Reintroducing locally extinct mammals

The NSW Government's innovative Reintroduction of Locally Extinct Mammals Project to reintroduce at least ten mammal species currently extinct in NSW is now underway. This project is part of the Government's flagship Saving our Species program.

The project

The NSW Government has contracted the Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) and the University of New South Wales (UNSW) to deliver the innovative project to reintroduce locally extinct mammal species into NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) reserves. This initiative, first announced in April 2014, will see the return of mammal species not seen in their natural habitat in NSW for over 90 years.

The reintroduction of locally extinct mammals is a significant component of the Saving our Species program, which aims to maximise the number of threatened species that can be secured in the wild in NSW over the next 100 years.

Nearly 180,000 hectares across three NPWS reserves will be dedicated to the project. Within these areas, AWC and UNSW will establish and manage large introduced animal-free exclusion areas of several thousand hectares where the mammals will be reintroduced following introduced predator and other pest animal removal. The partner organisations will also deliver complementary park management activities in collaboration with the NPWS.

Parks in which fences are proposed to be constructed - in accordance with environmental approvals - are Sturt National Park, Mallee Cliffs National Park and Pilliga State Conservation Area.

More than ten species have been identified for reintroduction including the iconic bilby, numbat, and brush-tailed bettong.

Our scientific research has shown that these mammals play a significant role in maintaining the health of ecosystems. Reintroducing them to exclosures in parks where introduced predators and other pest animals have been removed will not only reduce their risk of extinction, but is expected to deliver significant benefits to many other threatened species as well.

Potential species for reintroduction

Species proposed for reintroduction include:

Questions and answers

Australia has the worst mammal extinction record in the world. Since European settlement, 25 mammal species have become extinct in NSW. Of the surviving mammal species, 59 per cent are threatened with extinction.

The Action Plan for Australian Mammals, released in 2014, showed that we are at a critical turning point for many of our smaller mammals. We have lost more mammals in the last 200 years than any other group of species. It is crucial that we act now to halt this decline in NSW’s mammal species.

The reintroduction of locally extinct mammals into national parks is an innovative new measure under the NSW Government’s Saving our Species program. This will be the first time in NSW that locally extinct mammals will be released into large introduced predator-free areas in national parks. Most of these species have not been seen in their natural habitat in NSW for over 90 years.

This project will not only benefit those previously extinct species that will be reintroduced to our parks, but will allow us to explore new ways to tackle the ongoing battle with key threats such as foxes and feral cats. We know, through scientific research, that these mammals play a significant role in maintaining the health of ecosystems. Reintroducing them to exclosures in parks where feral predators and other pest animals have been removed will allow us to study their response, while also delivering significant benefits to many other threatened species.

The mammals to be reintroduced are listed as 'presumed extinct' in NSW. While they survive in the wild elsewhere in Australia, almost all are listed nationally as threatened with extinction. The following locally extinct species are proposed to be reintroduced.

  • Greater bilby
  • Numbat
  • Brush-tailed bettong
  • Burrowing bettong
  • Bridled Nail-tail Wallaby
  • Golden bandicoot
  • Western barred bandicoot
  • Western quoll
  • Greater stick-nest rat
  • Mitchell’s hopping-mouse
  • Red-tailed phascogale
  • Crest-tailed mulgara.

Other species may be reintroduced as the project progresses.

Mammals will be released into introduced predator-free exclosures of several thousand hectares at three different sites, all within national parks. These are:

  • Mallee Cliffs National Park, just north of Mildura
  • Sturt National Park in the state’s far north west; and
  • Pilliga State Conservation Area north of Coonabarabran.

These national parks include large areas of habitat which are suitable for the mammals proposed for reintroduction and which also support a diverse number of other native animals and plants, including threatened species.

We have chosen national parks because we want to look at innovative approaches to improving the health of park ecosystems. Reintroducing locally extinct mammals to the parks is expected to help improve ecosystem health. The burrowing and other activities of the mammals will also promote healthy vegetation by retaining water and nutrients and helping seed dispersal. In addition, removal of introduced predators will benefit a range of other species, particularly ground-dwelling and ground-nesting species.

The sites were chosen because of their suitability for the installation of long lengths of exclosure fencings and because the construction of such fencing was not likely to interfere with existing park uses.

All activities will be undertaken in accordance with relevant legislation and park management policies, and will be subject to rigorous environmental impact assessment process.

The project will be managed using a new model for collaboration between the non-profit and public sectors to deliver conservation outcomes.

The Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) and the University of New South Wales (UNSW), operating as Wild Deserts, have been contracted by the Office of Environment and Heritage to reintroduce locally extinct mammals to selected national parks. Both organisations have extensive experience in reintroduction programs and large-scale conservation management.

The partners have been contracted following an extensive selection process which began in April 2014. The initial partnership agreements span the next decade, subject to rigorous ongoing scientific monitoring and evaluation.

AWC will deliver their component of the project at Mallee Cliff National Park and Pilliga State Conservation Area, while UNSW will deliver the project in Sturt National Park.

AWC and UNSW will work in close partnership with the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service to deliver reintroduction activities and associated park management services.

Yes. Successful reintroduction will require intensive management to remove threats to the reintroduced species. Foxes and cats in particular are a main cause of small mammal decline. Removal of threats will benefit other small mammals as well as many reptiles and bird species, including the iconic Malleefowl.

In addition, small to mid-sized mammals act as ‘environmental engineers’ that play a vital role in the health of ecosystems. Their burrowing and other activities help retain water and nutrients, as well as helping seed dispersal. This in turn helps to promote healthy vegetation.

Although the mammals are extinct in the wild in New South Wales, they still survive in the wild in other places across the country so, for some species, animals may be sourced from wild populations.

Other large fenced areas in conservation reserves and special captive breeding populations established elsewhere in Australia will provide another source of animals for the project.

Exclusion areas of several thousand hectares each will be established in NSW national parks. Each area will be surrounded by fencing to exclude cats, foxes and other pest animals.

Once the fencing is built, all introduced predators will be removed. Other pest animals such as goats and rabbits, which may have an impact on the habitat inside each exclosure, will also be controlled. The mammals can then be reintroduced.

The fence will be regularly checked and maintained, and the exclosure regularly monitored for any signs of pest animals.

A rigorous monitoring and evaluation program will form a fundamental part of the project and will help to detect any change in the size of populations, as well as the health of animals.

In the absence of a pest animal-proof fence, almost every attempt to reintroduce small mammals has failed, largely through predation by foxes and cats. Because of the ongoing threat these introduced predators pose, release into unfenced areas is not currently possible for most species.

The 2013 Australian Senate Committee Report into the `Effectiveness of threatened species and ecological communities' protection in Australia’ recognised the success of predator-proof sanctuaries in helping to protect and recover threatened species.

There are several examples where predator fencing has increased the population of reintroduced mammal species. For example, the Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) has used a pest animal-proof fence to significantly increase the populations of endangered species such as the numbat, bridled nail-tail wallaby and brush-tailed bettong in the Scotia Wildlife Sanctuary in western NSW.

Fencing areas is not seen as a long term solution for all our threatened species, but one of immediate need to halt further decline and restore identified areas. This will see an improvement in the health of a range of species to prevent these from also heading towards extinction. Importantly, these projects will allow us to explore new ways to tackle the ongoing battle with key threats such as foxes and feral cats, as a step towards reversing local extinction of these mammals.

No. The fenced areas will be several thousand hectares in size and the objective is to establish self-sustaining, wild populations to help restore park ecosystems. The entire area within the exclosure will be managed as a whole ecosystem, just like outside the fence. The only difference is that there will be no pest animals.

The fenced areas will be embedded in larger areas of national parks covering around 180,000 hectares.

The first step in the project will be to undertake an environmental impact assessment in each of the relevant parks. This will help decide the final location of each exclosure. