Cumberland District Hospital Group | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Cumberland District Hospital Group

Item details

Name of item: Cumberland District Hospital Group
Other name/s: Wistaria House Gardens, Cumberland Hospital, Mill, Female Factory, Lunatic Asylum, Psychiatric Hospital; Parramatta North Historic Sites
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Location: Lat: -33.8017280258 Long: 150.9961747110
Primary address: 5 Fleet Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: FIELD OF MARS
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP808447
LOT3 DP808447
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
5 Fleet StreetParramattaParramattaFIELD OF MARSCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
NSW Department of HealthState Government15 May 12

Statement of significance:

The Cumberland Hospital is a place of National Significance. It provides abundant physical evidence of the formative years of the Colony of New South Wales, and the initial settlement of Parramatta. It has been in continuous institutional use since 1818. What survives of the various buildings, relics and landscapes provides a valuable insight into changing attitudes to welfare, criminal behaviour and mental health, over a period of 175 years.

The layout of the complex and the existing relationships between buildings and spaces continues to convey the organising principles upon which the different institutional uses were administered and structured. The spaces created have continuing landscape significance and aesthetic appeal.

The whole site enjoys an outstanding parkland setting beside the Parramatta River. This reinforces the physical links and historical associations with neighbouring institutional and recreational facilities. These include Parramatta Gaol, Government House, the Norma Parker Centre and Parramatta Park. All of these sites contain buildings listed by the National Trust and the Australian Heritage Commission, making this one of the richest heritage areas in New South Wales.

All buildings on the site have considerable historical interest, particularly those structures dating back to the initial use of the site as the Female Factory, established by Governor Macquarie. They all provided continuing reminders of the original role and function. Most buildings also have great architectural and aesthetic value.

The collection of buildings built for the Lunatic Asylum in the 1870s through to 1910, are outstanding examples of public architecture. Despite their functional simplicity they manifest handsome exteriors, framing the adjoining courtyards in a pleasant human scale. Building 1A, with its imposing clock tower, contributes a sense of dignity and formality.

The architecture of the precinct generally reflects Victorian, Georgian and Classical Revival notions of grandeur. Each of the buildings from the 1870-1901 period reflects the influence of Colonial and Government Architect's James Barnet and Walter Liberty Vernon, as well as FN Manning, the then Inspector-General for all lunatic asylums in New South Wales.

Internally the buildings were functional and rather austere. The spatial arrangements however clearly expressed the original uses and continue to evoke images of their historical role. The site is also considered to be a potentially rich source of archaeological material.
(NSW Department of Health Property and Heritage Register, 1992)
Date significance updated: 26 Oct 06
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Designer/Maker: various, incl. F.Greenway, William Buchanan (attrib.), Dr FN Manning,WL Vernon, Charles Moore
Builder/Maker: Watkins & Payten
Construction years: 1803-1901
Physical description: Cumberland District Hospital Group is located on and divided by the Parramatta River at North Parramatta. It is part of a larger institutional grouping set in a park-like setting by the river. It adjoins Parramatta Correctional Centre (former Parramatta Gaol/ Jail) and the Norma Parker Centre / Kamballa (former Roman Catholic Orphan School and former Parramatta Girls Home).

The site is occupied by a number of institutions namely Cumberland Hospital (Eastern Campus), the former Parramatta Mental Hospital, the former Asylum for the Insane.

The main entrance to the complex is from Fleet Street. This forms the eastern boundary of the Hospital. Fleet Street in turn is accessed from O'Connell Street.

Items of state significance within Cumberland Hospital are:
Ward 1;
Ward 1 Day Room;
Accommodation Block for Wards 2 and 3;
Ward 4 West Range;
Ward 4 North Range;
former Ward 5 South Range;
Kitchen Block; former Day Room for Wards 4 and 5;
Cricket Shelter;
Administration Building;
Wistaria House, Gardens and Siteworks;
Sandstone Perimeter and Courtyard Block Walling and Ha Ha.

Grounds:
The complex contains a rare and substantially intact, 1860s-1920s major public (designed) landscape with a large and remarkable diverse plant collection including particularly notable collections of mature palms, conifers and Australian rainforest trees (Britton et al, 1999, 3).

