Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape

Item details

Name of item: Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Natural
Category: Geological site or area
Location: Lat: -33.590002 Long: 148.883479
Primary address: , Mandurama, NSW 2797
Local govt. area: Cowra
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Cowra
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
CROWN LAND    
PART LOT1 DP110520
PART LOT281 DP1128242
PART LOT10 DP114814
PART LOT9 DP114814
PART LOT102 DP1170189
PART LOT103 DP1170189
PART LOT104 DP1170189
PART LOT105 DP1170189
PART LOT82 DP1183542
PART LOT1 DP1194422
PART LOT1 DP170590
PART LOT1 DP178636
PART LOT4 DP455248
PART LOT22 DP745991
PART LOT23 DP745991
PART LOT109 DP750369
PART LOT110 DP750369
PART LOT13 DP750369
PART LOT137 DP750369
PART LOT3 DP750369
PART LOT4 DP750369
PART LOT5 DP750369
PART LOT77 DP750369
PART LOT156 DP750386
PART LOT161 DP750386
PART LOT34 DP750386
PART LOT54 DP750386
PART LOT62 DP750395
PART LOT68 DP750395
PART LOT1 DP795356
PART LOT2 DP795356
PART LOT2 DP795356
PART LOT3 DP795356
PART LOT4 DP795356
PART LOT1 DP797976
PART LOT1 DP998772
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
 ManduramaCowra  Primary Address
 PanuaraBlayney  Alternate Address
 LyndhurstBlayney  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

The Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape, is of state significance for its importance in the geological evolution of NSW. The area provides evidence of a lithological/sedimentological sequence that contributes to the understanding of the geological evolution of eastern Australia at a time when that part of the continent was submerged in the palaeo-Pacific Ocean.

The area contains the best exposures of Late Ordovician island marine invertebrate fossil assemblages in Australia and is recognised, internationally, as an outstanding example of an Ordovician island faunal (shelly fossils) and floral (algae) assemblage. The fossil evidence is a record of rich biodiversity and includes several fossil species such as the Belubula spectacula that do not occur anywhere else in the world.

The Cliefden Caves karst system is one of the most cavernous limestone areas in New South Wales and contains 67 recorded caves with more than 120 karst features identified, including well developed caves, dolines, tufa deposits and a rare thermal spring. The caves contain numerous and diverse speleothems, including extensive arrays of helictites, large dogtooth spar crystals, rare blue speleothems and 'boxwork' ceilings in addition to more commonly found speleothems such as stalagmites, stalactites, shawls and flowstone.

The area is important for its social values, being spiritually significant to Waradjuri traditional owners who continue to visit the site for ritual purposes and cultural obligations to the land. It is also highly regarded by scientific and speleological organisations and individuals, both in Australia and internationally.

The Cliefden Caves Area is the subject of current, ongoing research in the areas of palaeontology, karst processes, climate change, geology, hydrology and archaeology. It is an outstanding resource with the potential for research in all these areas of study to contribute to an understanding of the natural history of NSW.

Skeletal remains located within the caves provide evidence of human occupation more than 6,000 years before the present day. Together with a number of carved trees in the area, they have the potential to yield information on pre-European cultural history.

Cliefden Caves is historically significant as the site of the first discovery of limestone in mainland Australia by surveyor G.W. Evans in 1815. The remnant structures known as 'Rothery's Ruins', located on Island Flat are associated with the Cliefden Estate and have the potential to yield further information on the functioning and significance of the Cliefden Estate.
Date significance updated: 06 Feb 17
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Physical description: The Cliefden Caves area in the Central Tablelands of NSW is located between the towns of Carcoar and Canowindra. The caves are situated in the Belubula River valley. Much of the valley has been cleared for cropping on the river flats and grazing on the hillsides. Steeper areas of exposed limestone retain more of their original vegetation, including large areas of the critically endangered ecological community White Box - Yellow Box - Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland.

