Springfield estate group (Under consideration) | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Springfield estate group (Under consideration)

Item details

Name of item: Springfield estate group (Under consideration)
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
     
LOT1 DP1031098
LOT7 DP114953
PART LOT10  750028
LOT12 DP750028
PART LOT15 DP750028
LOT40 DP750028
LOT6 DP750028
PART LOT8 DP750028
PART LOT9 DP750028
PART LOT11 DP750049
PART LOT9 DP750049
LOT1 DP995556

Statement of significance:

Rare colonial farm grant which has remained in one family ownership from 1827 until 2004 (the Faithful and later descendent Maple Brown family), and home to the famous 'Springfield' merino sheep stud. Its large main homestead reflects the prospering family fortunes over the 19th century, with sections from 1837/40 to 1859 in a range of styles reflecting changing tastes in estate design. It retains an intact suite of farm outbuildings including barns, stables and staff residences, some of significance in themselves, and collectively as a 'village' demonstrating self-sufficiency in such large rural estates. The landscape of windswept plains with rough hedging and Monterey pine plantations to break the winds is demonstrative of early farm estates on both the Goulburn High Plains and Southern Tablelands region, and indeed much of rural NSW.

A significant relatively intact rural estate garden dating from c.1844 cottage garden, famous for its flowers in the mid 19th century, designed in the fashionable picturesque and gardenesque styles around groves of imported trees, with sweeping lawns, curving gravel drives, elaborate shrubberies and flower beds, picking and kitchen gardens, formal swimming pool, striving for an English greenness to counteract the dry Australian beige of summer fields. (Tanner & Begg, 1976, modified, Read, S., 2004)

A magnificent homestead complex being one of the few in New South Wales that has remained in continuous family ownership. House and garden have been well maintained and preserved. Springfield became the property of William Pitt Faithfull in 1827. He established the famous Merino Stud in 1838. (AHC, from nominators, 15/6/1984)

A magnificent homestead complex, garden and farm being one of the few New South Wales that remains in continuous family ownership. The interiors of the Georgian and later Victorian periods have been well preserved and the house is set in a beautiful `old-world' garden of 12 acres. (National Trust)
Date significance updated: 31 Aug 06
Note: There are incomplete details for a number of items listed in NSW. The Heritage Division intends to develop or upgrade statements of significance and other information for these items as resources become available.

Description

Construction years: 1827-1865
Physical description: Farm & Setting
Springfield's 1,280 acres was granted in 1827 to William Pitt Faithfull.
Now open paddocks line the road from Goulburn, and it is a farm of 7865 acres or 3183 hectare, 15km from Goulburn on Braidwood Road. The farm is fertile land with 7km of double frontage to the Mulwaree Chain of Ponds River. It is highly productive pastured countryside, rated to carry 25,000 sheep or cattle equivalent. Average rain is only 600mm per year. The paddocks are planted with Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) shelterbelts to moderate the wind-swept plain conditions. Most of the pines bordering the approach road are Monterey Pines, but one is a Mediterranean Stone Pine (P.pinea) planted in 1844 when Percy Faithful, the eldest son of the founder, was born. The landscape of plains with rough hedging and pine windbreaks is demonstrative of early farm estates on both the Goulburn High Plains and Southern Tablelands region, and indeed much of rural NSW.

Main Homestead & Garden
The house is several kilometers from the road, set in mature trees and a significant and sheltered mature garden of 12 acres. (1976). Magnificent 5 acre garden (2004). (McCarthy (1983) notes the garden's extent as being 5 hectares.
Hedging and pine plantations introduce the garden on approach. Then the tower is glimpsed: the gravel drive is lined by white and purple lilacs (Syringa vulgaris) intermixed with crabapples (Malus spp.), with yellow iris below.

The drive sweeps past the formal swimming pool, hidden behind garden walls, up to the front of the house, then loops back under a canopy of oaks (Quercus spp., probably Q.robur) and elms (Ulmus sp., probably U.procera, English) with ancient drifts of violets (V.communis), blue bells (Endymion non-scripta), November lilies (Lilium candidum) and forget-me-nots (Myosotis communis) clustering at their feet. In summer this is a pleasantly shaded area with tables and benches for outdoor meals. Beyond this canopy are massed annuals (marigolds, calendulas, zinnias) and perennials (poppies, snapdragon, iris), and a fine collection of roses. Victorian formality presides here: the flower beds and rose gardens are set out in geometric patterns and bounded by low hedging. In summer the flower beds create the effect of an oriental carpet unfolded before the house.