The complex sits in generous grounds which are both carefully designed, laid out and richly planted with ornamental species, both native and exotic, some representative and some rare. The palette of plants reflects those both in fashion and distributed by Charles Moore, Director of the Botanic Gardens Sydney (1848-96), via the State Nursery at Campbelltown in the 19th century. The range of shrubs and climbers also reflects the richness and variety of 19th and early 20th century garden design and array.

Moore collected extensively in NSW and Qld. rainforests and the South Pacific, introducing species into Sydney.

Key themes in the tree palette are rainforest species, both native (predominantly NSW and Qld. in origin) and exotic, palms and conifers.

There are 5 large specimens of Canary Island pine trees (Pinus canariensis) on the Riverside Drive lawn that were c.40m tall in 1991 (Spencer, 1995, 250). There is a rich array of conifers, such as Canary Island pines, more-rarely seen Indian chir pines (P.roxburghii), NSW and Qld. rainforest plants such as firewheel trees (Stenocarpus sinuatus), (some rainforest conifers such as Bunya (Araucaria bidwillii) and hoop pines (A.cunninghamii), as well as South Pacific Island conifers, e.g. Norfolk Island pines (A.heterophylla) and Cook's pine (A.columnaris) grace the grounds. Rainforest fig trees such as Hill's fig (Ficus microcarpa var. Hillii), Port Jackson or rusty fig (F.rubiginosa) and Moreton Bay fig (F.macrophylla) are notable. Rarities such as the endangered Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis) of which there are five on site and pony tail palm (Nolina sp.) occur along with less-rare palms such as the uncommon jelly palm (Butia capitata), more commonly-met Californian desert fan palms (Washingtonia robusta) and locally native cabbage tree palm (Livistona australis). New Zealand cabbage tree (Cordyline australis) grows outside the Main Administration building's portico on the site's north-western edge (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 20/8/2015).

Two large lawn areas form the heart of the site and its northern part, formerly the timber Male Wards (demolished except for the large Kitchen Block) and later chapel.

Buildings:
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
various
Date condition updated:21 Aug 15
Modifications and dates: various.

9/2011: The Premier Barry O'Farrell MP officially opened the new Sydney Harbour Foreshore Track (section through Cumberland Hospital from Wisteria Gardens to Darling Mills & Toongabbie Creek junctions) on 23/9/11 along with Health Minister Jillian Skinner, The Walking Volunteers group Phil Jenkyn and Mayor John Chedid (Parramatta Advertiser, 28/9/11).
Current use: mixed health and community uses
Former use: private farm (Marsden); Female jail and factory; Lunatic Asylum; Hospital

History

Historical notes: The site it located on the Parramatta River in a transitional area between the Wianamatta Shale and Sandstone group soils. The topography is one of alluvial flats (flood plain) dropping away at the river.

The Burramuttagal clan of the Eora Aboriginal people occupied and used the area for its rich resources - in game, fish, timber, plant foods and fibres.

After Governor Phillip navigated the Parramatta River and reached the site of (later) Parramatta, he established a new settlement including a Government stockade, convict huts and areas for farm cropping and gardens slightly south and west of the subject area (in what would be the Government or Governor's Domain, later Parramatta Park).

Early attempts at mechanised flour milling were unsuccessful in both Sydney and Parramatta. In 1800 Governor Hunter announced his intention to try a water mill at Parramatta.

The site selected was the eastern bank of the river, near the Norma Parker Centre, where flat river stones formed a natural weir and causeway. Work digging the race and mill dam started in 1799. The mill took years to build. The Rev. Samuel Marsden was superintendent of public works at Parramatta and supervised its construction until 1803. Governor King brought from Norfolk Island a convict millwright, Nathaniel Lucas, and Alexander Dolliss, master boat builder, to assist in that year. They found the earlier construction poor and had to rebuild it. It finally opened in 1804 (DPWS, 2000, 48-9).

The Mill Phase 1803-1818: In the early days of settlement the site was associated with the nearby mill. A mill race, or fleet, was constructed across the land (that later became Cumberland Hospital). It carried water from the river, at a point to the north, to the mill further south.

