Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate

Item details

Name of item: Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate
Other name/s: The Castle, Mount Oriel
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Farm
Location: Lat: -34.0762184971 Long: 148.3581246630
Primary address: Iandra Road, Greenethorpe, NSW 2809
Parish: Iandra
County: Monteagle
Local govt. area: Weddin
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Cowra
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT5 DP114097
PART LOTA DP180030
LOTB DP180030
LOT1 DP180619
LOT1 DP405482
LOT1 DP936665
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Iandra RoadGreenethorpeWeddinIandraMonteaglePrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 General 

Statement of significance:

The Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate, originally established by George Henry Greene from 1878-1911, is of outstanding significance as arguably the largest and most progressive wheat property and wheat farming enterprise of its time in Australia. The vast estate of approximately 3,000 acres (1215 ha) comprises a magnificent Federation homestead, park-like gardens, original workers cottages, managers residence, blacksmith, chapel and cemetery, wool and hay sheds, silo, other outbuildings, associated structures, and surrounding farmland.

It was at Iandra that its owner, George Henry Greene, pioneered share-farming in 1892, which revolutionised the approach to wheat growing in Australia. Iandra was also at the forefront of wheat growing technology in the nation. The Iandra enterprise produced the largest yield of wheat at the time from a single property soon after the turn of the century. The harvest of this yield saw a concentration of labour forces of 500-600 men, a scale not previously witnessed in rural NSW.

In its scale, grandeur, planning, farmlands, gardens and collection of purpose-related buildings, the vast pastoral estate of Iandra provides valuable and rare evidence of the advancements, operation, prosperity and importance of wheat growing in Australia's development during the early 1900s.

The estate is closely associated with the life, empire and enterprises of George Henry Greene, a prominent and leading figure in rural affairs in Australia and NSW during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Greene served terms as the MP for Grenfell, then as a Member of the Legislative Council. He also obtained the rail link for Grenfell. Greene died in 1911 and was buried at Iandra.

Iandra also represents a rare example of a complete feudal-like estate established in Australia, modelled on the English Manor system, during the Federation period, which may have no equal in NSW or Australia. All elements of the estate date from the Federation period and were constructed for the Iandra homestead owner, centred around the Iandra homestead and wheat production, including the adjoining Greenethorpe village built by Greene for his tenants. The integrity and condition of the complex as a whole is exceptionally high, which can be largely attributed to its faithful restoration by David Morris from the 1970s. The manor house itself is a landmark and remarkable example of the Federation Romanesque style illustrating the work of English architects in Australia and, together with other buildings on the estate, is an exceptional example of early reinforced concrete construction.

Iandra also remains one of few tangible places that embody the iconic, optimistic image of Australia as "the lucky country", which can still be appreciated in the surviving, grand, Edwardian estate, where a European immigrant bought undeveloped land in the middle of rural NSW, created his own replica European empire and made himself "Lord of the Manor" out of little except his own ambition, vision, enterprise, determination and the riches of the land.

(HO and Giovanelli 2004)
Date significance updated: 19 Jan 05
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: un-named English architect; Edward G Stone, in association with Mrs Ellen Greene, the owner's wife
Builder/Maker: Edward G Stone
Construction years: 1880-1910
Physical description: The Iandra estate of approximately 3,000 acres (1215ha) comprises of land of approximately 835 acres (340ha):
*the main homestead;
*the stables and electrical generating plant;
*manager's residence;
*surrounding garden/park setting;
*chapel and cemetery;
*blacksmith's shop;
*hay shed;
*stallion shed;
*accountant's cottage;
*workers' cottage;
*water filter in dam;
*water tower and;
*woolshed;
*surrounding farmland, originally in 640 acre share-farms.

FARM SETTING:
approximately 3000 acres (1215ha) comprises of land of approximately 835 acres (340ha) of cropping and grazing land, within which sits the main dwelling, stables, barns and yards group.

