tunnel was, on average between 5.5 ft high by 4.5 ft wide and carried water from the Lachlan Swamps to Hyde Park. The whole length of the Tunnel was 12,000 ft and capable of holding 1,500,000 gallons and 15 days' supply of water.

Sydney Council took control of the Water Supply in 1842 and was responsible for the whole of the Lachlan Water Reserve. In 1861, it was decided that the whole of the Sydney Common did in fact belong to the people of Sydney. Common land was given to the authority of the Municipal Council. Moore Park was then laid out.

To meet increasing demands for water, portions of the Swamp were dammed in 1872, resulting in an embankment just below what is now known as Kensington ponds, and a series of seven dams throughout the swamp.

The first major development encroaching onto the Sydney Common was the siting of Victoria Barracks on the Old South Head Road (now Oxford Street) on the north east of the common. Designed in 1838 and completed ten years later, the Barracks was strategically sited between Port Jackson and Botany Bay to prevent an enemy invasion. The soldiers soon established the Military Garden, and by 1852 they had added the Garrison Cricket ground and a rifle range on land to the south of the barracks.

In 1866 the Sydney Common was given to the Municipal Council of Sydney for development under the Sydney Common Improvement Bill of 1866.

A public park
In the second half of the nineteenth century, parts of Sydney Common were made into parkland. Lord Carrington, the Governor of NSW 1885-1890, advocated the city of Sydney should have a large recreational space in the fashion of a "grand park". Sir Henry Parkes, the premier, recognized the potential of this proposal and facilitated its realisation (Pearson et al, 1999).

Charles Moore JP, Mayor of Sydney from 1867 to 1869, worked on developing a public park for the recreation of the people of Sydney. Allotments of land alongside the South Head Road (Old South Head Road, now Oxford Street) were sold to fund the developments and soon Moore had overseen the construction of Randwick and Moore Park Roads and the creation of a public park incorporating the land around them. Charles Moore, Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, supplied the distinctive tree plantations (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

(Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, another) Charles Moore had visited the 1867 Exposition Universelle in Paris - in the company of his brother, David (Director of the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Dublin) and their friend, influential ex-pat Irish garden writer William Robinson (whose "Gleamings from French Gardens" was shortly thereafter serialised in the Sydney Mail newspaper. Later in 1884, Charles Moore appointed French-trained gardener James Jones to the staff of Sydney Botanic Garden. Moore and Jones along with engineer Frederick Franklin (who had worked with horticulturist/engineer Joseph Paxton of London's 1851 Crystal Palace fame) were responsible for the layout of Sydney's Centennial Park (1886-7), a remarkable translation of the great public parks being created in Britain and east-coast America at that time (Tanner, 2010, 27).

Moore Park
In 1866 Sydney City Council dedicated 378 acres /153ha of the north west section of Sydney Common as a recreation ground for the public to help alleviate growing pressures for outdoor activities, particularly organised sports. The area was named Moore Park in 1867 after Charles Moore JP, Mayor of Sydney City Council 1867-1869. Moore Park became the focus for major sporting events and entertainment facilities with the establishment of the Zoological Gardens in 1879, the Royal Agricultural Society Showground, and the first course of the Australian Golf Club in 1882.

At the time of dedication, Moore Park was bounded to the south by Lachlan Estate and Randwick Racecourse, to the west by Dowling Street, to the north by Old South Head Road, and to the east by the Lachlan Water Reserve. A road lined with stone pines (Pinus pinea) marked this eastern boundary of the park and the western boundary of the water reserve. Two other roads crossed Moore Park prior to 1866; the first was known as Old Botany Road and was used by hunters and fisherman initially and later by pleasure seekers traveling to Coogee and Botany. The second road provided a western entrance to a cemetery that was located off South Dowling Street. The dedicated land encompassed the Tunnel Reserve (1827-1838), the Military Barracks and the Military Cricket Ground.

Moore Park consisted of a series of gently rolling hills, three water bodies and varied scrub vegetation. Commonly known as the Sand Hills, the land was prone to erosion. By the mid 19th century, the land was degraded and barren, more a result of years of timber getting, pillaging and dumping than of inherent environmental qualities. The removal of timber in particular had led to erosion problems, so that by the early 1860s Charles Moore the alderman and (another) Charles Moore, the Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, collaborated to stabilize the soils with plantings of indigenous shrubs and couch grass. The shrubs failed, but the couch grass succeeded quickly, and sparked discussion about the loss of native vegetation.

Four of the sand hills were conspicuous enough to be named: Mount Steele, Mount Rennie, Constitution Hill and Mount Lang. However, in the process of transforming the common into parkland, these hills were modified greatly. Today Mount Steele is the least altered of the four; Mt. Rennie was reconfigured as a platform for Golf Clubhouse in 1926, Mt. Lang, across from the NSW Cricket Ground, was terraced and ramped for unknown reasons and disappeared after the 1940s. The fate of Constitution Hill is not clear. The Moore Park Golf Course (established in 1926 and continuously modified) has taken advantage of and modified the gently rolling topography in establishing fairways.

It is important to note that different areas of what is now Centennial Parklands came under different administrations. These differences have contributed to the individuality of the different areas within Centennial Parklands today.

More developments began to be built in Moore Park. The Zoological Gardens were opened in 1879, on what is now the site of Sydney Boy's and Girl's High Schools. These were Sydney's second zoo, after one from the early 1860s in the Botanic Gardens (1862). The Zoo ceased to exist on the Moore Park site in 1916 and the animals were transferred by ferry to the newly constructed zoo site at Taronga Park (Sydney's third zoo). The establishment of the Sydney Cricket Ground, the new Royal Agricultural Society Showground and the laying out of the first course of the Australian Golf Club all took place in 1882. The population boom during the second half of the 19th Century, as well as the extension of leisure time for workers, meant public participation in the park increased. This public interest in the park led to the dedication of the Sydney Sports Ground in 1899, and the E.S. Marks Athletics Field in 1906. These developments in addition to the allotments of land sold during the 1860s have contributed to reducing the size of Moore Park from its original 378 acres (153 hectares) to 296 acres (120 hectares) today.

In 1886, 65% of Sydney's population lived within a five-mile radius of the Lachlan Swamps, and this site was chosen as the location for a grand vision of public recreation. This vision was to provide a suburban drive and landscaped park for the people of Sydney (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

Queens Park
Queens Park, a smaller park located at the eastern edge of Centennial Park, was also created by the Centennial Celebrations Act of 1887 but was not fully developed because of drainage problems. By 1895 it contained an eleven-hole golf course, which was relocated to Botany in 1899. Since the 1930s Queens Park has been used as a sports field by Christian Brothers College, Waverley and various local sporting groups (PoM, V1: 9-10, 1997).
Since then, the 25-acre park has kept its sporting connection and now contains a number of playing fields built in the 1930s.

Queens Park was reclaimed from the extensive swamp in Lachlan Reserve. A dam occupied the low-lying areas in Queens Park for most of the 1800s. The earliest phase of tree planting in Queens Park occurred in the late 1880s and early 1890s with open woodland of Moreton Bay Fig, Port Jackson figs, Monterey pine, Araucarias and Holm oak established on the higher ground. The sandstone outcrops may have already been overgrown with the locally indigenous Port Jackson figs, ferns and acacias which are now quite a striking feature of the north eastern corner the park. The coral trees and paperbarks lining the southern and western edges of the park were planted in 1923, replacing original plantings of alternating brush box and maples. The dates of other plantings in Queens Park are not clear.

Queens Park has always been popular with the local community. The park has adapted to the needs of the local residents over the years but with its open spaces and panoramic views of the city skyline, it remains an important part of the parklands landscape (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

Centennial Park
The Centenary Bill was presented to Parliament on 27 June 1887 introducing the notion of a park that would be accessible to the whole mass of people down to the very poorest class of the community. It would also transform what was regarded as an unsightly area into a region of loveliness and beauty. Centennial Park was created by the Centennial Celebrations Act 1887 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the colony. This Act, however, did not define the appropriate uses of the park.

The park was established to commemorate Australia's centenary in 1888 and was opened on 26 January 1888 by Sir Henry Parkes. He stated that "this grand park is emphatically the people's park, and you must always take as much interest in it as if by your own hands you had planted the flowers, the park will be one of the grandest adornments to this beautiful country."