The Female Factory: (1818-47)
The practical difficulties of establishing a colonial settlement in NSW meant that accomodation for convicts was a much lower priority than essential works such as those relating to food production and transport. Principal Chaplain the Rev.Samuel Marsden had expressed concern over many years at the lack of accomodation for female convicts, thus forcing them into prostitution to pay for private shelter. The problem grew with increased numbers of women sentenced into transportation. The upper floor of the first Parramatta Gaol was used from 1804 to provide a place of confinement and work for convict women spinning wool but they were rarely kept working beyond one o'clock and there were no cooking facilities. Because it provided employment for them, it became known as the Female Factory and this term continued to be used for all subsequent prisons for female convicts (DPWS, 2000, 57).

Institutional use of the site commenced in 1818 when Governor Macquarie laid the foundation stone for what was called the Female Factory. As the use was established other buildings were constructed, elements of which persist.

Macquarie announced in March 1818 that accomodation for female convicts would be built. Work started in July, being undertaken by Parramatta contractors Watkins & Payten. The Factory covered four acres (1.6ha) with the main building three storeys high. It was occupied in February 1821 when 112 women were moved from the old factory to the new. Commissioner Bigge, investigating Macquarie's administration, was highly critical at the lack of priority given to the project but also critical that it was too elaborate, believing that a walled enclosure of an acre and a half (0.6ha) at the old site with timber buildings for accomodation and a work room would have been sufficient.

The new building, intended for 300 women, was built 'at the extremity of a large, uninclosed tract of sterile ground' adjoining the river, which in flood came close to the wall of the new Factory. The cost was 4800 pounds, increased by 1200 pounds for perimeter wall and flood protection measures. Proximity to the river was important because of the intended occupation of the women in spinning flax and bleaching linen, though Bigge doubted that this was sufficient reason to build so close to the river and within 30 yards of Government House on the other side of the river.

Bigge's report included recommendations for managing the Factory, suggesting a married women rather than a married man would be a more appropriate manager and she could live in a house within view of the factory (but not within it). Separation of newly arrived women from those sent to the factory for punishment was essential and he recommended that a new range of sleeping rooms and work rooms be built. Sewing clothing and making straw hats should be added to the spinning and carding work to occupy their time.

The desire to classify and segregate the women led to their division into three classes and construction of a penitentiary enclosure to accomodate 60 women of the third or penal class, in 1826. A two-storey building, probably designed by William Buchanan, was erected for the worst class of prisoners to the north-west of the main building and enclosed with a small yard.

Later in the 1860s this building was modified and the first floor removed to make a ward 'for imbeciles and idiots', but it survives as the most substantial remnant of the Female Factory (ibid, 58)(today this is referred to as Building 105).

Shortly before leaving for Britain in 1837, Governor Gipps was given authority to improve the separation of prisoners, especially the penal class. His predecessor Governor Bourke, had authorised the construction of a new wing at the Female Factory but work had not started. Gipps was able to modify the proposal, incorporating the newest trend in British prisons, the American Separate System of solitary cells. His modifications included removing windows in the ground floor to increase punishment and reducing cell sizes, changes which horrified the British designers. Gipps was instructed to cut windows into the ground floor punishment cells. The three-storey cell block was built between 1838-9 to the south of the original Female Factory complex. The increased punishment capacity at Parramatta meant that the government could end transportation of women to Moreton Bay (later Brisbane). It had been the destiny of nearly 300 females who had been transported for colonial crimes. Women with colonial sentences now came to Parramatta.

By 1830 the Female Factory was one of a number of institutions where convicts were employed, although it was the only one for women. It was staffed by a matron, storekeeper, clerk, four assistants to matron, a portress, gate keeper and constable and seven monitresses.

Dissatisfaction with rations in 1827 led to a revolt among the women, who broke out and raided the bakers, gin shops and butchers in Parramatta. Such unrest usually coincided with overcrowding and declining conditions.

The report of the Board of Management of the Female Factory for the first half of 1829 reported that there were 209 women in the First class; 142 in the Second; 162 in the Third or Penal class which included free women under sentence; 27 in hospital, making a total of 540 women and 61 children - 601 individuals in facilities designed for only 232. Of these women, only 133 women in the First class were eligible for assignment.

The women had to stay in the factory and nurse their children until they were three years old when the children were transferred to the orphan schools. The authorities believed that many mistreated their baby so they can get out of the Factory when it died, an observation seemingly supported by 24 births and 22 deaths within six months. The Board recommended a nursery for the children when they were weaned so their mothers could goo out early on assignment. The matron tried to keep women occupied but there was not always enough wool for the textile operations. A new building for a weaving shop was being built in 1829 but not yet completed. Changes to the rules on eligibility for tickets of leave enabled 21 women who were old and infirm and not eligible for assignment to be discharged in the first of many attempts to reduce overcrowding.