From the front porch spreads a smooth, green lawn (about the size of three tennis courts) to a Blue Atlas Cedar planted in 1910 and a Golden Scotch Elm (Ulmus glabra 'Lutescens') planted in 1954. Together these are framed against the dark pines of the avenue. Nearby is a large Sweet Gum, (Liquidambar styraciflua) planted in 1953 and ringed about with summer flowering Nile lilies (Agapanthus orientalis). (McCarthy et al, 1983)

The lawn is bordered by beds of colourful annuals and a low, semi-circular retaining wall at the far end. A pair of grand Italian urns, which now decorate the wall, spent their first 100 years on top of the porch over the front door. (McCarthy et al, 1983)

A copse of trees separates the kitchen gardens (in earlier colonial straight paths and squared beds, in contrast to the gardenesque/picturesque curved lines of the pleasure garden) where onions, peas, beans, cauliflower, potatoes, asparagus of every kind grew.

In Springfield's garden the Victorian mood survives, with botanical and ornamental features at every turn. Pre-eminent amongst the trees are the Nettle Tree (Celtis sp.) on the north lawn near the house, and the Irish or Mediterranean Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo) perhaps c.1840s at the bottom of the garden, with its typical multiple trunks and attractive red/orange peeling bark. (Tanner & Begg, 1976). Among the trees older than 1883 is a Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis), the true laurel used by the Romans to crown their victors and a Cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani).

Just across the drive from the house on one side are Hackberries or Nettle Trees (Celtis sp. (probably C.australis, the Southern Nettle Tree) planted in 1870, which shade a table and chairs; on the other side slightly further away from the house, is a formal swimming pool surrounded by a low brick wall. Further on, a path leads to circular rose beds surrounding a stone statue where an old eucalypt once stood. Beds of dahlias, lilies and lilacs are arranged so their flowers can be easily picked for the house. Deeper into the garden are some 'Gorgeous' Crab Apple trees and a box hedge (Buxus sp., probably B.microphylla)(McCarthy, 1983).

From the house's main rooms there are several vistas: up to Vault Hill, the family burial ground; between dark pines to the coastal Great Dividing Range; and over the flower gardens to golden willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.). Behind the house is an enclosed courtyard, its walls ivy clad, with wisteria-draped pergolas perfuming and shading the margins to the yard during the summer months.

The tower is the picturesque centre of the garden composition, with the house's varied parts froming a picturesque backdrop to the garden (Tanner & Begg, 1976). It is a large, elegant 2 storey, 9 bedroom, 33 room brick home in excellent order. (2004 real estate advert).

The general form of the house is U-shaped. The oldest portion (1837/40) is four-square with granite walls: next, two bays of dainty Gothic styled portion with twin gables, steep roofs and elaborate carved timber bargeboards and finally a two storey 1859 Italianate portion, fronted by a porch and topped by a three storey tower, which is the most prominent part. The tower is above a portico bearing the Faithfull family arms. This is an early example of the Italianate style in New South Wales.

The house features hipped roofs now covered with marseille tiles, small pane sash windows with heavily moulded round arched heads, and balconies and porches with decorative cast iron columns and balustrades.

It has been suggested that the Italianate front was derived from a scheme shown in John Claudius Loudon's "The Suburban and Villa Companion (London, 1838) for 'A suburban villa, with the house in the Italian style and the ground laid out in the picturesque manner'. Such guides provided the only means for a remote settler to emulate gardenesque English designs, and indeed, such a 'Villa' would have represented avant garde taste in the colony when constructed in 1859. (Tanner)

How much the garden owes to Loudon's landscape plan is a matter for conjecture, however, a similar wide lawn spreads out before the house, bounded by plantations of trees, shrubberies and meandering paths. A circular flower bed dominates the bottom of the garden, whilst screened from direct view, flower and vegetable gardens revert to the straight paths and squared beds of earlier colonial gardens. (Tanner & Begg, 1976)

A significant relatively intact rural estate garden dating from c.1844 cottage-style early garden, later famous for its flowers in the mid 19th century, re-designed in the fashionable picturesque and gardenesque styles with groves of imported trees, sweeping lawns, curving gravel drives and forecourt, elaborate patterns of shrubberies and flower beds, picking and kitchen gardens, formal swimming pool, all striving for an English greenness to counteract the dry Australian beige of summer fields.