The newly named 'Centennial Park' became the focus for the Centenary celebration preparations. Frederick Franklin, an English civil engineer, appears to have prepared the original design of the park, although historically the preservation and development of the Reserve as Centennial Park is credited to Lord Carrington, Sir Henry Parkes and Charles Moore.

The layout and landscape design of the park is attributed to Charles Moore, the Director of the Botanic Gardens from 1848-96 (but no connection with Charles Moore, Mayor). Moore enlisted the labour of the unemployed to transform the native scrubland into an open expanse of public land. James Jones, head gardener of the Botanic Gardens became the General Overseer of Centennial Park and diary entries in his Day Book indicate that he played a significant part in its construction, although his desire to conserve the native flora of the area was not fulfilled (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

Charles Moore was charged with the task of converting 640 acres of sandy native scrub into a grand Victorian park in the space of just seven months. The park was to be designed in accordance with a plan prepared by J W Deering, District Surveyor of the Department of Lands. Whose plan was finally used remains uncertain but it appears that the principal elements of a concept developed by Frederick Augustus Franklin, an English civil engineer, were followed. Franklin had studied under Sir Joseph Paxton and the original design elements for Centennial Park bear similarities to Paxton's Birkenhead Park and the grounds of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.

By the 1880s, Moore's influence on the planting and laying out of parks in Sydney was at its peak and coincided with a general boom in park creation. His preference for and extensive use of Moreton Bay Fig for public plantings in Sydney during his time as director is well documented and commented upon by many of his contemporaries. Indeed some members of the public bemoaned his use of 'the inevitable Moreton Bay Fig' in the planting of Centennial Park.

James Jones, the Head Gardener of the Botanic Gardens and Overseer of the Centennial Park from 1887-1892 assisted Moore in his task. In his Day Book Jones has left a record of the Herculean effort required to clear vegetation, alter landforms, groom slopes, create open spaces and construct the Grand Drive and subsidiary roads, under the pressure of a looming opening date. Work included blasting of trenches in the sandstone to create sufficient depth for tree growth. The extensive clearing of the native vegetation had revealed just how unsuitable much of the park was for such an activity.

The opening of Centennial Park on 26th January 1888 was a central event in the midst of a week of Centenary celebrations and Sir Henry Parkes declared it as the People's Park. After the opening, work continued in the park with the construction of ornamental ponds and islands. Also, in accordance with the fashions of the period monuments were added to the landscape and by 1889 there were eleven statues and two vases in the park. The Superintendent's Residence was completed in 1888, while the perimeter fence was completed in 1892. Later in the 1890s, the Ranger's Residence and Shelter Pavilion were constructed.

On Australia Day (26/1) 1889 a tree planting ceremony, attended by some 40,000 spectators, was officiated by Charles Moore. Guests of note included Lord & Lady Carrington, the latter of whom planted the first tree (a Cook's pine, Araucaria columnaris)) and a collection of "Governors (and notables)". Prior to this ceremony, the park was largely transformed by hundreds of unemployed men enlisted to turn swamps, scrub and rock into the grand park it would become ('In Brief', in "Parklands", Summer 2011/12, 3).

One of the earliest constructed elements in the Park and the main drive around the Park, Grand Drive was originally planted in 1889 with a range of species including figs, elms, poplars and 'pines' (including Norfolk Island pines and Monterey pines).

William Forsyth was overseer of Centennial Park from 1892 to his death in 1911 and much of the successful horticultural development of the park during the first decade of the century has been attributed to his botanical knowledge and labours.

Joseph Maiden took over the administration of the park following the retirement of Charles Moore in 1896. Maiden had his own stylistic ideas and his work had an important impact on the development of the park. He pioneered the experimentation and use of Australian native plants, introducing a more 'tropical' flavour to the park's design and the introduction of more colourful species. The natural conditions of poor soil fertility, exposure and limited rainfall combined to produce a hostile environment for
the park plantings. Many of the exotic trees planted by Moore withered away and Maiden noted the unsuitability of some tree species first chosen for the park. Maiden increased the areas under 'horticultural treatment' and established a plant nursery to grow new plants because he believed
"they are more likely to grow well from the start if raised in the same
kind of soil as they are to be ultimately planted in."
By 1912 the park was producing 150,000 plants a year and these were used to create flowerbeds and shrubberies. These ornamental plantings were strategically placed around the northern shores of the main lakes and along the central roadways. They became a focus for the park and a popular destination for recreational visitors. Maiden also oversaw the use of the park
for historic events, Military Reviews and public activities