The Belubula Valley is excavated in rocks of the Late Ordovician Period, including (in ascending order) the Walli Volcanics, Cliefden Caves Limestone, Malongulli Formation and Angullong Volcanics. The region surrounding the Cliefden Caves is an internationally significant palaeontological and geological site that records the evolution of a tropical volcanic island over an interval of about 5 million years, from the development of a fringing lagoonal and atoll to its eventual subsidence and drowning. Superimposed on this history is the relatively recent Cliefden Caves karst system.

The Ordovician limestone is particularly fossiliferous and the area has long been known nationally and internationally as having the best late Ordovician outcrops in Australia. The fossils include the world's oldest known in-situ brachiopod shell beds, some of the earliest- known rugose corals in the geological record, and (in the overlying Malongulli Formation) one of the most diverse deep-water sponge faunas ever recorded. Many genera and species of fossils are unique to the area.

Many of the fossils are found in the rocks forming Fossil Hill, comprising spectacularly exposed dipping strata spanning a period of just over one million years. Fossils have also been described from the limestone on the adjacent Dunhill Bluff and Trilobite Hill, and from the siltstones and interbedded limestones between Trilobite Hill and Coppermine Creek.

The Cliefden Caves karst system is one of the most cavernous limestone areas in New South Wales and contains over 100 recorded caves. The larger caves include Main Cave, Murder, Boonderoo, Trapdoor, Taplow Maze, Island, Transmission and Malongulli. More than 90 karst features have been identified, including well developed caves, dolines, tufa deposits and a warm (thermal) spring. The caves contain numerous and diverse speleothems, including extensive arrays of helictites, large dogtooth spar crystals, blue speleothems and 'boxwork' ceilings in addition to more commonly found speleothems such as stalagmites, stalactites, shawls and flowstone. The speleothems at Cliefden range in colour from clear through pure white, yellow orange and several rare formations of sky blue and aqua green. All the major caves are locked and gated to protect them, however speleological and scientific work is allowed under a strict permit system.

The landscape also provides evidence of a range of above-ground karst features such as karren and dolines. A thermal spring in the area is one of only three thermal springs associated with karst in NSW. Studies of the Tufa (calcite) deposits on Davis Creek have contributed to knowledge of the late Holocene period change.

The area is a microbat hotspot with 15 confirmed species and another three species possibly present. One of the caves is used as an overwintering habitat for Miniopterus schriebersii oceanensis (Eastern Bentwing Bat) and another is used as a maternity cave for Rhinolophus megaphyllus (Common Horseshoe Bat).

The site contains features associated with the historical development of the place. These include Rothery's Ruins and the Old Barite Mine.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
In common with most other karst of the Central West, the Cliefden karst has been cleared of native vegetation for grazing and cropping and suffered associated changes to groundwater. Grazing pressure and other human activity over 175 years have had profound impacts on the endemic flora of the region, especially the karst specific species and communities at Cliefden, which remain poorly conserved.

The caves system and surface exposures of the fossil beds remain intact and retain a high degree of integrity, despite increasing pressure from over-collecting of specimens.
Date condition updated:19 Sep 16

History

Historical notes: Aboriginal Occupation
The Wiradjuri language group have lived in the Lachlan River Valley including the Clifeden Caves Area on the Belubula River. Camp sites and several scarred trees in the vicinity of the site provide evidence for this. Skeletal remains found in the caves document occupation from at least 6,000 years ago, however it is likely that Aboriginal people have been living in the area for much of the 30,000 years since occupation of the Australian continent began.

Geology and the Cliefden Karst
In 1815, surveyor George Evans recorded the first discovery of limestone in Australia, along Limestone Creek, near the area now known as Cliefden. The abundance of limestone was also noted by surveyor John Oxley, in 1817. The caves were first reported in 1832. Noted scientist and explorer, James Crawford, stayed at Cliefden for several days in 1877. He describes seeing large outcrops of limestone, fossils, a hot spring and visiting the Old Belubula copper mine.