McCarthy et al (1983) note that the garden layout is comparatively new, dating back to the 1950s when some of the trees whose growth had overshadowed the house were cleared by Mrs Irwin Maple-Brown to create a breathtaking open vista. Tanner in Aitken (2002) notes the garden was considerably simplified in the 1950s and 1970s to create a manageable entity.

Historic farm outbuildings and cottages
It retains an intact suite of farm outbuildings including barns, stables and staff residences, some of significance in themselves, and collectively as a 'village' demonstrating self-sufficiency in such large rural estates. There are many significant outbuildings, of which the most important are the woolshed with Gothic windows and sandstone mouldings; a large brick and stone stables/coach house with steep corrugated iron roofs and decorative carved stonework; and a convict built flour mill.

Pinea homestead
c.1910, substantial 50 square metres, 5 bedroom brick home, delightful spacious garden.

Polo grounds

(Sources: RNE, AHC, 12/1997)(National Trust, 1976)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
excellent (2004 real estate advert)
Date condition updated:19 Nov 04
Modifications and dates: Farm:
1827 grant of 1,280 acres to William Pitt Faithfull, 1828 Grant taken up
1838 the foundation of the famous Springfield Merino stud was laid by Faithfull.
2004 7865 acres or 3183 hectare farm

House:
An 1836 survey plan shows a number of buildings.
1840 present main house was built in at least four stages, starting in 1840;
1859 the main front was built
1865 the house is shown in its present form in an 1865 painting.

Outbuildings
Dates for the outbuildings are not given, but it is likely that some them date from before 1852 and are included in this 1852 quote: "The stables, the barns and all the other buildings suitable for a farm of this magnitude are most substantial".
There are many significant outbuildings, of which the most important are
- the woolshed with Gothic windows and sandstone mouldings;
- a large brick and stone stables/coach house with steep corrugated iron roofs and decorative carved stonework; and
- a convict built flour mill.
C1910 Pinea homestead built

Garden
McCarthy et al (1983) note that the garden layout is comparatively new, dating back to the 1950s when some of the trees whose growth had overshadowed the house were cleared by Mrs Irwin Maple-Brown to create a breathtaking open vista. Tanner in Aitken (2002) notes the garden was considerably simplified in the 1950s and 1970s to create a manageable entity.
1976 12 acres.
2004 5 acres
(Sources: RNE, AHC, 12/1997)(National Trust, 1976)(Real Estate Advert, Wentworth Courier, 17/11/2004)

1/2008-9/2011:
new owner confirmed maintenance/repair works done since 1/2008 (when bought property):
- 13/14 cottages on property now sound and habitable (there were 7 habitable and in poor condition in 1/2008);
- stonework, woodwork and doors on sheds ave been repaired and all buildings now waterproof;
- most cottages now painted;
- some 400 broken windows replaced;
- homestead interior repainted and repaired;
- many fences or gates repaired/replaced;
- extensive garden and tree maintenance done and is ongoing (email: Rob Adamson-Bill Nethery, 26/9/11).

History

Historical notes: Springfield's 1,280 acres was granted in 1827 to William Pitt Faithfull, the son of William Faithfull, who came to New South Wales in 1791 as a private in the New South Wales corps. The foundation for the famous Merino Stud was laid in 1838 by William Faithfull and on his death the property passed on to his son, the late A. Lucian Faithfull. Mrs. Irwin Maple-Brown, daughter of A. Lucian Faithfull now lives in the homestead (1976).

An 1836 survey plan by James Larmer shows a number of buildings. The present main house was built in at least four stages, starting with Faithfull who built the first section of the house in 1840 (1837 according to Tanner & Begg, 1976); the main front was built in 1859, and the house is shown in its present form in an 1865 painting. The main front is an early example of the Victorian Italianate style in New South Wales.

Dates for the outbuildings are not given, but it is likely that some them date from before 1852 and are included in this 1852 quote: "The stables, the barns and all the other buildings suitable for a farm of this magnitude are most substantial".
(Sources: RNE, AHC, 12/1997)(National Trust, 1976) The excellent outbuildings have amongst them a shearing shed with Gothic windows and sandstone mouldings, stables, farm and coach buildings and a convict built flour mill.