There were 1315 women imprisoned in Sydney Gaol in 1830, 33 at Parramatta Gaol, 87 at Liverpool, 84 at Windsor, 91 at Newcastle, 21 at Penrith, 52 at Bathurst, all mostly held for misdemeanors. As the report on gaols noted almost all females were not actual criminals but prisoners of the Crown who had been assigned as servants but were not being returned to the Government. They were sent to the gaols as a place of security until an opportunity offered of forwarding them to the Factory in Parramatta. Such numbers reinforce the view that the Factory was hopelessly inadequate in size for the role it was expected to play within the convict system (ibid, 58-9).

The end of transportation from Britain in 1840 coincided with an economic depression that reduced employment prospects for assigned female servants. The factory was their only refuge. Those returned to the Government by masters who no longer needed them joined those unable to be assigned because of ill health or nursing children and those kept in the punishment divisions of the factory. Previously time at the factory had been for many a transitory experience, now it had become a destination.

The 1841 census detailed 1339 people living at the Factory - including 1168 women. It was more seriously overcrowded after the convict system ended than at its height. At its worst in the early 1840s it had 1339 people (1841), 1203 in 1842. In the summer of 1843 100 women rioted. They complained to the Governor of maladminstration, inadequate food and overcrowded facilities. Corrupt staff were dismissed and new policies introduced to give the women tickets of leave so they could leave the factory and work for themselves.

By 1847 there were only 124 women and 48 children left inside - fourteen percent of the numbers of five years previous. Half these women were under sentence for crimes committed in the colony. A new superintendent and matron were appointed. Edwin Statham and his wife, appointed in the closing months of the Female Factory, remained at the institution until their retirement thirty years later. Their son remembered the big drains that ran from the old water mill past the Factory and into the river. The entrance to the river was a stone-covered drain, the top end of which was closed by a vertical grating but the lower end was open - and at four feet high and three foot wide provided ample opportunity for adventurous boys to explore. It later became part of the sewerage system of the Hospital for the Insane. Sections of the mill race including the diversion have been uncovered through recent archaeological investigations (ibid, 60-2).

Parramatta Lunatic Asylum (c1848-1872):
In about 1848 the emphasis shifted to the accommodation of lunatics, both male and female. Some improvements were made to earlier buildings and some new building took place. Little physical evidence survives from this period.

Parramatta Lunatic Asylum (1872-c1901):
The next phase was associated with the administration of Frederick Norton Manning, who became Inspector General for all lunatic asylums in NSW in 1872. This phase saw a major program of new building, changes to layout and replacement of earlier structures. The site was also expanded to take in land further north, outside the study area for this brief.

Psychiatric Hospital (c1901-1960):
In this phase various alterations and additions were made on the subject site but most of the new development for the hospital was to the north.

Cumberland Hospital (1960-1992):
More recent development on the subject land has been of a relatively minor nature, though the integrity of earlier development has been affected.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working for the Crown-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Experiencing secondary punishment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Administering the convict system-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating convicts' experiences and activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming with convict labour-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating convicts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - administering a public health system-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Incarcerating prisoners-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Georgian revival-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Cumberland Hospital Heritage Precinct is a place of national significance. It provides abundant physical evidence from the formative years of the Colony of New South Wales, and the initial settlement of Parramatta. It has been in continuous institutional use since 1818. What survives of the various buildings, relics and landscapes provides a valuable insight into changing attitudes to welfare, criminal behaviour and mental health, over a period of 175 years.
All buildings on the site have considerable historical interest, particularly those structures dating back to the initial use of the site as the Female Factory, established by Governor Macquarie. They all provide continuing reminders of the original role and function. Most buildings also have great architectural and aesthetic value.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Cumberland Hospital Heritage Precinct is a place of national significance. It provides abundant physical evidence from the formative years of the Colony of New South Wales, and the initial settlement of Parramatta. It has been in continuous institutional use since 1818. What survives of the various buildings, relics and landscapes provides a valuable insight into changing attitudes to welfare, criminal behaviour and mental health, over a period of 175 years.
All buildings on the site have considerable historical interest, particularly those structures dating back to the initial use of the site as the Female Factory, established by Governor Macquarie. They all provide continuing reminders of the original role and function. Most buildings also have great architectural and aesthetic value.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The collection of buildings, built for the Lunatic Asylum in the 1870's through to 1910, are outstanding examples of public architecture. Despite their functional simplicity they manifest handsome exteriors, framing the adjoining courtyards in a pleasant human scale. Building 1A, with its imposing clock tower, contributes a sense of dignity and formality.