Surveyor and leading speleologist Oliver Trickett and J. C. Wiburd, caretaker of Jenolan Caves, visited Fossil Hill and several of the caves in 1908. They described how many of the cave formations had been soiled by visitors' hands. Trickett also mentions the warm spring in his 1908 'Annual Report of the Department of Mines' and describes it discharging 10,000 gallons of water per hour, at 840 F (28.90 C).

In August 1932, 1000 specimens of cave formations were removed from the lower level of Cliefden Main Cave by the Australian Museum for the purpose of creating a cave exhibit in the museum. The material collected proved to be insufficient and a further 1000 specimens were collected in April 1934.

In 1950 the fossils within and above the limestone outcrop were identified as Ordovician in origin. They had previously been believed to be of Silurian age.

By the 1950s, the Cliefden caves had become popular with speleological groups. Main Cave was gated in 1958. Following some problems with visitors to the caves, the property owner, Bruce Dunhill, asked the recently formed Orange Speleological Society (OSS) to instigate a system to control access to the caves. OSS continues to co-ordinate access to the caves and to advise owners on the management and protection.

Settlement of Cliefden
In 1832, much of the land that encompasses the Cliefden karst was granted to the brothers William M. Rothery and Frederick J. Rothery. William called his property 'Cliefden' and Frederick called his 'Cliefden Springs'. William M. Rothery established the Cliefden Estate to produce wool and wool stock breeding. He added to the estate the properties granted to his brother as well as making further acquisitions, developing Cliefden to a 10,000 hectare sheep station and horse stud.

William Rothery started building the Cliefden homestead around 1832-4 and extended it in a number of phases during 1837-1840s. The homestead was famously raided by the Ben Hall gang in 1863.

The property was sold in 1919, to land developer Edward Montgomery Perrot. Henry Rothery, one of William Rothery's six sons, purchased back from Perrot the portion of land which included the Cliefden homestead. The homestead remains in the Rothery family and is currently owned by a great great grandson of William Rothery.

Perrot subdivided the remainder of the Cliefden Estate and offered it for sale in November 1919. William Alfred Dunhill purchased the land south of the Belubula River, comprising 1600 acres in the centre of the limestone outcrop. The property was name Boonderoo. Later purchases by the Dunhill family have increased the size of the property and it now encompasses Fossil Hill, Trilobite Hill and most of the Cliefden caves. Boonderoo is used for cropping and raising sheep and beef cattle.

On the northern side of the Belubula River, land ownership changed hands several times until Harold Bell and Co. established Angullong Station by consolidating a number of properties. Angullong was purchased by Goldsborough Mort & Co. Ltd. c1923, then by the Crossing family in 1952. The property is currently operated as a vineyard and winery and sheep and cattle station by the Crossing family. The 'Weowna' property at the southern part of the Cliefden site, also runs Angus cattle.

Dam Proposal
In 1931 a geological survey was undertaken to examine the suitability of suggested dam sites on the Belubula River. It was concluded that the conditions were not favourable for a major dam.

Possible dam sites on the Belubula River were reassessed in 1941 and 1946. In 1975 the threat of the caves being permanently flooded by a dam, arose again. The caving fraternity became aware of this threat and organised a conference in order to familiarise people with the area.

In 2014, an announcement was made for a 90,000 ML dam at Needles Gap and a budget allocated for a scoping and feasibility study. Growing opposition to the dam among the speleological community resulted in the establishment of the 'Save Cliefden Caves' group who created a website to disseminate information on the values of Cliefden Caves and to garner support for opposing a dam.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Scientific: Geoperiod Ordovician Epoch Early 470 to 500 million years ago-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Scientific: Geoperiod Silurian Epoch Early 410 to 425 million years ago-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Scientific: Geoperiod Tertiary Epoch Miocene 12 to 26 million years ago-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Geological evidence of the history of the Earth-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena Researching palaeontology-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Natural:
The Belubula Valley and Cliefden Caves area is important in the geological evolution of NSW in preserving the development and decline of a volcanic island succession, which is a rarely preserved and relatively short-lived phenomenon in the geological timescale. Limestones deposited in the Cliefden Caves area over a period of 5 million years, and the contact of the limestone with the underlying volcanics, provides evidence of a lithological/sedimentological sequence that contributes to the understanding the geological evolution of eastern Australia when the eastern third of the continent was largely submerged in the palaeo-Pacific Ocean. The area contains well preserved geomorphic evidence for uplift and valley incision and the caves record the evolution of the area's hydrogeology.

The Cliefden Caves - Belubula River Valley contains the best exposures of Late Ordovician island marine invertebrate fossil assemblages in Australia and is recognised, internationally, as an outstanding example of an Ordovician island faunal (shelly fossils) and floral (algae) assemblage.

Fossil Hill, Dunhill Bluff and Trilobite Hill are recognised as icons of Australia's palaeontological heritage, having well preserved shell, coral, and trilobite-bearing strata. The fossil evidence is a record of a rich biodiversity in this area, with 191 genera and 263 species of fossils documented in the vicinity. Several fossil species, such as the trimerellide brachiopod Belubula spectacula do not occur anywhere else in the world. The fossils record also defines biogeographic affinities in places that are now quite remote from each other, for example, the genus Belubula is found only in Cliefden and Zhuhuia in South China, providing evidence that during the Ordovician period these regions were situated far closer together than their present geographic setting, having separated as a result of subsequent plate tectonic movement.

The Cliefden Caves karst system is one of the most cavernous limestone areas in New South Wales containing over 100 recorded caves. The system contains an extensive range of karst features, including caves, dolines, tufa deposits and a warm (thermal) spring. The caves contain numerous and diverse speleothems, including helictites, large dogtooth spar crystals, blue speleothems and 'boxwork' ceilings in addition to more commonly found speleothems such as stalagmites, stalactites, shawls and flowstone. The speleothems at Cliefden range in colour from clear through pure white, yellow orange and several rare formations of sky blue and aqua green.

Cultural:
The Belubula Valley, as part of the Lachlan River system was home to the Wiradjuri language group of the Aboriginal people where they existed as hunters and fishers till around the 1830s when early European settlement began along the rivers.

Aboriginal skeletal remains in one of the caves, along with a number of carved trees in the vicinity, indicate the presence of Aboriginal people from at least 6000 years ago.

Cliefden Caves is the site of the first discovery of limestone in mainland Australia (Surveyor G.W. Evans in 1815) (Oxley, 1820 in Webby and Packham, 1982).

The Cliefden Caves area and the Belubula Valley has been the focus of study and visitation by the international scientific community to research the fossil beds and by speleological groups to map the caves and record their distinctive speleothems.

The remnant structures known as 'Rothery's Ruins', located on Island Flat, are associated with the SHR-listed Cliefden Estate and have the potential to yield further information on the functioning and significance of the Cliefden Estate.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Does not meet this criterion at a state level of significance
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The karst landscape of the Cliefden Caves Area is aesthetically significant at a LOCAL level, due to the scale and visibility of the exposed limestone.

Cliefden Caves is highly regarded for the aesthetic qualities of its formations that are often described as being 'beautiful' and even 'spectacular'. However there is no recognised methodology for assessing the aesthetic qualities of caves and cave formations and any discussion of cave aesthetics remains highly subjective.

The diversity of Cliefden's high quality speleothems and the rarity of some of its formations is addressed in Criterion (f) Representativeness and Criterion (g) Rarity.

Does not meet this criterion at a state level of signficance
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Wiradjuri traditional owners of the Cliefden Caves Area value the place as part of the broader Lachlan River and Mount Canobolas landscape, significant in Wiradjuri lore as a creation place and considered to be sacred and powerful, being imbued with the spirits of their ancestors.