Working with J. H. Maiden, Forsyth introduced palms, Port Jackson fig, paperbark, acacia, and coral trees to the park. Drought and storm damage were as much of a challenge as identifying species suitable for the harsh and varied conditions in the park. The need for protection of the remnant native vegetation in the Park was frequently advocated by Forsyth in his annual reports, and experimentation with native trees, particularly eucalypts, was escalated under Forsyth's direction. In 1901, 263 eucalypts representing 18 different species were planted, and the end of the same year 1901 Forsyth reported that the number of tree species growing in the Park was 'about seventy, the total number of plants about 4,411. Of this number about 675 are planted on the Grand Drive and approaches, 321 are in Queen's Park, and the remainder distributed over the Centennial Park. The grove of turpentines planted in 1905 between the Kiosk and the Bird Sanctuary is evidence of the extensive experimentation with native trees of this period.

One of Forsyth's most significant contributions was the selection of paperbarks to serve the several purposes - aesthetic, shade and windbreak. The establishment of windbreaks was essential to provide protection to the large quantity of young trees that had been planted in the park. Forsyth planted 88 of these trees in August 1896; although Forsyth did not specify locations these may be trees at the toe of the Busby Pond Embankment, and the grove adjacent to the Lily Pond. The success of this first planting led to their continued use, and in 1899 the avenue of trees lining the watercourse below the Paddington Gates was planted. A clump of Eucalyptus robusta was planted just west of these at the same time.

Forsyth undertook extensive modifications to the trees planted along Grand Drive and approaches by Moore and Jones 1889. He removed elms, poplars and pines, and replaced them from 1897 onwards with a complex formal arrangement of predominantly Port Jackson figs (Ficus rubiginosa), with holm/ holly oak (Quercus ilex) and Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla). The rhythmic pattern created by the diagonal planting creates a strong landscape character in the Victorian Gardenesque tradition.

This combination set the pattern for subsequent plantings in the park, particularly along the roads. In the 1890s Carrington Drive was lined with a discontinuous avenue of Port Jackson figs, and at about the same time Loch Avenue was planted with belt planting of predominantly Port Jackson figs and Norfolk Island pines to hide the Waverley tram sheds. This work was followed over the next few years by additional rows of trees lining the park roads. In 1900, figs were planted along Jervois avenue and around the same time, Parkes Drive North was planted with a row of Port Jackson figs (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

On 1 January 1901, Centennial Park was the site of the official ceremony to mark the federation of the Australian colonies and the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia. The ceremony was accompanied by much pomp and was attended by a vast crowd of 60 000 onlookers. At a special pavilion erected in the park, Lord Hopetoun and Edmund Barton were sworn in respectively as the first governor-general and the first Prime Minister of the new Australian nation. At the same time, the first federal cabinet was worn in. The oaths of office were administered by the Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Justice of New South Wales, Sir Frederick Darley.

The pavilion at which the swearing-in ceremony took place was raised on a platform consisting of a huge slab of Moruya granite with six sides to represent the original six states of the federation. Known as the Commonwealth Stone, the slab was later, in 1904, embedded in the ground as a permanent memorial to mark the exact spot where the Commonwealth came into being. The pavilion itself had been removed in 1903 and re-erected in Cabarita Park, though it was now stripped of all its original ornamentation.

A new and permanent Federation Pavilion, designed by Alex Tzannes in Post-Modern style and evoking the form of a classical rotunda, was erected over the granite slab in 1988, the Bicentennial Year of European Settlement. The interior of the dome was embellished by Imants Tillers. Below the dome, a sandstone frieze runs around the outside of the structure and contains the words 'Mammon or Millennial Eden'. The words were taken from a sonnet called 'Australia' which was written by Bernard O'Dowd in 1901. This history only relates to the federation aspects of the place. Other aspects of the place have not been considered (Pearson, M, et al, 1999, V2, p24).