Springfield has been in continuous family ownership for 176 years (to 2004).(for sale advert in Wentworth Courier, 17/11/2004)

No doubt the first garden (1844) was of the cottage variety. It was famous for its flowers: Lady Stephe, wife of the Chief Justice, writing in 1858, says "We were delighted with the flowers. Beds of tulips, hyacinths, snowflakes, daffodils, ranunculuses, anemones, heartsease, primroses, daisies, lilies of the valley and polyanthuses etc".

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Marking the transition from pastoralism to agriculture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Pastoralism - grazing sheep, cattle, goats or other animals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant tree(s) providing rural amenity or character-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes used for self reliant recreation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for pastoral purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Georgian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Gothic Revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Italianate-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Enjoying public parks and gardens-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities polo-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Springfield may be of state heritage significance for historical values as a rare example of a relatively intact colonial farm grant that has remained in a single family's ownership from its initial granting in 1827 until 2005. Springfield had probably the earliest mill in the Goulburn area -a horse mill in operation at Springfield in 1832 (Heritage Archaeology, 2004, p.165). It became an early and famous (reputedly the oldest) merino stud in the state, started in 1838. Its magnificent, large main homestead reflects prospering family fortunes over the 19th century, with sections from 1837/40 to 1859, in a range of styles reflecting changing tastes in architecture and estate design. The homestead's 1859 Italianate towered front is demonstrative of houses copied almost directly from architectural pattern books, being based on a design in John Claudius Loudon's influential book 'The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion' (1838) for 'A suburban villa, with the House in the Italian Style and the Ground laid out in the picturesque Manner', and the broad planning of the garden may derive from the same source. (Tanner, in Aitken, 2002, p.566)(Lucas, 1987, p.66). Springfield retains an intact suite of farm outbuildings including barns, stables and staff residences, some of significance in themselves, and collectively as a 'village' demonstrating self-sufficiency typical in large, rural estates.

It retains its c.1844 cottage garden, later developed in fashionable picturesque and gardenesque styles, with sweeping lawns, groves of imported trees, curving gravel drives, elaborate shrubberies and flower beds, picking and kitchen gardens. The garden is a large, complex and relatively intact example of 19th century rural estate gardens. Changes to reduce and simplify the garden in the 1950s and 1970s have introduced elements such as a formal swimming pool, and simplified management more suited to and demonstrative of a busy, mobile, modern lifestyle, something common on large, remaining 19th century farm estates (Tanner & Begg, 1976, modified, Read, S., 2006).
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Springfield has strong historical associations with its founder, William Pitt Faithfull, a successful pastoralist who went on to be a member of the NSW Legislative Assembly. It has historical associations with the Faithfull and Maple-Brown family, in whose hands it has remained from 1827-2005. It has associations with influential British author John Claudius Loudon (through the homestead's 1859 Italianate towered front which is based on a design in Loudon's influential book 'The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion' (1838) for 'A suburban villa, with the House in the Italian Style and the Ground laid out in the picturesque Manner',) and the broad planning of its garden may derive from the same source.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Springfield's landscape of windswept plains with rough hawthorn hedging and Monterey pine plantations to break the winds is demonstrative of early farm estates on both the Goulburn High Plains and Southern Tablelands region, and indeed much of New South Wales. The presence of Monterey pines demonstrates Australia's links with California, strengthened in the gold rush era of the 1850s, and rough hawthorn hedging demonstrates a common form of farm partitioning prior to the introduction and widespread use of fencing wire in the same decade.

Its magnificent, large main homestead reflects prospering family fortunes over the 19th century, with sections from 1837/40 to 1859, in a range of styles reflecting changing tastes in architecture and estate design. The homestead's 1859 Italianate towered front is based on a design in John Claudius Loudon's influential book 'The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion' (1838) for 'A suburban villa, with the House in the Italian Style and the Ground laid out in the picturesque Manner', and the broad planning of the garden may derive from the same source. Springfield retains an intact suite of farm outbuildings including barns, stables and staff residences, some of significance in themselves, and collectively as a 'village' demonstrating self-sufficiency typical in large, rural estates. The homestead complex is in good condition, its Georgian and Victorian interiors well preserved. A family cemetery remains on nearby Vault Hill, another representative feature of larger rural estates.