The architecture of the precinct generally reflects Victorian, Georgian and Classical Revival notions of grandeur. Each of the buildings from the 1870-1901 period reflects the influence of Colonial and Government Architect's J Barnet and WL Vernon, as well as FN Manning, the then Inspector General for all lunatic asylums in New South Wales.

Internally the buildings were functional and rather austere. The spatial arrangements however, clearly expressed the original uses and continue to evoke images of their historical role.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConsolidated Conservation Management Plan Parramatta North Historic Sites - Cumberland District Hospital Group/ Norma Parker Correctional Centre/ Parramatta Correctional Centre  
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP for North Parramatta Government Sites (DPWS) adopted with revisions. The Heritage Council's State Heritage Register Committee endorsed the CMP subject to certain revisions to the satisfaction of the Director, Heritage Office, for a period of 5 years (expires 18/5/2005). May 18 2000
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP & AMP: Cumberland Hospital East Campus and Wisteria Gardens - for review/endorsement Jun 8 2012

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0082002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register 03/5/7/200201 Feb 92   
Regional Environmental PlanSydney REP 28 - Parramatta - state significant ite 20 Aug 99   
Local Environmental PlanCumberland District Hospital (including Wisteria G I00820   
National Trust of Australia register Cumberland Hospital Group726830 Oct 96   
Register of the National Estate - InterimCumberland Hospital landscape100933   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Department of Health - s170 Register199203/5/7/200Schwager, Brooks & Partners Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAdoranti, Kylie2016'Repair and restoration works start on heritage buildings in North Parramatta'
WrittenBartok, Di2011Final Piece of Walking Track Finished
WrittenBartok, Di2010Gadiel's Fight for the Gals'
WrittenBosworth, Tony2017'Heritage Precinct sold for just $1 - land transferred to UrbanGrowth as apartment development looms'
WrittenEdward Higginbotham & Associates2010Buildings 105A & 105B, Cumberland Hospital, Fleet Street, N. Parramatta NSW - Report on the Archaeological Monitoring Programme for the excavation of a drainage trench
WrittenEdward Higginbotham & Associates2006Data Centre, Cumberland Hospital, Fleet Street, N Parramatta N.S.W.: Proposed Electrical Sub-Station, Generator and Cable Trenches. Permit Exemption Application
WrittenGeoffrey Britton & Colleen Morris1999North Parramatta Government Sites Landscape Conservation Plan
WrittenHeath, Laurel1978The female convict factories of New South Wales and Van Dieman's land: an examination of their role in the control, punishment and reformation of prisoners between 1804 and 1854.
WrittenHeritage Division, OEH1995Hard Copy file S95/292/5
WrittenHeritage Group, Design Services, Department of Public Works & Services2000North Parramatta Government Sites Conservation Management Plan
WrittenHeritage Group, NSW Dept. of Public Works1991Wistaria House and Gardens - Conservation Plan
WrittenHeritage Group, NSW Dept. of Public Works & Services1997Norma Parker Centre, Parramatta - Conservation Plan
WrittenHigginbotham, Edward & Associates1997Report on Archaeological Monitoring Proramme on Site A, Cumberland Hospital Eastern Campus, Parramatta NSW
WrittenJackson Teece Chesterman Willis1996Cumberland Hospital - Tree Assessment
WrittenNSW Dpt. Of Public Works and Services1985Roman Catholic Orphan School Conservation Study
WrittenPerumal Murphy Alessi in association with Higginbotham, Edward Higginbotham, Geoffrey Britton & Terry Kass, 4/20102010Conservation Management Plan & Archaeological Management Plan - Cumberland Hospital East Campus & Wisteria Gardens Parramatta
WrittenSpencer, Roger1995Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia - Ferns, Conifers & their allies Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia - Ferns, Conifers & their allies

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051959
File number: EF14/5114; 09/2787;H00/112


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