Lansdowne | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Lansdowne

Item details

Name of item: Lansdowne
Other name/s: Lansdowne Park, Synagogue and 3 Cottages
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Homestead Complex
Location: Lat: -34.7685237146 Long: 149.7267770270
Primary address: Bungonia Road, Goulburn, NSW 2580
Parish: Towrang
County: Argyle
Local govt. area: Goulburn Mulwaree
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Pejar
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOTB DP163660
PART LOT1 DP598475
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Bungonia RoadGoulburnGoulburn MulwareeTowrangArgylePrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Neville and Irene LeePrivate19 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

Lansdowne homestead and surrounding precinct is of outstanding heritage significance. It has been associated with the development of Goulburn since the earliest days of exploration in the area and was one of the first properties settled in the area south of the Cumberland basin. It provides physical evidence of its establishment and occupation by one of the most powerful men in the colony who played an important role in shaping the development of NSW.

The homestead is a scarce example of an early timber colonial homestead with its 'U' plan, high-pitched roof and encircling verandah. The fabric provides rare physical evidence of early timber building techniques used in the colony.

Lansdowne has retained extensive evidence of its early period of development along with evidence of most of the outbuildings which once supported the house. It provides evidence of early colonial life, including all facets of human activity. The homestead forms part of an intact group of buildings which have the potential to provide a complete vignette of 19th century rural life and activity.

The property exhibits strong associations with the Aboriginal population as it was used as both a meeting place and burial ground. It was also a place of primary contact between Aboriginal and European peoples.

The property provides physical evidence of the close association with one of the earliest industrial enterprises in Goulburn.

Lansdowne's location on a spur overlooking the flood plain has enabled a strong relationship to develop between the city and the rural hinterland. The property has largely retained its rural curtilage and yet continues to define the boundary between the town and rural land as Bradley's properties have done for over 160 years (to 1997).

It is a rare example of a pastoral, industrial and political empire, providing information of the development and concomitant development of the colony. It demonstrates the characteristics associated with important pioneering family homesteads.

The site has the potential to provide valuable archaeological information about both Aboriginal and European periods of occupation (Conroy et al, 1997, pp.296-7).
Date significance updated: 10 Mar 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1822-1825
Physical description: Estate
Located on a low ridge on the southern fringe of Eastgrove, a suburb of (eastern) Goulburn, about 1200m east of the main urban area. The site supports a cover of mainly pasture species and agricultural weeds. Survivors from an agricultural era include Monterey (Pinus radiata) and stone (P.pinea) pines along the Bungonia Road frontage and scattered about the western area in front of the main house. Other species dating from earlier times include a large apple tree (Malus sylvestris cv.) behind the most-eastern cottage, and an Indian hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica) and a cypress (Cupressus sp.) near the house. Clumps of thornbush are prominent, particularly around the ruins of the synagogue and gaol (ibid, 1984, 3). This species was probably used originally as a hedging plant (ibid, 18).

Reduced in scale, but still an agricultural property with paddocks of grass running adjacent to Bungonia Road and the Mulwaree Chain of Ponds (river) and more recently a vineyard block north of the house. The homestead complex is on a small hill above the river and north of the road. The former property straddled the river with the Flour Mill & Brewery & Malt House complex to the west and further fields to the north. Shelter belts of Monterey pine, Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and stone pine (Pinus pinea).

An orchard and vegetable garden are located south of the main house and recent plantings of native tree species and golden cypress now grow in front of the house to the west. A tennis court within a chain-wire enclosure has been constructed north-west of the house, since 1982. Fences are mainly of post-and-wire construction. A timber picket fence and steel entrance gate survive at the entrance to the property from Bungonia Road (ibid, 1984, 3).

As one moves through the complex it is not only the buildings which give Lansdowne its special character, but the spaces between - courtyards and farmyards, the glimpses between buildings to other farm buildings and more distant views across the paddocks to the ridge behind Eastgrove and across Mulwaree Ponds to the mill and the city of Goulburn. It is uncommon for such a fine and intact colonial group to survive, particularly in its rural setting. Lansdowne and its setting are featured strongly in two works by noted writer on colonial architecture, Rachel Roxburgh and photographer Douglass Baglin (Colonial Farm Buildings of NSW, Rigby, 1978; and Early Colonial Houses in NSW, Lansdowne Press, 1974) and in the Readers' Digest Book of Historica Australian Towns', Readers Digest, 1982) (O'Connell, 1984, 13).

Goulburn's oldest homestead and property, including ballroom, convict built coach house and stables, convict jail and guests' quarters.

Property comprises buildings being the house, stable, coach-house, ballroom, synagogue, 3 cottages and gaol (O'Connell, 1984, 1).

Graham (2017, 3) identifies 15 buildings on site (c.1830s-1980s), these being (no's reflect numbering system he adopts in that report):
1. original residence/homestead;
2. former billiard room;
3. & 4. pair of semi-detached former staff cottages with timber and corrugated iron w/c outhouse;
5. brick laundry (now converted into disabled WCs);
6. stone former horse stable;
7. stone former carriage shed;
8. octagonal sheltered horse ring;
9. stone former greenhouse with attached carport;
10. brick cottage;
11. stone machinery shed (fmr. gaol);
12. brick and weatherboard cottage;
13. weatherboard cottage in converted former church (on land of the adjacent co-owned land);
14. garage building; and
15. ruins of a former chapel (synagogue) (summer house)(Graham, 2017, 3).

Also on the property is a former tennis court which is being converted into a dressage area, a semi-circular dam, a covered horse ring, several paddocks, a wine grape crop field, along with a number of associated fences, water tanks, driveways, landscape plantings etc (ibid, 2017, 3).

The drive approach runs roughly northwards in a curved, gravelled tree-lined roadway with post-and-rail fences from a point in the road south-east of the homestead up to a tee-junction just south of the former coach house (building 7). To the west it continues curving up to the rear or east side of the homestead, and to the east as an open track curving around to the north to the former gaol (machinery shed) and the three cottages. A second unformed road / drive leads up through a grander (set of) gates in a straight line to the southwest of the homestead in a straight line up to the front or west side of the homestead. This second drive appears to be the original drive, but is no longer used (ibid, 2017, 4).

House
Single storey colonial style hipped roof (corrugated iron today, shingles originally) U-shaped house in lapped timber boards, cedar fireplace mantels and much internal joinery, stringybark/spotted gum floorboards, open verandahs on three sides, two side verandahs filled in (south) and part-filled in (north). Rear north-east corner has brick additions for kitchen/pantry/office. South side verandah infilled for bedrooms. Several fireplaces in brick.

Ballroom
Single storey double height stud building north of house, in random rubble stone construction, corrugated iron roof (today), with ornamental grape (Vitis coignetae) on one side. Timber dance floor inside. Crystal chandeliers, ornate ceiling cornices, large cedar framed windows, open fire place.

Coach house/store
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction two storey building with gabled roof, side gable in centre of long western ('front') facade facing main house. Corrugated iron roof has replaced shingles. Timber door detailing, lintels over windows, Victorian gothic revival barge boards decorations in timber also. Interior downstairs plastered and painted over stone (external walls) and brick (internal divider walls). Fireplace in one room, in brick. Upper floor lath and plaster. Side staircase on external northern wall. Used by Cobb & Co. coaches. To the east of the house, to the south of the stables/barn block below.

Stables /Barn
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction 2 storey building with gabled roof, side gable over main entry in southern long facade. Original elaborate timber horse stalls marked by posts finished with carved capitals, feeder trough bins in timber, beneath an internal arcade of timber on octagonal pillars down centre, and stone cobble floor in ground level. Timber floored upper level. Timber detailing as for above stables/store block. Much of the timber is cedar. Southern (main) facade has two oval brick-lined windows on upper floor level. Original internal ladder access only to top level (inside), apart from external doors to hoist hay/stores up to from outside. New circular staircase added to access top floor at eastern end. (c.2005).

Servants Quarters (convict built)
Long low single storey block north of house, brick with corrugated iron roof. Internal walls dividing separate 'cells'/rooms opened up to allow some shared access. Used now for accommodation of guests in rustic style. Several fireplaces in brick. Low Picket fence around.

Meat/Slaughter house
East of Servants' Quarters, brick construction single storey simple box construction, corrugated iron roof.

Convict Gaol
Random rubble stone (quarried from the surrounding hills) construction, open stable component (majority of structure) and small room on northern side with brick fireplace. Was without a roof for a century or so, recently re-roofed, walls repaired/reconstructed and restored.

Worker's cottage
Rear of (east) other building complex, on its own with paddocks around. Single storey brick, verandah on western side. Chimney on northern side of centre.

Outbuilding
North of Barn/Stables pair. Single storey 'lean to' style building, with open porch style southern half in timber posts and iron roof, rubble stone northern half, former shed converted to greenhouse with glass roof now. Adjoins vineyard block.

Farm Cottage
North of above complex, on its own beside the vineyard. Single storey brick, corrugated iron roof, verandah on western side and southern return. Small garden to west of main facade. Low Picket fence around.

Summer House/(later a) Synagogue
Strange almost square brick building, in middle of vineyard today, north-east of house. Northern wall has semi-circular protruding section with pointed gothic arched window spaces (3) - in ruins as a shell today. No roof. Walls of brick in places retain plaster. Bricks made on the property.
Modifications and dates: Estate much subdivided. Former property straddled the river with the Flour Mill & Brewery complex to the west and further fields to the north.

1992-2008: repair and restoration of two cottages (buildings 10 & 12), part-reconstruction of former green house (building 9); and machine shed (former prisoner lock-up, building 11) prior to Mr Lee's death (Robin Graham, 2017, 1).

Since this time two applications - one in 2014 for conservation works and adaptive reuse of the c1850s former stables and slaughter house (buildings 5 & 6) as a cellar door and WCs, approved in October 2015 and a second one for stage one remediation and repair works to the c1850s main homestead (building 1) approved in June 2015 were made. Remediation of the homestead included reconstruction of the severely-deteriorated verandah, a new roof, reconstruction of a partially-collapsed wall and general upgrade of facilities to make it liveable. These works are underway and nearing completion (ibid, 2017, 1).
Current use: Accommodation, Tours
Former use: Homestead

History

Historical notes: Two major language groups were identified in the Goulburn region by Norman Tindale in his seminal work on
Aboriginal tribal boundaries. There were the Gundungurra (Gandangara) to the north of Goulburn, and the Ngunawal (Ngunnawal) also known as the Yass tribe, Lake George Blacks or Molonglo tribe to the south. The boundaries of the Ngunawal ran to the south east where they met the Ngarigo at the Molonglo and the Wiradjuri in the Yass region. Gatherings of Aboriginal people occurred regularly in the area and records of corroborees are known from Rocky Hill near the East Goulburn Church of England, the old railway quarry on the Wollondilly River, Mulwaree Flats near the historic brewery, the All Saints church in Eastgrove and the Goulburn Railway Station (AMBS 2012:13, Tazewell 1991:243, Wyatt 1972:111-112). (Tindale 1974; quoted in Biosys (1), 2015, 17). Smith (1992) states that Goulburn was an Aboriginal cross roads with six or more different bands within a day's travel from the town site. Some of these bands included the Cookmai, Parramarragoo, Tarlo, Burra Burra, Pajong and Wollondilly (ibid, 2015 (1), 18).

The plains around Goulburn and the Wollondilly River provided native game and fish for a number of the traditional aboriginal peoples including: the Mulwaree, Tarlo, Burra Burra, Wollondilly, Wiradjuri, Gundungurra, Dharrook, Tharawal, Lachlan, Pajong, Parramarragoo, Cookmal and Gnunawal and the region was known as a meeting place for all these groups. Records dating back to the 1830s indicate the river flats at Bungonia Road, on the outskirts of Goulburn, was once the corroboree site of the Gandangara peoples, who were virtually wiped out by an influenza epidemic in 1846/7, and few of the original inhabitants remained by the turn of the C 20th. The "Lansdowne" property is noted as a place were meetings between the two cultures occurred (Graham, 2016, 18).

The earliest documented evidence of the lifestyles of the County of Argyle (Goulburn) Aboriginals comes from William Govett who in 1836 published a series of articles in The Saturday Magazine. According to Govett the Wollondilly River was a focus of activity with eels, swans, ducks and other water birds being staples along with kangaroos, wallabies, possums, bandicoots, and emus (Govett 1977:29,32,34-35,37, Paton 1990: Table 6). Govett also described the practice of fire stick farming to herd the kangaroos for hunting - this also has the benefit of encouraging new growth and attracting kangaroos to specific areas. (Govett 1977:23). These observations on Aboriginal life are consistent with the later rememberings of MacAlister (1907:88; quoted in Biosys (1), 2015, 18). MacAlister notes that Aboriginal men were employed as guides, trackers and field hands on the pastoral properties and also by the police force (MacAlister 1907:86,91; quoted in Biosys (1), 2015, 20).

Some of the early settler's accounts relate to the district of the current Project Area. These references are to the Aboriginal burials occurring near the Lansdowne Homestead. MacAlister (1907) states:
A great burial place of the Wollondilly Tribe was the hill above Lansdowne House (Bradleys) near Goulburn,
where old Kugalong and others were buried (Macalister 1907:85)
Another mention is in Wyatt (1941):
The Aborigines used to camp on the hill above Lansdowne Homestead in the forties and fifties of the last
century. As late of the sixties some of their graves could be still seen (Biosys (1), 2015, 22).

Goulburn:
Goulburn was named by the Government surveyor, James Meehan, after Henry Goulburn, under secretary for war and the colonies. The aboriginal name for the area is Burbong. The area was first visited by explorers in about 1798, but was not thoroughly explored until it was revisited in 1818 by Hamilton Hume, and James Meehan (who named the area Argyle County). It became one of the nineteen counties that made up the proclaimed settlement area of NSW in 1826. The discovery of the Goulburn plains and Lake Bathurst identified the area as ideal for farming, and settlers soon began to move to the area, with the first settler noted as establishing 'Strathallan' in about 1825. The opening up of the area to the settlers, and introduction of livestock largely drove out or killed the local indigenous peoples, as it drove out, and depleted their local food supply, and caused an influenza epidemic in 1847 (ibid, 2016, 18).

The site for the township was first surveyed by Meehan in 1828, but the location was revised in 1833 after the new surveyor James Hoddle revisited the area to lay out the township. The first town land sale recorded was to a George Johnson in about 1838. Being on the cross roads between Sydney and Braidwood to the south, Crookwell and Taralga to the north, and Yass to the west, the town grew quickly, such that by 1841 it had a population of 1200 people and featured a courthouse, police barracks, several churches, and a hospital. The area had became known as good sheep farming land, and this industry thrived with Goulburn at its center. In the 1850s gold was discovered in the area, and this lead to an even greater growth in the area. By 1859 the area was described in as a vigorous municipality, and four years later Goulburn was officially proclaimed by Queen Victoria as a city, (but this was held to be invalid), and it was not until 1885 that it was again declared a city under the Crown Lands Act. In 1855 a Cobb and Co switching station was established at Goulburn which is believed to be on the subject property then owned by William Bradley (ibid, 2016, 18).

The opening of the railway line to Sydney in 1869 further increased the importance and prosperity of the town. By the late C 19th Goulburn had become a great Victorian city, and many of its finest buildings date from the period 1875 to 1890. In the early C20th a number of banks, insurance houses, and the like established their rural headquarters in the Goulburn. The city and area drew most of its early prosperity off the back of the sheep and wool industry and with the decline of the wool industry in the 1960s the city went through lean times (ibid, 2016, 18).

Lansdowne Estate and the Bradley Family:
The subject property is part of 300 acres granted to Jonas Bradley and his two sons William and Thomas (each received 100 acres) on 8 March 1831 on the back of a promise from Governor Brisbane made in May of 1825. Jonas came to Australia from Lancashire in 1791 as a private with the 102 Squadron, known as the New South Wales Rum Corps, and by 1796 he had risen to the rank of sergeant. He married Catherine Spears, (a convict who arrived in 1793) and they had two children, Thomas born 1797, and William born 1800. In common with most men in the corps, he was granted land including 56 roods in Sydney, (1792), 25 acres at Windsor (1797), and 200 acres at Parramatta (1809). In 1810 he was one of the few men allowed to resign his commission with the corps and stay in the colony when the corps were sent home by Governor Macquarie (ibid, 2016, 18).

After leaving the corps, Jonas and family settled at Windsor Road (Sydney) on his grant (of 25 acres) taking with him a grant of stock from the Government Herds (received in 1811), and in return he became a regular supplier of meat to the Government Stores at Windsor. Here he also initiated the growing of tobacco in commercial quantities, and gained the first award ever made by the Agricultural Society 'in recognition of his cultivation of tobacco. Notwithstanding this he considered the land to be 'too poor and limited in size' to enable him to cultivate tobacco to the extent he wished, and in 1822 petitioned the Governor for additional land grants. In 1825 was subsequently granted 100 acres just south east of the present location of Goulburn on a rise of land overlooking the flood plain. His two sons were each also granted adjacent 100 acre plots. In 1825 he was authorized to enter into possession of a further 2000 acres just south of these three grants. He went on to become the first farmer to plant and harvest tobacco as a crop in the Goulburn district, and in 1836, 1.5 tons of tobacco was recorded as being harvested from 'Lansdowne' (ibid, 2016, 19).

The first award ever made by the fledgling Agricultural Society was a silver quart tankard given to Jonas Bradley in 1823 'in recognition of his cultivation of tobacco and his offer to lay before the Society a statement of his mode of culture, cure and manufacture'. A hundredweight of tobacco was presented to the Society to be sent to England in the brig 'Bathurst'. This statement to the Society was published in the Sydney Gazette on 20/2/1823 and again on 22/5/1823 (Conroy et al, 2009).

It appears Catherine stayed in Sydney and Jonas and son, William, moved to Goulburn sometime between 1825 and 1828 to take up the grants. An 1828 census shows Jonas and 21 other people including two carpenters living at the property, and it is likely that front weatherboard sections of the existing 'U' shaped farm house, and the semi detached cottages north of the house were erected at this time (ibid, 2016, 19).

In 1830 Lansdowne was described as a 'very substantial building' with 'a beautiful view' and 'one of the best barns in the country' (O'Connell, 1984, 12).

William married Emily Hovell (daughter of famous explorer William Hovell) in 1831, and they went on to have two sons and six daughters (only five of the girls survived) between 1832 and 1846. In 1833 Jonas had the three original grants amalgamated and transferred into his eldest son, William's ownership, and it is believed Jonas then moved back to Sydney where he stayed until his death in 1841. At this time the balance of his lands all passed to William (ibid, 2016, 19).

Jonas' scientific approach to agriculture was shared by William - inspired by his father's interest in and knowledge of tobacco, he is reputed to have developed a nicotine based treatment for scab in sheep that led to the eradication of scab from NSW flocks. His work on scab and catarrh for the sheep industry is ranked equal in importance to that of William Farrar's for rust in the wheat industry. William Bradley went on to become one of the largest land-holders in this part of the colony. He was one of the first to take up grazing runs on the Monaro, eventually owning 20 runs over 300,000 acres, and by 1834 was also running about 10,000 sheep on his land at Goulburn, which by the time of his death in 1868 he had increased to 32,000 acres and 40,000 sheep. The extent of his land holdings around Goulburn restricted the growth of the township for many years (ibid, 2016, 20). Bradley also introduced the first Southdown (coarse haired) sheep to NSW in the Monaro. (excerpt, CMP, Conroy et al, 1997).

The Bradleys left Lansdowne in 1839 or 1840 to live in a house William had built at the corner of Auburn and William Streets, Goulburn (O'Connell, 1984, 12). In 1836 William Bradley started building an industrial complex (a mill in 1836, and later a brewery: O'Connell, 1984, 12) in partnership with William Shelley which included a flour mill, malt house and a brewery just west and down hill of the 'Lansdowne' homestead, between it and the township. Most of these structures remain to this day. Bradley's partner in the brewery and mill business (after 1838: O'Connell, 1984, 12), William Shelley, took up residence at 'Lansdowne' until 1844 at his (Shelley's) death aged 39 (ibid, 2016, 20).

William Bradley had over this time developed political interests, and was returned unopposed to the Legislative Council in 1843, but retired in 1846 due to his wife's health. Her health required the families return to Europe, but she died in Rome on their way back to Australia in 1848. After her death William returned to Australia to take up his role in politics. As a member of parliament he needed to be in Sydney, and took up residence in 'Lindesay' at Darling Point in 1851, selling the Goulburn city house, but keeping a bed at 'Lansdowne' for himself as he made regular visits. William is reputed to have developed a nicotine based treatment for scab in sheep that led to the eradication of scab from NSW flocks, and he also is known for the introduction of the first Southdown (coarse haired) sheep to NSW in the Monaro. His work on scab and catarrh for the sheep industry is ranked equal in importance to that of Farrar's for rust in the wheat industry. He was also the founding member and provisional director of The Great Southern and Western Railway Company, and director of two other railway companies formed in 1849 and 1850, all of which were involved in establishment of the Sydney to Goulburn railway line which opened in 1869. William contributed in part paying for the survey work and donating 10 acres of land for the terminus (ibid, 2016, 20).

After 1844 ex royal navy man Captain N. (Nicholas) C. Phillips was appointed to manage the 'Lansdowne' property and brewery (for William bradley), and took up residence at the house. It is believed Phillips is responsible for the C 1854 construction of the summerhouse with its boat shaped end. It is understood that William had extensive improvements undertaken at 'Lansdowne' under Phillips guidance on or about 1836 to accommodate its new occupants (ibid, 2016, 20). Phillips acted as William Bradley's Goulburn manager, from Lansdowne he had overall supervision of the mill and brewery as well as Bradley's holdings about Goulburn. When Phillips died at the end of 1863 Bradley decided to part with the milling operation and arranged to lease the mill/brewery complex for seven years to Samuel Emanuel and his son, Solomon. What was Bradley's mill became Emanuel's mill. The connection with Lansdowne was becoming less obvious. Solomon Emanuel took up residence sometime in the late 1860s but ceased milling in 1869 and tried other uses for the buildings that dissociated them from Lansdowne. From 1836-69 the mill/brewery was an extension of Lansdowne. Proprietors, managers and workmen moved freely between both places. The buildings began to lsoe their connection with Bradley from 1864 and their close links with Lansdowne after 1869 (O'Connell, 1984, 12-13).

By the time of William Bradley's death, he held about 32,000 acres in the Goulburn district (O'Connell, 1984, 12). William Bradley died at 'Lindesay' in 1868. After William's death, the mill complex was sold to Messrs Walford, Sparks & Solomon Emanuel who continued the milling but ceased the brewery operation. Solomon Emanuel also purchased the 'Lansdowne' property and took up residence. It is believed he had Phillip's summer house converted to a Jewish Synagogue (ibid, 2016, 20).

Between 1868 and 1882 the Solomon Family sold off much of the land, retaining only some 700 acres in and around the house, and the adjacent 31.5 acre property known as Willow Grove. In 1882 the Solomon family had the whole of the remaining estate subdivided and offered for sale by Finlay and Company of Goulburn in conjunction with Geo Withers & Company of Pitt St in Sydney as 21 Portions, made up of 270 lots for gentleman's residences varying in size from 1 to 9 acres (portions 1 through 18), one 50 acres lot (portion 19), the original house, stables and several outbuildings and cottages on a separate 100 acre lot (portion 20), and the Willow Grove property on its 31.5 acres (Portion 21). The sale was however cancelled, and the entire property was purchased by a Mr. W. Swanson of Sydney. It appears Mr. Swanson sold off parts of the farm eventually reducing the Lansdowne property further, before selling to the Christian family in the 1940s (ibid, 2016, 20).

The Goulburn suburb of Eastgrove, advertised as 'The New Suburb' in the 1880s, has always been considered as a residential area because it is relatively flat and close to the centre of Goulburn (O'Connell, 1984, 16).

The Christian family progressively sold off more of the estate before passing the remaining 40 acres to Mr. Neville Lee, who had married one of the Christian family daughters, Mr. Lee died earlier this year and the property passed into the ownership of his daughter and her husband. Mr Lee owned and operated a lighting business in Goulburn and began growing grapes at the property. After his retirement he undertook a substantial renovation works at the property repairing most of the outbuildings setting the place up as a farm stay accommodation business (ibid, 2016, 21).

The firm Eubo P/L lodged with Goulburn Council in 1975 an informal residential subdivision application for Lansdowne estate. This was approved in principle on 13/5/1975 and again in principle on 30/9/1975. The subdivision involved forming a circular drive around some of the major buildings of Lansdowne estate, approximately 2.5 acres, excluding the synagogue, cottage and ruined gaol. The subdivision proposal would (have) create(d) approximately 50 lots for single dwelling houses (O'Connell, 1984, 15). Prospective purchasers of the historic buildings and 2.5 acres of surrounding land, advised the Heritage Council in 1979 that the new subdivision would destroy the original coach road to the coach house, isoloate the historic complex from Bungonia Road and detract from the historic atmosphere and essential character of Lansdowne which they intended to restore. The prospective purchasers requested an interim conservation order (ICO) be made ont he property to control the arrangement of the subdivision. On 17/8/1979 Goulburn Council again approved, in principle, the proposed subdivision plan and also resolved that the Heritage Council be informed of it and asked for a(n interim) conservation order over Lansdowne homestead and precincts. The ICO was gazetted on 27/8/1979 (O'Connell, 1984, 16).

A c.1980s advertisement by owners Neville, Irene and Tracie Lee offered farm stay accommodation, noting that the convict-built servants' quarters had been faithfully restored to self-contained holiday cottages with all-modern facilities. Accommodation was provided for up to seven people in each cottage, each having an open fire, convict sandstock bricks, its own private backyard with herb and vegetable garden and barbeque. It noted other features for guests included a tennis court, pool table, table tennis, a dam stocked with trout and Murray perch, miniature Shetland ponies for children, old-fashioned fowl yard with geese, ducks, fowls, peacocks (ibid, 2016, 22).

A commission of inquiry into objections to making a permanent conservation order over a 6.75ha area of land (then less than half of the owner's holding of 12.5ha) called 'Lansdowne' was conducted between February and July 1984. As a result, a smaller area of land was gazetted under a PCO (O'Connell, 1984).

A long programme of works has been undertaken by the Lee family to bring the farm back into viable and productive use, and fund ongoing conservation works - these were started by Neville Lee in the 1990s after he retired from his lighting supplies businesss. Substantial works were undertaken between 1992-2008, including the repair and restoration of two cottages (buildings 10 & 12), part-reconstruction of former green house (building 9); and machine shed (former prisoner lock-up, building 11) prior to Mr Lee's death in 2012 (Robin Graham, 2017, 1).

Since this time two applications - one in 2014 for conservation works and adaptive reuse of the c1850s former stables and slaughter house (buildings 5 & 6) as a cellar door and WCs, approved in October 2015 and a second one for stage one remediation and repair works to the c1850s main homestead (building 1) approved in June 2015 were made. Remediation of the homestead included reconstruction of the severely-deteriorated verandah, a new roof, reconstruction of a partially-collapsed wall and general upgrade of facilities to make it liveable. These works are underway and nearing completion (ibid, 2017, 1).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - place of first contact between Aboriginal and European peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Jewish religious practises-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Processing wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new breeds of crop plant-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agricultural Society activities - research, experimentation, acclimatisation --
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Flour milling-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of industrial production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban and rural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Brewing and distilling alcoholic beverages-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating prisoners and internees-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Railways to inland settlements-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Military settlement-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating pastoralism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Judaism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Burying the dead in customary ways-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Bradley MLA, prominent farmer, grazier and entrepreneur-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Bradley, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Catherine Bradley, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Emily Bradley (nee Hovell), grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Shelley, businessman, brewer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Captain Nicholas Phillips, ex-Royal Navy sailor, farm manager-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Walford, Sparks and Solomon Emanuel, businessmen, brewers-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Solomon Emanuel, businessman and brewer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with W. Swanson, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Christian family, graziers-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Lee family, graziers-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Jonas Bradley, Military officer, pastoralist, brewer, tobacco farmer, settler-

Recommended management:

It is important that a sufficient area of land be protected around Lansdowne both to preserve its rural character and to ensure its economic viability. If Lansdowne became a residential porperty in the midst of a residential area, the reasonable economic use of the complex would be threatened. In particular the survival of the rural outbuildings is dependent on a reasonable economic use for them being available. Additionally, in line with general conservation policy, the Heritage Council would supoprt a wide range of uses being allowed for Lansdowne to ensure its long-term economic viability. Sufficient area should be protected to allow for such uses as may be considered in the future. The permanent conservation order would control the subdivision of the site, however the area proposed is only a portion of the land (about half) available to the owner for residential subdivision (O'Connell, 1984, 14). Appropriate Government action should be taken to conserve Lansdowne, including restoration of the buildings, conservation of its setting on the low ridge above Eastgrove and encouragement of public use of the complex. Any further subdivision of estate lands could well detract from the setting of the existing buildings (O'Connell, 1984, 15). Seek to maximise public use of the Goulburn Brewery complex in the long term and examine the possibility of establishing a physical link between the Brewery and Lansdowne with upgraded landscape and a pedestrian way (O'Connell, 1984, 15). Because of the heritage significance of the complex and its visual relationship with the Brewery, protection should be given to land on which the buildings are sited and the area west of the complex looking toward the old Brewery. This could be defined by the area bounded by Bungonia Road, the road reservation and then from a point just north of the comlex generally following a straight line to the north-west corner of the site. One way of achieving protection for Lansdowne would be to concentrate development to the east of the site behind the road reservation. Development of a higher density form of housing could enable an appropriate use of the land to be achieved while protecting the landscape in the vicinity of Lansdowne. The relationship between the items of heritage in this location warrants special consideration of development on the site and appropriate control over development for this to occur. Lansdowne can be seen from within the Goulburn residential and commercial area and, apart from housing to the north and an electricity substation higher up the slope to the east, the site retains its essentially rural landscape character (O'Connell, 1984, 16-17).

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementDocument and prepare an archival record 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act land maintenance repair of fences
Refer to standard exemptions gazetted 23 October 1998.

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(a) Horticultural and agricultural management;
(b) Eradication of noxious animals and plants;
(c) Pasture improvement not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
(d) Stock grazing, not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
(e) Maintenance and repairs to existing fences;
(f) Provsion of internal subdivision fences which may be necessary to improve stock and pasture management.
May 3 1985
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0013202 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0013207 Dec 84 1706016
Local Environmental PlanGoulburn LEP 200911020 Feb 09   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register: Landsdowne241205 Apr 76   
Register of the National EstateLansdowne, Outbuildings and Jewish Temple108221 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenArtefact Heritage2017Letter of Clarification (re archaeological potential, including 1840s mill; toll house)
WrittenArtefact Heritage2016Lansdowne Bridge Replacement - addendum Statement of Heritage Impact (Option 3A)
WrittenArtefact Heritage2014Statement of Heritage Impact for a proposed bridge replacement: Report to the RMS
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Lansdowne View detail
WrittenBiosys P/L (1)2015Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment Report - Lansdowne Park Rezoning Development, Part Lot 1 DP 598475, Goulburn NSW
WrittenBiosys P/L (2)2015Lansdown Park Lot 1 DP 598475 Subdivision, Goulburn, NSW - Aboriginal Archaeological Report
WrittenConroy, Robyn; Guilbaud, Natacha; Hawthorne, David; Steward, Richard1997Lansdowne, Bungonia Road, Conservation Management Plan
WrittenJohnson Pilton Walker2016Landscape Character and Visual Impact Assessment: Replacement of Lansdowne Bridge over Mulwaree Ponds
WrittenO'Connelll, Charles; Commissioners of Inquiry, Planning & Environment1984Inquiry pursuant to Section 41 of the Heritage Act, 1977, into objections to the making of a permanent conservation order in respect of the buildings site known as "Lansdowne", Bungonia Road, Goulburn
WrittenRachel Roxburgh and photographer Douglass Baglin1978Colonial Farm Buildings of NSW
WrittenRachel Roxburgh and photographer Douglass Baglin1974Early Colonial Houses in NSW
WrittenReaders Digest1982Readers' Digest Book of Historica Australian Towns
WrittenRobin Graham Architect2015Remediation Plan for the existing original homstead at Lansdowne Park, 33 Bu(n)gonia Rd., Goulburn
WrittenRobin Graham Architect & Heritage Consultant2017Statement of Heritage Impact: Proposed 43 lot Residential Subdivision at the 'Lansdowne Estate', 33 Bungonia Road, Goulburn
WrittenRobin Graham Architect and Heritage Consultant2016Heritage Impact Assessment for proposed 43 lot Residential Subdivision at the 'Lansdowne Park Estate', 33 Bungonia Road, Goulburn (Lot 1 DP 598475)
WrittenRobin Graham Architect and Heritage Consultant2014Amended Heritage Impact Assessment for proposed adaptive reuse as Cellar Door of the existing former Horse Stables at the 'Lansdown Park', 33 Bungonia Road, Goulburn
WrittenStephen Freestyle Archaeological Services Pty Ltd2013Aboriginal Archaeological Assessment
TourismTourism NSW2007Historic Lansdowne Park Farm Stay and Vineyard View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Historic Lansdowne Park Farmstay & Vineyard View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045587
File number: S90/06141/3


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