Palms were introduced in 1901 in Frog Hollow, and Forsyth reported that year on their success and appeal. The southern part of Frog Hollow was developed under Maiden's direction as a focus for floral displays in the Gardenesque tradition and reflected the influence and rise of the flower garden in the Federation period. As a result, In addition to Forsyth's palms, the three small promontories that jut into Busby's Pond have a number of horticultural attractions including the Rosarium, Native Plant & Flower Garden and the column monuments as well as numerous circular floral beds. A number of changes have been in this area since Maiden's time, but the overall character is attributed to his influence.

From 1902, Maiden and Forsyth used palms and coral trees in linear plantings throughout the park, providing an element of contrast to the umbrageous character of the fig dominated avenues. Under Maiden's influence, an avenue comprising alternating plantings of Queen palm and Cocos Island palm was established along the Busby's Pond embankment, and an avenue of coral trees (Erythrina sp.) in Loch Avenue was mixed with occasional remnants of earlier and poorly performing planting of Port Jackson figs and holm oaks.

Between 1908 and 1910 the length of Parkes Drive between Grand Drive was planted with rows of Canary Island palms (Phoenix canariensis). This is the earliest known formal avenue of Canary Island palms in Sydney and led to the widespread use of this palm throughout New South Wales. In the years immediately following, palms were used extensively in Centennial Park and Moore Park. An avenue of Senegal date palm (P. reclinata), was planted in 1912 in a diagonal pattern along the western embankment of the Randwick Pond. In 1913 more than one hundred palms were planted, of the following species and varieties: coral trees (Erythrina edulis), Indian wild date (Phoenix rupicola), African wild date (P.reclinata), dwarf Mediterranean fan palm (Chamaerops humilis), Chamaerops excelsa, Canary Island palm, jelly palm (Cocos (now Butia) yatay), Lord Howe Island (Kentia fosteriana) palms and Areca sapida. Locations for these trees are not clear, but may have included the palms lining the northern side of Dickens Drive, planted in 1915, regularly spaced row of palms to reinforce the successful 1908 palm avenue along Parkes Drive. Palms were also used as a replacement species for earlier avenue plantings; in 1916 Canary Island palms and Strelitzia replaced two avenues of poplars, a species which proved less successful in the park.

Woodland plantings on the Lang Road Slopes and the York Road slopes provided a transparent enclosure for the park, but the planting along York Road, dating to 1911 is slightly denser to screen the Tram works from the park (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

The Department of Agriculture took charge of the administration in 1908. Following the death in 1923 of James Dawes (Superintendent from 1912) and the retirement of Maiden in 1924, development of the park slowed considerably. Numerous administrative and staff changes occurred due to the Department of Agriculture taking over the administration from the Sydney Botanic Gardens. Reduced budgets resulted in a period of relatively inactivity and a general lack of documentation for works that were done. There was a large grant for unemployment relief in 1934 but there is little detail of tree planting during the 1930s.

From the 1960s through the 1970s, there was a renewed interest in tree planting in Centennial Park, today several large stands of pines, including the pine plantation on the Mission Fields established c. 1960s as a boundary planting and windbreak for the equestrian grounds. A grove of paperbarks (Melaleuca quinquenervia), planted c. 1970s on a filled former drainage line in the Mission Fields demonstrates the continued influence of Maiden's planting principles. A grove of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) planted on the Parade Ground on Arbor Day, 1967 demonstrates the continuing tradition of Arbor Day and Wattle Day celebrations.

A grove of spotted gum (Corymbia maculata) near the Woollahra Gates, mostly planted since the late 1960s represents the revival of experimentation with native species in the Centennial Park, a result of the influence of Ron Selkeld, Park Superintendent in 1965. This hill top area is exposed to southerly winds where Spotted Gum had grown vigorously but mugga ironbark planted (Eucalyptus leucoxylon) earlier did not thrive. Clumps of mainly scribbly gum were planted on the sandstone outcrops from the 1960s. The Scribbly Gums grouped around the outcrops provide a wild and picturesque effect and contrast with the more formal plantings that dominate the avenues in the parklands. At about the same time, some three hundred flooded gum trees (Euc.grandis) were planted out on the hillside to the south of Broom Avenue. In 1968, an article in 'The Land' newspaper highlighted the need to find species suitable for the 'light fine soil' of Centennial Park. The article stressed the value of the Park as 'a great testing ground' particularly for native species for coastal planting.