It retains its c.1844 cottage garden, famous in the mid 19th century for its flowers, and later developed in fashionable picturesque and gardenesque styles, with sweeping lawns, groves of imported trees, curving gravel drives, elaborate shrubberies and flower beds, picking and kitchen gardens. The garden is a large, complex and relatively intact example of 19th century rural estate gardens, demonstrating a typical settler desire to mark out land in green, lush evocation of 'home', in sharp contrast to the dry, Australian pastures around them. Changes to reduce and simplify the garden in the 1950s and 1970s have introduced elements such as a formal swimming pool, and simplified management more suited to and demonstrative of a busy, mobile, modern lifestyle, something common on large, remaining 19th century farm estates (Tanner & Begg, 1976, modified, Read, S., 2006).
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Springfield may have social significance to the community of Goulburn Mulwaree Shire as a well known early farm in the district, and to a wider conservation community through its early recognition on National Trust and Register of the National Estate listings.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Springfield may have research significance as a relatively intact, large, rural estate with all the component parts still existing, albeit some simplified. Such elements as the range of building types and styles, range of garden components including pleasure, picking and kitchen, collections of farm machinery etc have potential to be teaching resources helping demonstrate our understanding of the evolution of farming, design and technology.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Springfield's landscape of windswept plains with rough hawthorn hedging and Monterey pine plantations to break the winds is demonstrative of early farm estates on both the Goulburn High Plains and Southern Tablelands region, and indeed much of New South Wales. The presence of Monterey pines demonstrates Australia's links with California, strengthened in the gold rush era of the 1850s, and rough hawthorn hedging demonstrates a common form of farm partitioning prior to the introduction and widespread use of fencing wire in the same decade.

It is representative of large, rural estates, with: the requisite homestead, expanded with economic cycles and family growth; the suite of outbuildings for worker accommodation, stock, and feed; a family cemetery; large ornamental and productive gardens supporting the house; and extensive paddocks for stock and crops. The simplification of the garden since the 1950s is itself representative of smaller staffing, faster more mobile lifestyles and a desire for less-intensive garden management.

Springfield is also a good example of a homestead built directly from an architectural pattern book, its design first appeared in John Claudius Loudon's Architectural Magazine in 1836, described as 'Design for a Suburban Villa with Two Acres of Ground.' The design was contributed by Edward Buckton Lamb (1805-69), an English architect best known for his country houses and churches. The design was again published in Loudon's 1838 Suburban Villa Gardener and Villa Companion , described as 'A Suburban Villa with the House in the Italian Style and the Ground laid out in Picturesque Manner'. (Lucas, 1987, p.66).
Integrity/Intactness: Springfield retains a high degree of integrity, being a relatively intact land grant, still a large, productive, working farm, with many of its original or later 19th century components still existing and in use, albeit with less staff, and some changes such as fencing wire, etc. The original roof was shingled.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listing     
Potential Heritage Item  19 Nov 04   
National Trust of Australia register Springfield with outbuildings and garden241305 Apr 76   
Register of the National Estate - InterimIndicative Place - Springfield homestead, outbuild001086   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Goulburn heritage study review: Draft2003 Goulburn City Council  No
Goulburn Heritage Study: final report1983 Lester Firth P/L  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenCANBERRA HISTORICAL SOCIETY1968CANBERRA HISTORICAL SOCIETY NEWSLETTER
WrittenCANTLON, M.1981HOMESTEADS OF SOUTHERN NEW SOUTH WALES
WrittenJule Dibden2004Proposed rural subdivision at Springfield, Goulburn, NSW Aboriginal archaeological assessment
WrittenMcCarthy, M. (specialist ed.) & Andrews, K. (ed.)1983Springfield - in "Australia the Beautiful - great gardens - presenting our special Australian Gardens"
WrittenP. COX & W. STACEY HOMESTEADS OF AUSTRALIA
WrittenSheedy, D1976Classification sheet
WrittenTANNER, H. & BEGG, J. GREAT GARDENS OF AUSTRALIA
WrittenTanner, H. & Begg, J.1976The Great Gardens of Australia
WrittenTanner, H., in Aitken, R. & Looker, M.2002Springfield entry in "Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens" View detail
WrittenTaylor, Peter Date:1987Springfield, the story of a sheep station

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5056185
File number: H04/00364


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