The caves in particular, have special significance to traditional ceremonial practice and beliefs, as a place of reverence for certain spiritual beings. The Wiradjuri people retain a strong connection to the place, using the caves for ritual purposes, visiting the hot spring, collecting coloured ochres and fishing for native species in the Belubula River. Connection with the place allows continued cultural practice and the carrying out of responsibility and obligation to the land. It is important to the community's sense of place, cultural preservation and community wellbeing.

The place is also highly regarded by caving organisations and by karst and fossil scientists, both in Australia and internationally. The high level of interest in the site is demonstrated by the overwhelming support for its listing.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Natural:
The Cliefden Caves Limestone Group is the subject of current, ongoing research in the areas of palaeontology, karst processes, climate change, geology, hydrology and archaeology. It is an outstanding resource with the potential for research in all these areas of study to contribute to an understanding of the natural history of NSW.

The region has been the subject of several palaeontological field excursions associated with major international scientific conferences held in Sydney and Orange over the past three decades. As a direct result of these field trips, ongoing collaborative research projects into various aspects of the fossils from this area have been established between NSW palaeontologists and those from China and the Czech Republic.

The well preserved geomorphic evidence of the Belubula Valley and the Cliefden Caves record of the area's hydrogeology, have the potential to yield further information on the landscape evolution of the Eastern Highlands.

Mud deposits in the caves contain minerals that contain a record of past environments. Tufa Dams on Davy's Creek hold evidence of past climate events.

The Cliefden Caves and Belubula Valley are considered a bat 'hot spot', with over fifteen species of bats identified in the area and two species inhabiting the caves year round - The Eastern Bentwing Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) which is listed as 'Vulnerable' under the NSW TSC Act (1995); and the Eastern Horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus megaphyllus) . The extremely high level of microbat activity and species richness in Cliefden Caves and the Belubula Valley has the potential to yield information on microbats.

Cultural:
Skeletal remains provide evidence of human occupation more than 6,000 years before the present day. Together with a number of carved trees in the area, they have the potential to yield information on pre-European cultural history.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Ordovician rocks in the Cliefden area contain many fossils unique in Australia and occasionally unknown elsewhere in the world, such as the brachiopod species Belubula spectacula. Particularly significant specimens include the world's oldest known in-situ brachiopod shell beds (from Fossil Hill), the earliest rugose corals found anywhere on Earth (also from Fossil Hill), well-preserved trilobite fossils (Trilobite Hill), and an exceptionally diverse deep-water sponge assemblage (Coppermine Creek and Gleesons Creek localities, both tributaries of the Belubula River).

The thermal spring is a rare feature, as one of only three thermal springs associated with Karst in NSW. The tufa dams are also uncommon in NSW in being active, ie, continually forming with new deposits.

Mud deposits in the caves contain unusual minerals.

Blue speleothems such as the pale blue flowstone in Taplow Maze Cave and azure blue stalactites in Boonderoo and Murder Cave are exceptionally rare in Australia.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Cliefden Caves demonstrates a broad range of karst characteristics and ranks as one of the most diverse cave groups in NSW.
Integrity/Intactness: The caves system and surface exposures of the fossil beds remain intact and retain a high degree of integrity
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions HERITAGE ACT 1977

ORDER UNDER SECTION 57(2) TO GRANT SITE SPECIFIC EXEMPTIONS FROM APPROVAL

Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape SHR No. 1996

I, the Minister for Heritage, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, do, by this my order, grant an exemption from section 57(1) of that Act in respect of the engaging in or carrying out of any activities described in Schedule C by the owner or lessee of the land described in Schedule B on the item described in Schedule A.

The Hon Gabrielle Upton MP
Minister for Heritage
Sydney, 28th Day of August 2017

SCHEDULE A The item known as Cliefden Caves Area - Natural and Cultural Landscape situated on the land described in Schedule B.

SCHEDULE B All those pieces or parcels of land known as: part lots 1, 2, 3, 4 DP 795356; part Lot 1 DP 998772; part Lot 281 DP 1128242; part Lot 1 DP 178636; part Lot 62 DP 750395; part Lot 68 DP 750395; part Lot 22, 23 DP 745991; part Lot 9, 10 DP114814; part Lot 1 DP 110520; part Lot 1 DP 797976; part Lot 1 DP 170590 in Parish of Malongulli, County of Bathurst and part lots 102,103, 104, 105 DP 1170189; part Lot 82 DP 1183542; part Lots 34, 54, 156, 161 DP 750386 in Parish of Hampton, County of Bathurst and part Lot 1 DP 1194422; part Lot 4 DP 455248; part Lot 3, 4, 5, 13, 77, 109, 110, 137 DP 750369 in Parish of Carlton, County of Bathurst shown on the plan catalogued HC 3033 in the office of the Heritage Council of New South Wales.

PROPOSED EXEMPTIONS UNDER SECTION 57(2) Exemptions Reason/ comments

1. All Standard Exemptions Reason: These cover a full range of activities that do not require Heritage Council approval, including Standard Exemption 7 which allows consideration of additional unspecified types of minor works for exemption.
2. Pastoral and Agricultural Activities Activities associated with the ongoing use of the land for pastoral and agricultural purposes in which lands are used for their traditional and current farming-related purposes and do not impact on the heritage values of the precinct, including: • cultivation of arable land; • grazing practices already established on site; • construction, maintenance, demolition and relocation of buildings and structures normally used on a farming and grazing property, such as fences, roads, residence, sheds, silos and ancillary structures; • use of surface limestone rock for landscaping purposes within the property and use of gravel quarries for the construction and maintence of access roads within the property; • construction of minor bores, water storage dams and stock watering systems. Reason: Where possible, new works within the SHR curtilage should not be located on karst or cross over major limestone outcrops or fossil sites. To allow for the item to be used for pastoral and farming purposes.
3. Revegetation and Amenity Plantings Activities associated with revegetation, using locally endemic plant species. Plantings of suitable species for windbreak, stock safety and amenity. To restore natural processes of the land and of cave development. Reason: To allow for the item to be used for pastoral and farming purposes.
4. Fire Protection Activities associated with protecting the property from fire, including construction of firebreaks and use of aerial firefighting products. Reason: To allow for the item to be used for pastoral and farming purposes.
5. Noxious Weed and Pest Animal Management Activities associated with the control of noxious weeds and pest animals, while seeking to minimise their potential impact on karst and remain environmentally sustainable. Reason:To allow for the item to be used for pastoral and farming purposes.
5. Gating of Caves Activities for installation and maintenance of gating infrastructure at the entrances of caves, when carried out in accordance with the DECCW Cave Gating Guidelines. Reason: To allow for the security of caves and management of access to sensitive or high value caves.
6. Ladders and Track Marking within Caves Activities associated with the installation and maintenance of temporary ladders within caves. Activities associated with non- permanent track marking To facilitate safe cave access, to protect cave features and to protect habitat of cave fauna. To protect sensitive cave areas, manage traffic and minimise impact from cave visitation. Reason: To protect cave areas frequented by rare cave fauna.
7. Remediation of Cave Interiors Cleaning of areas and formations that have been impacted by deposition of mud or staining, as a result of visitation, in accordance with best practice karst management guidelines. Reason:To protect and enhance the presentation of formations valued by speleologists for their aesthetic qualities.
Aug 30 2017

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0199630 Aug 17 964594
Potential Heritage ItemA 07 Nov 01   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register    
Register of the National EstateNom. 30/06/1979.00095811 Aug 87 AHC 

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Central West Pilot Program SHRP2001 Heritage Office SHRP  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenIntegrated Design Associates Cliefden Estate, Belubula, Conservation Management Plan, May 2012
ElectronicNSW Government Gazette2017NSW Government Gazette View detail
WrittenSmith, G. K2014Cliefden Caves
WrittenSophia Meehan2011Significance Assessment of Cavernous Karst Areas (non-reserved) in NSW

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051851
File number: EF14/31009


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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