The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas.
( click here
to see geographic restrictions).
The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Acacia pycnostachya
Profile last updated:
14 Jun 2016
Bolivia Wattle is a shrub or small tree, between 1 and 15 m tall. The grey-green leaves are very firm and somewhat curved (almost sickle-shaped). They are 7 - 10 cm long by 1 - 2.5 cm wide. The species is characterised by the very coarse, sharply ridged but flattened branchlets. Bark is finely fissured and light brownish grey. Deep yellow flowers are borne on a 2 - 5 cm long spike and occur in spring. A brown, leathery pod, 8 - 12 cm long and 3 - 4 mm wide contains the seeds.
Restricted to NSW. Two extensive populations exist in the vicinity of Bolivia Hills and Bluff River Nature Reserves south of Tenterfield, and on nearby private land. Smaller populations have been found west of Tenterfield on private land and the species may be more widespread than is currently documented. The plant tends to occur in patches although sparsely distributed individuals are common at Bolivia Hills.
Habitat and ecology
- Flowers in spring or from July to October. Fruits are borne October to November. The species may not tolerate too-frequent fire (more often than 15-20 years), which may kill adult plants before the soil seed bank is adequate to provide recruitment.
- Acacia pycnostachya grows in dry sclerophyll forest amongst granite outcrops, on hillsides at altitudes of 700 to 900 m. Soil types range from acid volanics to sandy and skeletal on exposed outcrops, to shallow sandy loams in less exposed sites. It often grows in stands in areas sheltered from fire.
- Generally plants appear to dominate the understorey or tall shrub stratum below an open canopy of taller shrubs or trees.
- Associated species include Eucalyptus prava, Eucalyptus andrewsii, Callitris endlicheri, Acacia adunca, Eucalyptus campanulata, Leptospermum brevipes, Acacia neriifolia, Stypandra glauca, Notelaea microcarpa and Callitris species.
- Multiple sub-populations of Acacia pycnostachya located at Bolivia Hill are estimated to comprise over 2000 plants. The population in the Back Creek area north-west of Tenterfield was estimated at 200 to 500 plants.
Regional distribution and habitat
Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.
- Clearing of habitat for agriculture.
- Clearing associated with road, powerline and railway maintenance.
- Browsing by feral animals, particularly goats during drought conditions. The rocky habitats are also vulnerable to degradation and erosion from the feral goat populations.
- Inappropriate fire regimes. A fire frequency longer than every 15-20 years may allow adults to die, and depletion of the soil seed bank without recruitment.
A targeted strategy for managing this species has been developed under the Saving Our Species program; click here
for details. For more information on the Saving Our Species program click here
Activities to assist this species
- Assist with the control of feral animals.
- Protect areas of known and potential habitat from frequent fire.
- Protect populations and areas of habitat during road, railway or powerline maintenance.
- Protect areas of open woodland on granite from clearing.
- Report new records of Bolivia Wattle to the OEH.
- Identify populations and areas of habitat and mark onto maps used for maintenance work.
- Bentham, G. (1863) Flora Australiensis. Volume 2 (1864). (Reeve, London)
- Briggs, J.D. and Leigh, J.H. (1996) Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. Revised Edition. (CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne)
- Clarke, P.J., Knox, K.J.E., Campbell, M.L. and Copeland, L.M. (2009) Post-fire recovery of woody plants in the New England Tableland Bioregion. Cunninghamia 11(2): 221–239
- Hall, N. and Johnson, L.A.S. (1993) The names of acacias of New South Wales - with a guide to pronunciation of botanical names. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney)
- Hogbin, P. (2002) Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee.
- Hunter, J.T. and Clarke, P.J. (1998) The vegetation of granitic outcrop communities on the New England Batholith of eastern Australia. Cunninghamia 5(3): 547-618
- Hunter, J.T. and Earl, J. (1999) Field Survey to Determine the Locations and Distribution of the Threatened Plant Pimelea venosa Threlfall. Report to the Northern Directorate, New South Wales, National Parks and Wildlife
- Kodela, P.G. and Harden, G.J. (2002) Acacia. Pp 381-476 in Harden, G.J. (ed.) Flora of New South Wales. Volume 2. Revised Edition (New South Wales University Press, Sydney)
- Maslin, B.R. (2001) Mimosaceae 1. Acacia. 789. Acacia pycnostachya F. Muell. ex Benth. In Orchard, A.E. and Wilson, A.J.G. (Eds) Flora of Australia 11B: 271 (Fig. 55B-E).
- Maslin, B.R. and Pedley, L. (1982) The distribution of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) in Australia. Part 1. Species distribution maps. Western Australian Herbarium Research Notes 6: 1-128.
- NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2003) Threatened Species of the New England Tablelands and North West Slopes of NSW. (NSW NPWS, Coffs Harbour)
- Quinn, F., Williams, J.B., Gross, C.L. and Bruhl, J. (1995) Report on Rare and Threatened Plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Report prepared for the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Australian Nature Conservation Agency.
- Simmons, M.H. (1981) Acacias of Australia. (Nelson, Melbourne)
Known or predicted
Geographic restrictions region