SURROUNDING GARDEN / PARKLAND:
The homestead group (stables, barns, yards, manager's residence, house and garden) sit on a rise with panoramic views of the entire district. Around the complex are shelter belts of pepper(corn) trees (Schinus molle).

The entry gates (iron, curlicued shaped panels) are flanked by white picket fencing. A long gravel drive approaches the house from Iandra Road from the gates at the north-eastern corner of the garden/parkland and ending in a parking area to the house's east. A driveway continues east/south-east of the house to the stables/garage. The main drive is lined with a double avenue of kurrajong (Brachychiton populneum) and bottlebrush (Callistemon spp.) trees and shrubs. A wide lawn fronts the northern (main/front) facade of the house. A smaller lawn area adjoins to the eastern, southern and western sides. The southern side is also marked by a paved courtyard between wings of the house and a rear driveway to the stables /garage block and yards beyond, further south.

A side gate further south on Iandra Road connects through an avenue of Persian lilac bushes (see below) to the rear of the house and service yard, stables/garage etc.

Another gate further south on Iandra Road leads into the Manager's residence.

Another gate further south and uphill on Iandra Road leads to the Chapel and cemetery (Stuart Read, pers.comm. visit, 26/9/10).

The oldest remains of the Greene-era garden are the numerous groves of monumentally scaled Moreton Bay fig trees (Ficus macrophylla) east, north and north-east of the house, various mature eucalypt trees (E.spp.), a cactus hedge (Aloe arborescens & Notocactus sp.) running along Iandra Road to the east, an avenue of Persian lilac bushes (Syringa persica cv.) between the house's south-eastern wing and a side gate to Iandra Road and some shrubs near the existing and new toilet block to the house's south-west - running along the line of a former airfield in this area.

The present owner opens the homestead on designated weekends and maintain the garden beautifully. The owner cares for the garden and despite the severe drought conditions, has created a very picturesque surrounding area to complement the homestead. In spring the garden features clumps of purple iris, star-of-the veldt (Dimorphotheca / Osteospermum sp.), daffodils (Narcissus cv.s), roses (Rosa cv.s) and lemon trees (Citrus x limon)(Garden Clubs of Australia, 2008, 23; botanical names added by Stuart Read, 25/3/09)).

A large white cedar (Melia azederach var.australasica) edges the top grassed terrace before (north of) the house. Beds of roses lie between it and the lawn and house.

A scattering of pepper(corn) trees lie south-east and east of the house, concentrating into a row along Iandra Road, under which the cactus hedge (see below) is interplanted (Stuart Read pers.comm.(visit), 26/9/2010)

An orchard and shrubbery area to the house's south-east separates it from the manager's homestead. This is marked with Canary Island pine trees (Pinus canariensis), pepper(corn) trees (Schinus molle) and other shrubs and trees, including some fruit trees.

A fence was built around the grounds by Greene's son, Captain W C Greene.

MAIN DWELLING:
Iandra homestead is a distinctive and idiosyncratic example of the Federation Romanesque architectural style with Tudor influences, sometimes referred to as "The Castle", reflecting its dramatic design and situation, and its feudal-like role in the history of the area and community. The Manor-like residence was designed by an unknown English architect, and is an exceptional example of reinforced concrete construction.

Built in 1908-c 1910, incorporating the earlier 1880 homestead, the manor house has a front wing of reinforced concrete, the external walls being hollow and the internal walls solid (this early use of reinforced concrete is a significant aspect of Iandra's importance). There are fifty-seven rooms and the house cost an estimated 63,000 pounds. It is a two-storey house (plus attic) and the concrete on the exterior has been rendered to resemble sandstone. At the rear, two storey wings (with half timbering to the gables) form a courtyard. To each end of the facade are double storey bow windows with multiple small panes, and these bows are surmounted by gables.

Part of the works on Iandra were carried out/supervised by one Edward Giles Stone. Construction was completed in 1910. Mr. Stone is located at 11 Moore St, Sydney at the time. I am reasonably sure that Edward Stone's father John worked on this project as well. He was located in Challis House, Sydney (John Gibson, pers.comm., 12/12/2010).

The ground floor of the facade is arcaded as is the upper floor, although the latter has flat arches and paired columns. In the centre is a portico with crenellations, above which (on the first floor) is a granite arch. Rising from this is a square tower, which has slit windows. On one corner of the top of this tower is an asymmetrically placed octagonal turret which is also crenellated. This forms a major feature of Iandra and is complemented by the numerous, tall, Medieval looking chimneys. On either side of the tower is a dormer. A crenellated parapet runs down at least one side of the house. The hipped roof is clad with asbestos cement shingles. Copper is apparently the material used for the guttering and ridge capping. On one corner of the house is another tower with a candle snuffer roof.

Iandra's interior reflects a number of Federation era or Edwardian characteristics, including large areas of timber wall panelling. The carved stairway and foyer panels are of oak, and the dining room panels are of Queensland black bean ((Castanospermum australe (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/10, botanical names added by Stuart Read, 27/3/09).

Art Nouveau stained and leaded glass windows adorn every room. Each window is different and most feature a
flower. These are of a very high quality and definitely by a craftsman, but alas as yet unknown and not recorded (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 10/12/2010).

Early telephone and electrical systems were fitted in the house. There are the remnants of the former garden and a number of mature trees. The house is well sited and is a landmark, being visible for quite some distance.

STABLES AND ELECTRICAL GENERATING PLANT:
This shares many of the characteristics of the main house. It is built (like the house) of reinforced concrete rendered to resemble sandstone. It consists of four wings forming an open courtyard in the centre. There are prominent gables at the ends of the main facade, and the roof projects beyond the wall at each of the gables and each has a group of three vertical, narrow vents or decorative recesses. Single storey, the building has attic rooms which are the workers' accommodation. Attic walls are lath and plaster.

As well as containing stables, the building also has a foaling room, garage, workshops and storerooms. The major feature is the central entranceway in the main facade. The slightly arched entrance at ground level allows access to the inner courtyard, and then above is an upper floor, boldly square in its dimensions; there is a projecting label mould just above the arch of the entrance. On the top of this upper floor is a crenellated parapet and a pyramidal roof. All the roofing is clad with asbestos cement shingles and some rafters are exposed. Fenestration is a mixture of small paned and large paned windows. Chimneys are similar to those on the house in being tall, narrow and rather Medieval in appearance.

MANAGER'S RESIDENCE:
This was designed by the same architect who designed the house and it complements it well. The building is Federation Queen Anne style and is single storey (with attic rooms) and built of brick. The hipped roof has a number of protruding gables which are, characteristically for the style, half timbered; the roof extends beyond the gable ends in each case. There is also a dormer. Clad with asbestos cement shingles the roof continues, in slightly broken back form, out over the generous verandahs. As is usual for the style, the fenestration is well scaled and some windows have smaller panes to their upper sashes. Chimneys are tall and narrow (Giovanelli, 2004).

CHAPEL AND CEMETERY:
The chapel further south of the homestead and yards (uphill on Iandra Road) is a reminder of the share farming activities on Iandra and the role of wealthy pastoralists in establishing churches in rural areas during the nineteenth century. Built in Gothic style in 1886 of sandstone with brick surrounds to its openings (and typically for a chapel in this style), it has a gabled, steeply pitched roof, clad in corrugated iron. Rising from one end of the roof is a fleche. There is an apse and a projecting entrance porch. Windows are pointed arch type, and there is a triple window in the apse wall.

The cemetery has several graves, including that of George Greene and, more recently, David Morris, who purchased the property circa 1975 and implemented a major restoration program (Giovanelli, 2004).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The buildings remain in largely original condition. (Giovanelli 2004)

Condition of the various buildings varies but overall condition is good. The castle generally is in very good condition having benefited from many years of concentrated restoration. The main problem is water ingress through the flat roofs on the corner towers, and three chimneys have been demolished. In the stables a section of ceiling is decaying. The electrical generating plant was removed from the building long ago, however parts have since been retrieved and brought back on site. The manager's residence is sound and currently occupied. The garden/park setting is well maintained. The church walls have substantial structural cracks. The cemetery surrounds are maintained. The blacksmiths shop is in good original condition as are the hay shed and stallion shed. The accountant's and workers' cottages are in fair condition only, but are being stabilised. The water filter in the dam is sound, and the water tower is still in use. The woolshed was not assessed. (Giovanelli 2004)
Date condition updated:24 Aug 04
Modifications and dates: 1878: 32,000 acre estate purchased by George Greene and established as generally 640 acre share-farms.
1880: Mt Oriel, a single storey brick home was constructed for Greene on Parish Portion 49 of 640 acres.
1895-98 Greene obtained a rail link to Grenfell
1908 Greene began the construction of a village at Iandra rail siding
1908-1910: The Castle constructed, incorporating the 1880 building. Manager's residence and stables constructed.
1911 50 share farmers had been established on 18,000 acres, generally on share farms of 640 acres each
1911 60 sharefarmers on the original 32,000 acres.
From c1914, the Greene empire was broken-up for the first time and in the majority of cases the share farmers were given the option of buying the land they had been farming, generally 640 acres blocks.

1927 Iandra and 2,500 acres purchased by estate manager I'Anson
1956 homestead and 800 acres transferred to the Methodist Church for use as a home for first-time male offenders, a dairy and intensive poultry programme. 1200 acres on the eastern side of the road, plus 17 acres adjoining the homestead including the coachman's house, silo and water tank and several sheds were transferred to Keith I'Anson.
c1960s As part of the Church's use of the site for a detention home, a toilet block was constructed at the rear (west) of the main homestead, attached to a brick garden wall (Jackson-Stepowski, 2009, 4).

1974 and 1976 both parts of the estate were transferred to David Morris in a very poor state of repair. The homestead was faithfully restored by David Morris. The estate comprises 3000 acres (1815 hectares).

2007-9: grant funding (2 separate grants) to prepare a conservation management plan for the homestead, and for conservation works to the homestead and gardens, Stallion Shed, Blacksmiths Shop, Hayshed, Accountants Cottage, Gardeners Cottage, Blade Shearing Shed.

2009: new toilet block erected to south-west of homestead, alongside existing toilet block.
Current use: Residence, occasional function centre and open house, working farmland.
Former use: As above, and a Methodist Boys home 1956-1974

History

Historical notes: The land on which Iandra stands was first taken up for pastoral purposes in 1833 by John Wood as part of his Brundah Station. Later the eastern part of Brundah was acquired by W R Watt and subsequently by J A Mackinnon.

George Henry Greene was born in Ireland in 1838 and emigrated to the colony from Ireland in 1842 at the age of 4 with his father William Pomeroy Greene and the entire family (His father William chartered a ship to emigrate and brought out family servants such as chauffeur, cook, maids, their families, his personal library, a pre-fabricated house and much more. William Greene's grandfather was in the English diplomatic corps and had served in India. William Greene had been in the Royal Navy and served on St.Helena where Napoleon Bonaparte was kept on house arrest. It was here that he had caught a 'fever' (probably tuberculosis) and was retired from the Navy. He then acted as Agent (effectively estate manager) to Lord Oriel's estate in Ireland. Lord Oriel was the last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. Greene's doctor recommended that he move to a more warm, amenable climate (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/10).

George spent his youth with his family at Woodlands near Bulla, north of Melbourne (Lennon, 2003). After he married (Ellen Crawford, the daughter of an Indian Army Officer (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/10) he sold his land interest and returned to England.

In 1878 George Greene returned to Australia and bought 32,000 acres near Grenfell, NSW from Mackinnon, which he called Mount Oriel (Greene named it after the estate of Lord Oriel in Ireland which his father had been Agent (manager) for prior to emigrating to Australia (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/10). It was later renamed Iandra)(Garden Clubs of Australia, 2008, 23). This vast estate encompassed the majority of the Parish which was to derive its name from this estate, that is, the Iandra Parish. In 1880 Greene had a brick dwelling built using bricks made on the property, the original Mount Oriel single storey homestead. This was sited on Portion 49 of the Iandra Parish of 640 acres.

The purchase in 1878 by Greene represented the beginning of a new era for the area and the nation's wheat industry. Iandra became the largest and most progressive wheat property in Australia. Here George Greene pioneered his vast share-farming enterprise in 1892 that revolutionised the approach to wheat growing, whereby he supplied the land and seed and the share farmer provided the labour. By 1911, fifty share farmers had been established on 18,000 acres, generally on share farms of 640 acres each, extending across the Parish of Iandra.

The property was also at the forefront of wheat growing technology in Australia. Greene increased production by scientific use of superphosphate fertiliser, rotation between grazing and wheat fallowing. Iandra was used as the first large scale trial of Federation "rust proof" wheat developed by James Farrer, and Greene was the first to grow the wheat commercially. Greene was also one of the first in NSW to fully fence his property with rabbit proof netting.

An ambitious scheme of land clearing, fencing and building ensued that was so successful that, before the turn of the (20th) century, the homestead and its extensive outbuildings and handsome small Gothic stone church became a showpiece which attracted flocks of visitors. (Garden Clubs of Australia, 2008, 23). Some forty houses were built on the estate for share farmers.

Greene as a State Politician and through his connections with Lord Northcott, NSW Governor (Northcott visited Iandra in 1908 and stayed) was instrumental in securing a branch rail line from Koonawatha to Grenfell and then to Greenethorpe/Iandra. This allowed ready access and export of grain and of goods, effectively opening up the district's production and potential. This was part of railway engineer J.J.C.Bradfield's programme of branch line expansion in NSW (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/10).

Soon after the turn of the century, Iandra had produced the largest ever yield of wheat from a single property of 100,000 bags of wheat. The harvest saw a concentration of labour forces of a scale not previously witnessed in rural NSW. Five to six hundred men were engaged in various aspects of the operation. As a social enterprise, share farming at Iandra appears to have benefited workers and management alike.

In 1908 Greene began the construction of a village around the Iandra rail siding to house and improve the living conditions of his tenant farmers. This village was named Greenethorpe after its pioneer. Greenethorpe Village was based on the English manor system where a number of tenant farms were based around a single manor, in this instance the Iandra homestead. A church was built here and Greene discouraged but failed to prevent the eventual construction of a public house in the village (ibid, 2010).

George Henry Greene's son, WIlliam Pomeroy Croawford Greene registered a coat of arms in 1908 with the Ulster King of Arms in Dublin. This coat of arms had been "borne and used by his family" for some time and can be described as on a blue shield three golden stags inside a gold border. Above the shield emerging from a gold coronet the head of a
stag also gold, marked with a green shamrock on the neck. Motto "Nec timeo nec sperno" (Stephen Michael Szabo, Heraldic Consultant, pers.comm., 14/12/2010).

In 1908-1910 Green constructed the present 57-room two storey homestead, incorporating the original 1880 dwelling (all that appears to remain is one brick wall (Sue Jackson-Stepowski, pers.comm., 26/9/2010). It took full advantage of its elevated setting with wide district views. The Federation Romanesque homestead was a large, idiosyncratic castle-like building constructed of reinforced concrete, and became known as The Castle. The new house was designed by an English architect with influence from Greene's wife, Ellen and built by engineer Edward G Stone. Interior panelling was of oak (Quercus sp.) and the dining room of Queensland black walnut (Castanospermum australe). A fence was built around the grounds by Greene's son, Captain W (William).C.Greene.

At the same time, the Manager's residence and stables were also constructed, reportedly to the design of the same architect. A church was also constructed on the property to the south, uphill, during Greene's ownership (in 1886). George Greene, his wife (d.1921) and their two sons (William in 1959) were (eventually) all buried in the cemetery here.

Greene played a prominent role in rural affairs and was a member of the Young Pastures and Stock Protection Board 1881-84, being its chairman from 1885 to 1888. In 1890 he became a foundation member of the Pastoralists Union of New South Wales. Greene was the Legislative Assembly Member for Grenfell in 1889-91, 1894 and 1895-98, during which time he was able to obtain a rail link to Grenfell. In 1899 he became a Member of the Legislative Council. Greene died in 1911 and was buried at Iandra. When his widow, Ellen Greene returned to England, the property was managed by L N I'Anson.

By 1911 the estate consisted of 60 sharefarmers on the original 32,000 acres.

From c1914, the Greene family moved back to England and their empire was broken-up for the first time by George's Cambridge-educated son and in the majority of cases the share farmers were given the option of buying the land they had been farming, generally 640 acres blocks.

In 1927, following the death of Ellen Greene, Iandra and 2,500 acres were purchased by the estate manager since 1911, Leonard Nourse I'Anson. I'Anson (1925-1949) first settled at Iandra in 1906, when he discovered the area while resting the wagonette horses at Cowra, when moving from South Australia to Victoria. Family accounts report that after riding round the district that night I'Anson said to the others "If this country can grow trees this size, I'm not going any further." This began a 70 year association of multiple generations of the I'Anson family with the Iandra estate over most of the 20th Century. The I'Anson family owned Iandra until 1956, and his grandson, Keith I'Anson (b.1925), continued to own part of the estate until 1976 (Keith I'Anson, 2004).

The homestead and estate during the ownership of Henry Greene and the I'Anson family played a major role in not only the establishment of the village and community, but in the social life of the community. The property was said to have generally deteriorated after the death of Leonard I'Anson in 1949 when it was managed by his sons who also had other properties to manage (Keith I'Anson, 2004).

In 1956 the homestead and 800 acres of the farmland were transferred to the Methodist Church for 10,000 pounds for use as a home for first-time male offenders from the city, as well as a dairy and an intensive poultry programme. A managerial council was formed to oversee administration of the home, comprising Greenethorpe locals from the strong Methodist community and church representatives (Keith L'Anson, 2004).

1200 acres of the estate on the eastern side of the road, plus 17 acres adjoining the homestead including the coachman's house, silo and water tank and several sheds were transferred to Keith I'Anson.

As part of the Church's use of the site for a detention home, a c1960s toilet block was constructed at the rear (west) of the main homestead, attached to a brick garden wall (Jackson-Stepowski, 2009, 4). The Methodist Boys Home use continued until 1974.

In 1974 and 1976 both parts of the estate were transferred to David Morris of Rylstone, a civil engineer and owner of RS Morris. At one time it was in a very poor state of repair. The homestead was faithfully restored by David Morris.

The widow of Mr Morris continues to live in the house today, and the property continues to operate as a working farm. The estate now comprises approximately 3,000 acres (1215ha) of the original 32,000 acre Greene estate.

The present owners of the property open the homestead on designated weekends throughout the year when it is possible to wander through the beautifully maintained gardens. The owner's wife cares for the garden and despite the severe drought conditions, has created a very picturesque surrounding area to complement the homestead. In spring the garden features clumps of purple iris, daffodils, roses and lemon trees (Garden Clubs of Australia, 2008, 23).

2007-9: grant funding (2 separate grants) to prepare a conservation management plan for the homestead, and for conservation works to the homestead and gardens, Stallion Shed, Blacksmiths Shop, Hayshed, Accountants Cottage, Gardeners Cottage, Blade Shearing Shed.

2009: new toilet block erected to south-west of homestead, alongside existing toilet block.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. English rural building practises-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Irish migrants-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Attempting to transplant European farming practices to Australian environments-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Poultry production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Sharefarming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Dairy farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Building and maintaining the public railway system-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - rabbit proof fencing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing and operating manorial villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planned towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing private towns-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Railways to inland settlements-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Servants quarters-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently at mining-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in a co-operative labour settlement-
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations Rehabilitation of juvenile offenders-
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations Rehabilitation of first time male offenders-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Romanesque Revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Queen Anne-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Private Chapel open for community use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Methodism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Joining together to study and appreciate local history-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with George Henry Greene MP, MLC, prominent, innovative wheat farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Farrer, pioneer wheat breeder-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate is of outstanding significance as arguably the largest and most progressive wheat property and wheat farming enterprise in Australia of its time.

It was at Iandra that the owner, George Henry Greene, pioneered share-farming, which revolutionised the approach to wheat growing in the nation. Greene introduced the innovative share-farming system in 1892 where he supplied the land and seed and the share farmer provided the labour. Amongst other technological advancements, the first large scale trial of Federation "rust proof" wheat developed by James Farrer occurred at Iandra, and Greene was the first to grow the wheat commercially.

Soon after the turn of the century, Iandra had produced the largest yield of wheat at the time from a single property (100,000 bags of wheat), and the harvest saw a concentration of labour forces of 500-600 men, a scale not previously witnessed in rural NSW.

In its scale, grandeur, planning, farmlands, gardens and collection of purpose-related buildings, the complete pastoral estate of Iandra Homestead provides valuable and rare evidence of the advancements, operation, prosperity and importance of wheat growing in Australia's development during the early 1900s.

Together with the closely associated Greenethorpe village, Iandra also represents a rare example of a complete feudal-like estate established in Australia during the Federation period, based on the English manor system. During the same period he extended Iandra homestead, Greene established and constructed Greenethorpe village in 1908 based on this English manor system, where the village was constructed to house the tenant farmers and the tenant farms were laid out based around the single manor of Iandra. The Iandra homestead and grounds, its farmland, associated residences and outbuildings, and Greenthorpe village all date from the Edwardian period and are entirely centred around a single landowner, homestead and wheat farming, the likes of which may not exist elsewhere in the state or nation.

Iandra also remains one of few tangible places that embody the iconic, optimistic image of Australia as "the lucky country", which can still be appreciated in the surviving, grand, Edwardian estate, where a European immigrant bought undeveloped land in the middle of rural NSW, created his own replica European empire and made himself "Lord of the Manor" out of little except his own ambition, vision, enterprise, determination and the riches of the land.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The entire Estate of Iandra and Greenthorpe Village are closely associated with George Henry Greene, a prominent and leading figure in rural affairs in Australia and NSW, from 1878 until his death in 1911.

Greene was a member of the Young Pastures and Stock Protection Board 1881-84, being its chairman from 1885 to 1888, and in 1890 became a foundation member of the Pastoralists Union of New South Wales. Greene was the Legislative Assembly Member for Grenfell in 1889-91, 1894 and 1895-98, during which time he was able to obtain a rail link to Grenfell. In 1899 he became a Member of the Legislative Council.

The Estate and Village demonstrate and embody the seat of his power, as well as his extraordinary accomplishments, innovation and pioneering vision for wheat farming in Australia, as he entirely masterminded the construction and innovative operation of the Estate buildings, farming practices, and layout. Greene was also responsible for the construction of the Greenethorpe Village in 1908 to house the tenants, and named after Greene.

Greene died in 1911 and was buried at the Iandra cemetery on the Estate.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Iandra represents a fine and distinctive example of a magnificent Feudal-like manor house designed in the Federation Romanesque style, complete with its original grounds, farmlands, and other estate and farm buildings, all constructed in the Federation style and dating from the same period of c.1908-1911. The homestead incorporated an earlier 1880s homestead from the Victorian period.

The integrity and condition of the estate as a whole is exceptionally high.

The homestead also illustrates the work of English architects in Australia, and the work of the engineer Edward G Stone. The Manager's residence and stables constructed at the same time were also reportedly designed by the same architect, although the specific architect has still to be identified.

Commonly known as "The Castle", the homestead and Estate as a whole is also a landmark of the region, which is highly visible from its prominent situation near the crest of the hill.

The rural holdings of the Estate also represent a fine example of a complete cultural landscape of a share-farming enterprise, dating from the Federation period.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Iandra estate is esteemed by the community of Greenethorpe and surrounding region, as the original Manor house to the village, as the landmark of the area and region, and as the place from where the village and prosperity of the region directly originated, and which it continues to represent. As such, the estate is of considerable importance to the community sense of place at Greenethorpe.

This item was identified in two community workshops for the Central West project held at Forbes and Lithgow to identify items of significance to the people of NSW, which is a further indicator of the esteem in which the property is held by the broader contemporary community.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The complete estate is an important historic reference site of the highly successful wheat farming properties and operations in Australia from the Federation period.

It also has potential to yield rare information of the adaptation of the English Manor Feudal-like system in Australia.

The homestead, together with other buildings within the estate are also exceptional examples of the early use of reinforced concrete construction.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate is rare in Australia as the largest and most progressive wheat property and wheat farming enterprise in Australia of its time, which has survived with a remarkably high degree of integrity.

It is also a rare as the first example of the innovative and highly successful share-farming system in Australia, dating from 1892.

Iandra, and the closely associated Greenethorpe village, are a rare example of a complete feudal-like estate established in Australia during the Federation period, based on the English manor system. The homestead and grounds, its farmland, associated residences and outbuildings, and Greenthorpe village all date from the Edwardian period and are entirely centred around a single landowner, homestead and wheat farming, the likes of which may not exist elsewhere in the state or nation.

In its distinctive scale, grandeur, planning, farmlands, gardens and collection of purpose-related buildings, the complete pastoral estate of Iandra Homestead provide rare evidence of the advancements, operation, prosperity and importance of wheat growing in Australia's development during the early 1900s.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Iandra Homestead Pastoral Estate represents an outstanding example of a vast wheat farming estate from the Federation period, complete with its original farmland, manor house, park-like gardens, Estate and farm buildings.

The buildings represent fine and distinctive examples of the Federation style of architecture in rural NSW.

In its entirety, the item represents an excellent example of a wheat farming cultural landscape that is distinctly associated with the pioneering of share-farming practices in Australia, as well as with the establishment of a complete Feudal-like estate and English Manor system in Australia.
Integrity/Intactness: The integrity of the complex is very high, having been faithfully restored since 1974 while continuing to operate as a fully functional farm. (Giovanelli 2004)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0172318 Feb 05 26449
National Trust of Australia register      
Register of the National Estate     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Central West Pilot Program SHRP2001 Heritage Office SHRP  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Electronic  Greenethorpe Public School's website View detail
WrittenAustralian Heritage Commission1978Register of the National Estate - Iandra Homestead group
WrittenGooch, Adele2008'Iandra - a treasure from the past'
WrittenJohn Armes and Associates2006Iandra Greenethorpe, NSW : heritage management plan
Oral HistoryKeith Leonard I'Anson (grandson of Leonard Nourse I'Anson)2004Written account of I'Anson family connection to Iandra
WrittenLangfield, Judith2004Iandra: sharing the land. The story of George Henry Greene and the Iandra Sharefarmers
WrittenLennon, Jane2003Re-engaging with the land - designed cultural landscapes
WrittenPip Giovanelli2004State Heritage Register nomination - State Heritage Inventory form

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051843
File number: H04/00271


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