In 1984, the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust was appointed to administer all of Centennial Park and Queens Park. In 1990 the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust (Trust) was appointed to administer Moore Park, including the Moore Park Golf course and in 1992 the E.S. Marks Field. The Trust administers Centennial Parklands in accordance with the Centennial Park and Moore Park Trust Act 1983 (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

Special Events
The provision of grand open spaces has tended to invite military parades and reviews throughout the history of Sydney. The first such events were held on the parade ground in the (Hyde Park) barracks square. As other preferable venues became available these events moved; first to the Domain, then Moore Park and ultimately Centennial Park. Large public displays were held on the Queens Birthday, other public holidays and on significant anniversaries such as Jubilees and Centenaries. In 1888, the Long Meadow in Centennial Park was used for the annual Military Review. In 1908, Australian troops participated in a review to celebrate the 'Great White Fleet' visit. A celebration was held in 1954 when Queen Elizabeth visited Centennial Park.

The Royal Agricultural Society was allowed to use the park at show time in 1865. The exhibitions were very popular, and in December 1887 one Sydney resident wrote a letter to the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald, saying that the only celebration he was looking forward to was the Agriculture Society's exhibition planned for 26th January 1888. The Showground was a major attraction for generations of Australians.

The Parklands has always provided a venue for special events including conventions, exhibitions, film productions, sporting events, the Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras as well as the Royal Easter Show. In recent years Centennial Park has developed its capacity to hold special events. Recently the parklands have played host to a number of events such as Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Big Bold and Brassy, Hermes International Show jumping and Concert for Life. The Parklands was also an open-air venue for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games road cycling and marathon events (Conybeare Morrison & Partners, v.2, 2005).

In 2013 the park will celebrate its 125th anniversary, with various celebrations. A ten day light garden in January from the Paddington Gates down to Centennial Parklands DIning will highlight that area, a tree planting on Australia Day, development of the Park's inaugural master plan and construction of the first ever children's garden will occur throughout the year. Executive officer Peter Hadfield called on the state and federal governments to commit $20m to establish a future fund for the park (Wentworth Courier, 2012, 9).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agricultural Society activities - research, experimentation, acclimatisation --
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Associations with the Royal Agricultural Society-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Horticulture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Developing real estate-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant tree(s) providing urban amenity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of scenic beauty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban amenity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of remembrance-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens demonstrating the travels and sojurns of a gardener-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Developing national landmarks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Holding opening and dedication ceremonies-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Providing a venue for significant events-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Holding annual shows-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Developing local landmarks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans Encouraging public recreation in parks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Technologies for reticulated water supply-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal marketing and selling land by auction-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from suburban lots to public gardens-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Lachlan Macquarie, 1810-1821-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Jones, French-trained gardener, Sydney Botanic Garden staff-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Frederick Franklin, engineer (who worked with Paxton on 1851 Crystal Palace, London)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Lord Carrington, Governor of NSW, 1885-90-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Charles Moore JP, Mayor of Sydney 1867-69-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Busby, mineral surveyor and civil engineer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Charles Moore, Director Botanic Gardens and garden maker, 1848-96-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Centennial Park is historically significant as part of the site of the second Sydney Common and public open space proclaimed by Governor Lachlan Macquarie on 5th October 1811. It is the site of Sydney's second and third water supply, Busby Bore and the Lachlan Water Reserve. It is the site of Sydney's first public suburban drive - the Grand Drive. It is the first designed suburban park, based on the English model of integrated suburban residential development and recreational open space. The Park provided the setting for the following prominent events: The Centenary Celebrations, 1888; The Annual Military Review; the Commonwealth Swearing-in Ceremony 1901; the American Fleet Review 1908; mourning for the death of King Edward 1910; Peace Celebrations and Thanksgiving Service 1918; Sesqui-Centenary Celebrations 1938; Federation Jubilee 1951; Federation Pavilion dedication 1988; Bi-Centenary Celebrations 1988. The most significant periods in the history of the park are: pre-European, natural environment pre-1788; Lachlan Water Reserve 1811-1887; Centennial Park 1888-1930, 1984-present [1990]. (Burton 1990)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Centennial Park is a designed environment that, after 100 years, still retains the unity and continuity of its designed elements. Aesthetically it combines contrasting landscape types with spatial diversity that, together with a surrounding built environment that complements the scale of the Park while providing minimal visual intrusion, works together to provide a harmony of scale. (Burton 1990)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Centennial park, designed as a People's Park, has provided an important social venue for meetings of a range of community groups, commemorative events, sporting events, military venues, concerts and general public recreation. (Burton 1990)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Centennial Park has been the site of horticultural experimentation, particularly with grass species and native tree species. It has also been the site of conservation of indigenous bird species and is the location of indigenous plant species representative of the ecology of the Botany sands system. (Burton 1990)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementProduce an Archaeological Zoning Plan (AZP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementDocument and prepare an archival record 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementThe Toll House, Moore Park CMP CMP received for review 24 September 2003  
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions
HERITAGE ACT 1977

ORDER UNDER SECTION 57(2)

I, the Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977, do, by this my order, grant an exemption from section 57(1) of the said Act in respect of the engaging in or carrying out of any activities described in Schedule C by or on behalf of the Centennial Park and Moore Park Trust (the Trust) on the item described in Schedule A situated on the land described in Schedule B.

Andrew Refshauge, MP
Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning

Sydney, 23 March 2000

SCHEDULE A

The item known as the Centennial Parklands (the parklands), comprising Centennial Park, Moore Park and Queens Park, situated on the land described in Schedule B.

SCHEDULE B

All those pieces or parcels of land as shown edged heavy black on the plan catalogued in the office of the Heritage Council of New South Wales.

SCHEDULE C

1.General maintenance and repair.
(i) Suppression of fire
(ii) Tree surgery where considered necessary for the health of a tree
(iii) Removal or pruning of trees considered a danger to the public or staff
(iv) Minor works to improve public access, provide disabled access and to eliminate or reduce risks to public safety
(v) Repair of damage caused by erosion and implementation of erosion control measures
(vi) Maintenance and repair of any building, structure, monument or work within the parklands, including temporary relocation for conservation or protection
(vii) Maintenance, repair and resurfacing of existing roads, paths, fences and gates
(viii) Routine horticultural maintenance, including lawn mowing, cultivation and pruning.

2. Maintenance of services and utilities.
(i) Maintenance and repair of services and public utilities including communications, gas, electricity, water supply, waste disposal, sewerage, irrigation and drainage
(ii) Upgrade of services and public utilities where the Trust is satisfied that the activity will not materially affect the heritage significance of the Parklands as a whole or the area in which they are to be undertaken
(iii) Installation, maintenance and removal of waste bins to implement the Trust's waste management policies.

3. Implementation of the Centennial Parklands Tree Master Plan.
Removal of existing trees and planting of new trees where necessary to implement the Centennial Parklands Tree Master Plan.

4. Alteration of roads, pathways and fences.
(i) Closure, removal, alteration or construction of roads and pathways to implement the Plan of Management and other Trust policies.
(ii) Repair, removal and installation of fences to implement the Trust's policies
(iii) Parking management measures to implement the Trust's parking policies.

5. Management of lawns, sports fields, garden beds, hard landscaping and living collections.
(i) Removal and replacement of existing plantings.
(ii) Removal, construction or alteration of garden beds, hard landscaping and plantings to implement the Plan of Management and other policies for the parklands where the Trust is satisfied that the activity will not materially effect the heritage significance of the Parklands as a whole or the area in which they are to be undertaken.
(iii) Alteration of sports fields and other facilities for organised sports within the areas currently used for such activities to meet changing needs and demands
(iv) Routine horticultural curation, including development and management of displays.

6. Management of interpretive, information and directional signage.
Installation, removal and alteration of interpretative, information and directional signage and labels in accordance with signage policies adopted by the Trust.

7. Management of artworks, statues and monuments.
(i) Temporary installation of artworks, statues and monuments for temporary exhibitions or events
(ii) Installation, relocation and removal of artworks, statues and monuments to implement the Plan of Management and the Trust's policies.

8. Management of temporary events.
Temporary use of a section of the Parklands, temporary road closures and the installation of temporary buildings, structures, fencing, facilities, exhibitions, artworks, crowd control barriers, stages, lighting, sound and public address equipment and signage for a period not exceeding 6 months where the Trust is satisfied that the activity will not materially affect the heritage significance of the Parklands as a whole or the area in which they are to be undertaken.

9. Activities and works for the 2000 Olympics and the Centenary of Federation.
Activities and works associated with the 2000 Olympics and the Centenary of Federation Celebrations provided for in the Memoranda of Understanding for the events.

10. Alterations to buildings and/or works.
(i) Minor alteration to buildings and/or works (including alterations to provide disabled access) which do not increase the area of a building by more than 5%
(ii) Installation, relocation, removal and maintenance of park furniture in accordance with the Plan of Management and other Trust policies for the parklands.

11. Activities related to the Capital Works Program for Moore Park West and the Moore Park Golf Course Precinct in accordance with the Plan of Management and Master Plan.
Mar 27 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP for Centennial Parklands: Natural, Indigenous and Cultural Heritage, by Conybeare Morrison for CPMPT, dated September 2002. CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 6 August 2003 for a period of five years, expires 6 August 2008. Aug 6 2003
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentAboriginal History & Heritage Study, Stage 1, for CMP, prepared by Beyond Consulting Indigenous Projects for Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust, dated July 2002. Study for CMP forms part of the endorsed CMP. Jun 21 2005
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentCMP 2010 sent for information - filed in Objective/to Library Apr 24 2012

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0138427 Mar 00 392389
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage registerCentennial Park Reservoir Group.    
Local Environmental PlanCentennial Park (South East corner) 06 Dec 96   
Local Environmental PlanSuperintendant's Residence, Centennial Park35526 Jun 98 97 
Local Environmental PlanGates to Centennial Park14726 Jun 98 97 
National Trust of Australia register Centennial Park6976   
Register of the National EstateCentennial Park175721 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Centennial Park, Moore Park, Queens Park View detail
Written 2004Pictures imperfect - moonlight cinema (SMH 24/1/04)
Written Professor Paul Ashton, Kate Blackmore and Armanda Scorrano2013The People’s Park: Centennial Park - A History
WrittenAshton, P.2001Constructed Landscapes: Centennial Park
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Centennial Park, Moore Park, Queens Park View detail
WrittenCasey & Lowe Associates (Tony Lowe)2002Post Contact Non-Indigenous Archaeological Report - Centennial, Moore & Queen's Parks, Sydney Showgrounds & Fox Studios
WrittenCentennial & Moore Park Trust2006Centennial Parklands Plan of Management 2006-2016 View detail
WrittenCentennial & Moore Park Trust2002Centennial Parklands Tree Master Plan View detail
WrittenConybeare Morrison & Partners2005Centennial Parklands Plan of Management - draft View detail
WrittenConybeare Morrison & Partners2003CMP for Centennial Parklands: conservation management plan - Natural, Indig., Cult. Heritage [Variant title:Centennial Park, Moore Park, Queens Park]
WrittenFreeman Ryan Design Centennial Parklands Restaurant Precinct Interpretation Elements Concept Report
WrittenGorman, James2013'Underground light rail vision', in Sydney Central Mag, 4/9/13 View detail
WrittenGrogan, Zilka2013'Massive upgrade on cards' in Wentworth Courier, 12/6/13
WrittenGrogan, Zilka2012'Centennial Park: Government cuts funding - Trust may have to rely on event income'
WrittenIan Hoskins2003'It is inevitably a people's park : ceremony and democratic sentiment at the opening of Centennial Park, 1888'
WrittenMuseCape P/L2010For Man & Beast: Interpretation Plan for the Comrie Memorial Fountain
WrittenNSW Government Architect's Office2008Australian and Korean War Memorial, Moore Park Sydney : statement of heritage impact
WrittenPearson, Michael et al.1999National Federation heritage project : identification and assessment consultancy
WrittenUrbis P/L2010Centennial Parklands - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenWentworth Courier2012'Centennial Park: Big Celebrations for Sir Henry's Park'
WrittenWilson, Edwin1992The wishing tree: a guide to memorial trees, statues, fountains in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Domain, and Centennial Park, Sydney

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045397
File number: 10/12444; S90/02941


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