Nature conservation

Threatened species

Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the New South Wales North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner Bioregions - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the New South Wales North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner Bioregions
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Ecological Community
Commonwealth status: Not listed
Gazetted date: 17 Dec 2004
Profile last updated: 31 Jan 2014


This community is found on the coastal floodplains of NSW. It has a dense to sparse tree layer in which Casuarina glauca (swamp oak) is the dominant species northwards from Bermagui.

Other trees including Acmena smithii (lilly pilly), Glochidion spp. (cheese trees) and Melaleuca spp. (paperbarks) may be present as subordinate species, and are found most frequently in stands of the community northwards from Gosford. Tree diversity decreases with latitude, and Melaleuca ericifolia is the only abundant tree in this community south of Bermagui.

The understorey is characterised by frequent occurrences of vines, Parsonsia straminea, Geitonoplesium cymosum and Stephania japonica var. discolor, a sparse cover of shrubs, and a continuous groundcover of forbs, sedges, grasses and leaf litter.

The composition of the ground stratum varies depending on levels of salinity in the groundwater. Under less saline conditions prominent ground layer plants include forbs such Centella asiatica, Commelina cyanea, Persicaria decipiens and Viola banksii; graminoids such as Carex appressa, Gahnia clarkei, Lomandra longifolia, Oplismenus imbecillis; and the fern Hypolepis muelleri.

On the fringes of coastal estuaries, where soils are more saline, the ground layer may include the threatened grass species, Alexfloydia repens, as well as Baumea juncea, Juncus kraussii, Phragmites australis, Selliera radicans and other saltmarsh species.

For a comprehensive list of species that characterize the community open the Scientific Determination link in the top right box.


Known from parts of the Local Government Areas of Tweed, Byron, Lismore, Ballina, Richmond Valley, Clarence Valley, Coffs Harbour, Bellingen, Nambucca, Kempsey, Hastings, Greater Taree, Great Lakes, Port Stephens, Maitland, Newcastle, Cessnock, Lake Macquarie, Wyong, Gosford, Pittwater, Warringah, Hawkesbury, Baulkham Hills, Hornsby, Lane Cove, Blacktown, Auburn, Parramatta, Canada Bay, Rockdale, Kogarah, Sutherland, Penrith, Fairfield, Liverpool, Bankstown, Wollondilly, Camden, Campbelltown, Wollongong, Shellharbour, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Eurobodalla and Bega Valley but may occur elsewhere in these bioregions. Major examples once occurred on the floodplains of the Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter, Hawkesbury, Shoalhaven and Moruya Rivers.

The extent of the Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest prior to European settlement has not been mapped across its entire range. However, the remaining area of Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest is likely to represent much less than 30% of its original range. Major occurrences include: less than 350 ha on the Tweed lowlands; less than 650 ha on the lower Clarence floodplain; less than 400 ha on the lower Macleay floodplain; less than 3,200 ha in the lower Hunter - central Hunter region; less than 5,200 ha in the Sydney - South Coast region; and less than 1,000 ha in the Eden region.

Small areas of Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest are contained within existing conservation reserves, including Stotts Island, Ukerebagh, Tuckean, Pambalong, Wamberal, Towra Point and Cullendulla Creek Nature Reserves and Bongil Bongil, Myall Lakes and Conjola National Parks. These occurrences are unevenly distributed throughout the range and unlikely to represent the full diversity of the community.

Habitat and ecology

  • Associated with grey-black clay-loams and sandy loams, where the groundwater is saline or sub-saline, on waterlogged or periodically inundated flats, drainage lines, lake margins and estuarine fringes associated with coastal floodplains
  • Generally occurs below 20 m (rarely above 10 m) elevation
  • The structure of the community may vary from open forests to low woodlands, scrubs or reedlands with scattered trees.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

Information sources

CMA CMA sub-region Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
Hawkesbury-NepeanCumberland Known None
Hawkesbury-NepeanPittwater Known None
Hawkesbury-NepeanSydney Cataract Known None
Hawkesbury-NepeanWollemi Known None
Hawkesbury-NepeanYengo Known None
Hunter-Central RiversHunter Known None
Hunter-Central RiversKaruah Manning Known None
Hunter-Central RiversKerrabee Known None
Hunter-Central RiversMacleay Hastings Known None
Hunter-Central RiversUpper Hunter Predicted None
Hunter-Central RiversWyong Known None
Hunter-Central RiversYengo Known None
Northern RiversCoffs Coast & Escarpment Known None
Northern RiversMacleay Hastings Known None
Northern RiversYuraygir Known None
Southern RiversBateman Known None
Southern RiversEast Gippsland Lowlands (Part C) Known None
Southern RiversIllawarra Known None
Southern RiversJervis Known None
Southern RiversSouth East Coastal Plains Known None
Sydney MetroCumberland Known None
Sydney MetroPittwater (Part A) Known None
Sydney MetroSydney Cataract Known None