Lansdowne | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Lansdowne

Item details

Name of item: Lansdowne
Other name/s: Lansdowne Park, Synagogue and 3 Cottages
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Homestead Complex
Location: Lat: -34.7685237146 Long: 149.7267770270
Primary address: Bungonia Road, Goulburn, NSW 2580
Parish: Towrang
County: Argyle
Local govt. area: Goulburn Mulwaree
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Pejar
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOTB DP163660
PART LOT1 DP598475
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Bungonia RoadGoulburnGoulburn MulwareeTowrangArgylePrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Neville and Irene LeePrivate19 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

Lansdowne homestead and surrounding precinct is of outstanding heritage significance. It has been associated with the development of Goulburn since the earliest days of exploration in the area and was one of the first properties settled in the area south of the Cumberland basin. It provides physical evidence of its establishment and occupation by one of the most powerful men in the colony who played an important role in shaping the development of NSW.

The homestead is a scarce example of an early timber colonial homestead with its 'U' plan, high-pitched roof and encircling verandah. The fabric provides rare physical evidence of early timber building techniques used in the colony.

Lansdowne has retained extensive evidence of its early period of development along with evidence of most of the outbuildings which once supported the house. It provides evidence of early colonial life, including all facets of human activity. The homestead forms part of an intact group of buildings which have the potential to provide a complete vignette of 19th century rural life and activity.

The property exhibits strong associations with the Aboriginal population as it was used as both a meeting place and burial ground. It was also a place of primary contact between Aboriginal and European peoples.

The property provides physical evidence of the close association with one of the earliest industrial enterprises in Goulburn.

Lansdowne's location on a spur overlooking the flood plain has enabled a strong relationship to develop between the city and the rural hinterland. The property has largely retained its rural curtilage and yet continues to define the boundary between the town and rural land as Bradley's properties have done for over 160 years (to 1997).

It is a rare example of a pastoral, industrial and political empire, providing information of the development and concomitant development of the colony. It demonstrates the characteristics associated with important pioneering family homesteads.

The site has the potential to provide valuable archaeological information about both Aboriginal and European periods of occupation (Conroy et al, 1997, pp.296-7).
Date significance updated: 10 Mar 06
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Construction years: 1822-1825
Physical description: Goulburn's oldest homestead and property, including ballroom, convict built coach house and stables, convict jail and guests' quarters.

Estate
Reduced in scale, but still an agricultural property with paddocks of grass running adjacent to Bungonia Road and the Mulwaree Chain of Ponds (river), and more recently a vineyard block north of the house. Homestead complex is on a small hill above the river and north of the road. Former property straddled the river with the Flour Mill & Brewery & Malt House complex to the west and further fields to the north. Shelter belts of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), stone pine (Pinus pinea)

House
Single storey colonial style hipped roof (corrugated iron today, shingles originally) U-shaped house in lapped timber boards, cedar fireplace mantels and much internal joinery, stringybark/spotted gum floorboards, open verandahs on three sides, two side verandahs filled in (south) and part-filled in (north). Rear north-east corner has brick additions for kitchen/pantry/office. South side verandah infilled for bedrooms. Several fireplaces in brick.

Ballroom
Single storey double height stud building north of house, in random rubble stone construction, corrugated iron roof (today), with ornamental grape (Vitis coignetae) on one side. Timber dance floor inside. Crystal chandeliers, ornate ceiling cornices, large cedar framed windows, open fire place.

Coach house/store
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction two storey building with gabled roof, side gable in centre of long western ('front') facade facing main house. Corrugated iron roof has replaced shingles. Timber door detailing, lintels over windows, Victorian gothic revival barge boards decorations in timber also. Interior downstairs plastered and painted over stone (external walls) and brick (internal divider walls). Fireplace in one room, in brick. Upper floor lath and plaster. Side staircase on external northern wall. Used by Cobb & Co. coaches. To the east of the house, to the south of the stables/barn block below.

Stables /Barn
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction 2 storey building with gabled roof, side gable over main entry in southern long facade. Original elaborate timber horse stalls marked by posts finished with carved capitals, feeder trough bins in timber, beneath an internal arcade of timber on octagonal pillars down centre, and stone cobble floor in ground level. Timber floored upper level. Timber detailing as for above stables/store block. Much of the timber is cedar. Southern (main) facade has two oval brick-lined windows on upper floor level. Original internal ladder access only to top level (inside), apart from external doors to hoist hay/stores up to from outside. New circular staircase added to access top floor at eastern end. (c.2005).

Servants Quarters (convict built)
Long low single storey block north of house, brick with corrugated iron roof. Internal walls dividing separate 'cells'/rooms opened up to allow some shared access. Used now for accommodation of guests in rustic style. Several fireplaces in brick. Low Picket fence around.

Meat/Slaughter house
East of Servants' Quarters, brick construction single storey simple box construction, corrugated iron roof.

Convict Gaol
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction, open stable component (majority of structure) and small room on northern side with brick fireplace. Was without a roof for a century or so, recently re-roofed, walls repaired/reconstructed and restored.

Worker's cottage
Rear of (east) other building complex, on its own with paddocks around. Single storey brick, verandah on western side. Chimney on northern side of centre.

Outbuilding
North of Barn/Stables pair. Single storey 'lean to' style building, with open porch style southern half in timber posts and iron roof, rubble stone northern half, former shed converted to greenhouse with glass roof now. Adjoins vineyard block.

Farm Cottage
North of above complex, on its own beside the vineyard. Single storey brick, corrugated iron roof, verandah on western side and southern return. Small garden to west of main facade. Low Picket fence around.

Synagogue
Strange almost square brick building, in middle of vineyard today, north-east of house. Northern wall has semi-circular protruding section with pointed gothic arched window spaces (3) - in ruins as a shell today. No roof. Walls of brick in places retain plaster. Bricks made on the property.
Modifications and dates: Estate much subdivided. Former property straddled the river with the Flour Mill & Brewery complex to the west and further fields to the north.
Current use: Accommodation, Tours
Former use: Homestead

History

Historical notes: Jonas Bradley had settled previously at Windsor Road (Sydney) on a grant of 25 acres. For this property, he had been granted stock from the Government Herds in 1811. In return he was a regular supplier of meat to the Government Stores at Windsor. In this location he initiated the growing of tobacco in commercial quantities.

The first award ever made by the fledgling Agricultural Society was a silver quart tankard given to Jonas Bradley in 1823 'in recognition of his cultivation of tobacco and his offer to lay before the Society a statement of his mode of culture, cure and manufacture'. A hundredweight of tobacco was presented to the Society to be sent to England in the brig 'Bathurst'. This statement to the Society was published in the Sydney Gazette on 20/2/1823 and again on 22/5/1823.

The land which Jonas occupied at this time was considered by him to be 'too poor and limited in size' to enable him to cultivate tobacco to the extent he wished. As a consequence he petitioned Governor Brisbane in 1822 for a grant of land in the Burragordang district where he proposed to 'cultivate tobacco to a considerable extent, as the soil is extremely suitable for that purpose'. Jonas Bradley then went on to become the first to plant and harvest tobacco as a crop in the Goulburn district. In 1836, 1.5 tons of tobacco was harvested from Lansdowne.

In 1836 William Bradley opened a brewery complex at the base of the hill below Lansdowne (homestead) and between 1836 and 1840 a steam powered mill had been added. This was one of the first steam powered industries in the colony. The mill, when completed in 1838, processed about 100,000 bushels of wheat per annum. In 1852 the price of flour in Goulburn rose from 21 to 29 pounds whilst wheat was selling at 10/- a bushel. Flour milled at Bradley's mill in 1854 realised 'first 35 pounds per ton, second 34 pounds, third 33 pounds, Bran 3/- per bushel'. Due to collusion the price from the other major mill in the town, Byrnes and Oaker's was the same. Both the brewery and mill were managed by William Shelley who was in partnership with Bradley. Shelley died in 1844, aged 39, at Lansdowne Park. After Bradley's death in 1868 the complex was sold to Messrs Walford, Sparks & Emanuel who continued the milling but ceased the brewery operation. Emanuel was also the purchaser of Lansdowne at this time. The new owners sold on to Messrs Bartlett and Oddy who operated only the brewery.

Jonas' scientific approach to agriculture was shared by William - inspired by his father's interest in and knowledge of tobacco, he is reputed to have developed a nicotine based treatment for scab in sheep that led to the eradication of scab from NSW flocks. Bradley's work on scab and catarrh for the sheep industry is ranked equal in importance to that of Farrar's for rust in the wheat industry.

Bradley also introduced the first Southdown (coarse haired) sheep to NSW in the Monaro. (excerpt, CMP, Conroy et al, 1997).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - place of first contact between Aboriginal and European peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Jewish religious practises-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Processing wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Pastoralism - grazing sheep, cattle, goats or other animals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new breeds of stock-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agricultural Society activities - research, experimentation, acclimatisation --
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Flour milling-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of industrial production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban and rural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Brewing and distilling alcoholic beverages-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating prisoners and internees-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Railways to inland settlements-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Military settlement-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating pastoralism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Judaism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Burying the dead in customary ways-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Jonas Bradley, Military officer, pastoralist, brewer, tobacco farmer, settler-

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act land maintenance repair of fences
Refer to standard exemptions gazetted 23 October 1998.

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(a) Horticultural and agricultural management;
(b) Eradication of noxious animals and plants;
(c) Pasture improvement not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
(d) Stock grazing, not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
(e) Maintenance and repairs to existing fences;
(f) Provsion of internal subdivision fences which may be necessary to improve stock and pasture management.
May 3 1985
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0013202 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0013207 Dec 84 1706016
Register of the National EstateLansdowne, Outbuildings and Jewish Temple108221 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Lansdowne View detail
WrittenCommissioners of Inquiry, Planning & Environment; Charles O'Connelll1984Inquiry pursuant to Section 41 of the Heritage Act, 1977, into objections to the making of a permanent conservation order in respect of the buildings site known as "Lansdowne", Bungonia Road, Goulburn
TourismTourism NSW2007Historic Lansdowne Park Farm Stay and Vineyard View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Historic Lansdowne Park Farmstay & Vineyard View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045587
File number: S90/06141/3


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