About threatened species

Plants and animals are assessed if they are at risk of extinction. If the risk is high they are listed in legislation and conservation actions are developed for their protection.

What is a threatened species?

A species is considered threatened if:

  • there is a reduction in its population size
  • it has a restricted geographical distribution, or
  • there are few mature individuals.

A species may be listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 as:

  • vulnerable
  • endangered
  • critically endangered, or
  • presumed extinct.

How threatened a species is in NSW depends on:

  • the extent of its population reduction
  • the size of its geographical distribution, or
  • the number of mature individuals.

Populations, processes and habitat

Populations of species and ecological communities can also be listed as threatened.

Processes that threaten species may be listed as key threatening processes.

Habitat essential to the survival of endangered or critically endangered species, populations or ecological communities, can be declared as critical habitat.

The legislation applying to threatened species and threatened species programs is:

  • The Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995
  • Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth).

More about threatened species legislation

In NSW the assessment of extinction risk to species and of key threatening processes is undertaken by the NSW Scientific Committee. The NSW Scientific Committee is established under the Threatened Species Conservation Act and it is an independent committee of scientists appointed by the Minister for the Environment.

The Committee determines which threatened species, populations and ecological communities should be listed and their risk of extinction and which threats should be listed as key threatening processes. 

Find out more about the NSW Scientific Committee and its work.

A threatened species priorities action statement is a list of strategies needed to recover species, populations and ecological communities that have been listed under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

OEH Saving our Species projects meet the requirements of the priorities action statement.

Find out more about the priorities action statement.

Biodiversity assessments are often required under legislation where a development has impacted on, will impact on or is likely to impact on, a species, a population, or an ecological community.

The assessment of significance under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 is the first step in considering potential impacts.

For developments likely to affect threatened species, populations, ecological communities or their habitats, a species impact statement is also needed, as outlined in the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Find out more about assessment of significance and species impact statements. 

Field surveys help proponents and ecological consultants assess potential impacts for development applications.

Find out more about species survey and assessment.

Biodiversity offsets

Biodiversity offsets are measures that benefit biodiversity by compensating for the adverse impacts elsewhere of an action, such as clearing for development. Biodiversity offsets help achieve long-term conservation outcomes where development and infrastructure projects are likely to impact biodiversity.

Biodiversity offsets work by protecting and managing biodiversity values in one area in exchange for impacts on biodiversity values in another.

Find out more about biodiversity offsets.

The Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, with some exceptions, prohibits actions that will affect threatened species and their habitats unless licensed and approved.

There are three types of OEH licences relevant to threatened species impacts:

  • licences for scientific, educational and conservation purposes
  • licences to harm threatened species that are causing damage to property
  • licences/certificates for actions that are likely to harm or damage the habitat of a threatened species, population or ecological community or cause that threatened species, population or ecological community to be picked.

Find out more about licences.