Heritage

Hill End Historic Site

Item details

Name of item: Hill End Historic Site
Type of item: Conservation Area
Group/Collection: Urban Area
Category: Townscape
Location: Lat: -33.0334121411 Long: 149.4166682800
Primary address: , Hill End, NSW 2850
Local govt. area: Bathurst Regional
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
 Hill EndBathurst Regional  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Office of Environment and HeritageState Government26 Nov 98

Statement of significance:

Hill End is a place of national cultural significance due to its aesthetic, historic, scientific and social value to past, present and future generations of Australians. From the period of its settlement and principal development in the 1870s, Hill End retains a unique collection of buildings, relics, artefacts, structures, archaeological sites and landscape elements which are, individually and collectively, of outstanding architectural, aesthetic and research value. The village is set along a gold bearing quartz seam within a tablelands landscape of rolling hills, accentuating the feelings of peaceful isolation. From the hectic goldrush era and subsequent years of decline, to the period of NPWS intervention, the village, buildings, vacant sites and gardens continue to reflect the social and economic forces which continue its survival (NPWS, 1988: 13)
Date significance updated: 08 May 02
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Branch intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: Various
Builder/Maker: Various
Construction years: 1851-
Physical description: Hill End Historic Site is situated approximately 300km north-west of Sydney and 80km north of Bathurst. It lies mostly within Evans Shire near its northern boundary with Mudgee Shire.

The historic site consists of approximately 130ha of land within the village of Hill End, including two outlying areas of land: Valentine's Mine and the Roasting Pits.

Hill End Historic Site [3902007] contains the following elements: English Group, Bennett House, District Hospital, Jeffree/Warry House, Craigmoor, Murray House, CWA House, Royal Hall, Royal Hotel, General Store, General Store Sheds, Piesley House, Bakehouse, Rose Cottage, Rectory buildings, Heap/Adler House, Woolard House, Krohmann-Ackerman Cottage, Northey's Store, Lyle House, Risby House, Hosie's House, Telegram Office, Hocking House, Holtermann's House, Beyer House, Mobb House, Great Western Store, Fry's Hut, Bryant's Butchery, Assay Office, Haefliger House, Post Office, Bleak House, Fairfax House, Denman House, Denman House shed, Catholic Church, the Manse, Carver House, Bald Hill Mine, Pullen's Battery, Chappell's Battery , Quartz Roasting Pits and Valentine's Mine.

The Valentine Mine comprises a series of shafts, a large tailings dump, trolley way, boiler block, battery house, ten head battery, explosives shed, battery sand flow, cyanide tanks, water tank stand, blacksmiths shop, managers residence, horse paddock and large dam. There are also building mounds and a rubbish dump.

The Quartz Roasting Pits are located approximately 10 km north of Hill End and comprises a pair of inverted bell shaped kilns, a battery building, a dam and the remains of two houses. It represents one of the oldest surviving gold extraction sites surviving in Australia.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical Condition and Archaeological Potential vary.
Date condition updated:02 Oct 97
Modifications and dates: Modification dates vary.
Current use: Township
Former use: Gold rush town

History

Historical notes: Prior to c. 1820, when the country around Hill End was settled by pastoralists such as Suttor and Cummings who ran sheep and cattle, it was the home of the Wiradjuri people.

Payable gold was discovered in the Tambaroora and Hill End goldfields by mid 1851, following discoveries in the region in previous months. Shortly afterwards the population exploded and, for a while, the area exceeded the Victorian fields in size and prosperity. Early efforts were focussed on alluvial gold and the towns of Hill End and Tambaroora grew up around the creeks and dams worked for that purpose. In 1859, with the imposition of an urban plan for Hill End, the town grew in a more orderly fashion and by the height of the second, larger rush in 1872, it was the largest inland settlement in the colony of New South Wales. In the latter part of the century, however, the population dwindled with the exhaustion of the major reefs in the area. Today the population stands at about one hundred and twenty, a stark contrast from the estimated 8,000 during its peak.

The discovery of alluvial gold, readily recoverable from the clay beds of creeks and dams, brought large numbers of individual, inexperienced prospectors to the Tambaroora area. The inexpensive and often simplistic equipment needed to extract the gold was well suited to both the skills and capital such individuals possessed. A good living could be made by the self-employed miner. This ensured an ever-changing stream of immigrants and locals moving in and out of the goldfields from the cities. Few miners remained to settle in the areas where they made their fortune, a tendency indicated by the small percentage of families present on many of the major fields and the sharp falls in population during times of drought or when the gold supply itself began to run out . By the late 1860s reef exploitation had emerged as the most popular and profitable method of mining, acting as the catalyst for the second, larger gold rush of the 1870s, when Hill End reached its peak in size and prosperity. (NPWS 1997: 13-15)

Public interest in Hill End resumed in the 1940s due largely to the work of several artists including Donald Friend and Russell Drysdale. The discovery in the 1950s of hundreds of photographic plates depicting scenes and buildings in the Hill End in the early 1870s captured by Beufoy Merlin, further boosted interest along with the extensive Holtermann photographic collection. The town was gazetted as an historic site under the National Parks and Wildlife Act in 1967.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Segregating people on the basis of ethnicity-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Cornish mining practises-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing German settlements-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing Greek settlements-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing Chinese settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Mining-Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances. Miners' accommodation and living conditions-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Mining-Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances. Mining for gold-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular towns serving a specific industry-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Hill End is of outstanding historical value. It retains significant physical evidence of its history in its groups of early timber, earth and brick buildings within settings of remnant garden and orchard plantings. Surrounding the village core is an historic landscape full of the evidence of mining activity. The fabric of the village has been relatively undisturbed since the turn of the century. (NPWS 1988:11)
The township and surrounding goldfields were the site of the first reef mining in Australia.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Hill End's elevated setting above the Turon Valley, combined with its ensemble of 19th century buildings and ruins, presents an environment of contained, peaceful isolation. Many landforms and features remain the same as they were when the gold rushes ceased and are all evocative of the frenzied activity and excitement of the rush period. Remnants of the gardens, orchards, and street plantings have survived and matured to picturesquely complement the remaining structures of the village. This combination of picket fences, ruins, surviving buildings etc., has been of continuing inspiration to many noted Australian artists. Many of the buildings contain original interior finishes, furnishings and artefacts which are of outstanding importance and together comprise a collection with few rivals. Other structures are of interest for the way in which they show the evolution in building conservation practice and philosophy in New South Wales (NPWS 1988: 11).
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Hill End is a dynamic, living entity. The history of the village and its current interpretation and management are of particular significance to the present Hill End community, many of whom proudly trace their ancestry to the original miners and villagers.

As social documents, the buildings, individually and collectively, reveal the life of the town. The often original interiors, artefacts and gardens suggest the daily life and aspirations of their inhabitants (NPWS 1988: 12).
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Hill End is a site of extraordinary scientific value to research in such fields as historical archaeology, architectural history, landscape history, social and engineering history. Virtually every site from Tambaroora in the north to Hawkins Hill in the south can yield valuable scientific information, in particular the evolution of mining techniques and building styles. The site provides a remarkable recreational, interpretative and educational resource for present and future generations. (NPWS 1988: 12).
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Hill End Historic Site is extremely rare in its historic, technical and aesthetic significance.
Integrity/Intactness: Many of the sturctures retain their original fabric and are in good condition. The archaeological resource is excellent.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementProduce an Archaeological Management Plan (AMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementDocument and prepare an archival record 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCraigmoor-Marshall House CMP CMP is for an element (Craigmoor) of the whole item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 4 February 2000 for a period of five years, expires 4 February 2005. Feb 4 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementEnglish Cottage CMP CMP is for an element (English Cottage) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 21 November 2000 for a period of five years, expires 21 November 2005. Nov 21 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementHoltermann's Corner Buildings CMP This CMP is for an element (Holtermann's Cnr Bld) of the item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 5 June 2002 for a period of five years, expires 5 June 2007. Jun 5 2002
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementDenman's Cottage CMP This CMP is for an element (Denmans Cottage) of the whole item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 5 June 2002 for a period of five years, expires 5 June 2007. Jun 5 2002
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementAthol CMP CMP is for an element (Athol) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 27 June 2003 for a period of five years, expires 27 June 2008. Jun 27 2003
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementGeneral Store and Bakery CMP Hill End Historic Site CMP is for an element (General Store & Bakery) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 27 June 2003 for a period of five years, expires 27 June 2008. Jun 27 2003
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentSubmission of Hill End Conservation Management Plan (August 2012) by NPWS for endorsement by Heritage Council. Oct 8 2012
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementHill End Historic Site Conservation Management Plan dated November 2012 submitted by Office of Environment & Heritage (National Parks) to the Heritage Council for endorsement. Dec 5 2012

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage RegisterHill End historic site0099302 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
National Parks and Wildlife Register  01 Jan 67   
Potential Heritage ItemA 24 Apr 02   
National Trust of Australia register Hill End Urban Conservation Area290531 May 76   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
National Parks & Wildlife Service Section 170 Register  National Parks & Wildlife Service  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAllan Mayne2006Hill End: An Historic Australian Goldfields Landscape
WrittenDamaris Bairstow1999Hill End historic site : historical archaeological survey
WrittenDonald Friend Hillendiana
WrittenGavin Wilson The Artists of Hill End
WrittenGraham Brooks and Associates.;Rodney Jensen and Associates;Taylor Brammer Landscape Architects2003 NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.; Hill End Historic Site: Draft Master Plan for public exhibition, September 2003
WrittenHarry Hodge1986Hill End story: a history of the Hill End-Tambaroora Goldfield. Book 1
WrittenLester Tropman & Associates Pty Ltd & Craig Burton1991Hill End historic landscapes and gardens study
TourismNational Parks and Wildlife Service2006Hill End Visitor Information View detail
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1997Quartz Roasting Pits Complex: Conservation and Interpretation Plan
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1988Hill End historic site : draft plan of management
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1985Hill End Historic Site: Draft Plan of Management
WrittenRobert A. Moore Pty Ltd and Penelope Pike1990Draft development control plan for Hill End
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Cross' Property Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Holman's Orchard, Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Wilard's Orchard, Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
TourismTourism NSW2007Hill End View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Hill End Holiday Ranch View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Royal Hotel Hill End View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Hill End Bed and Breakfast View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Cooke's Cottage at Hill End View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051460
File number: H00/00096, H00/00349


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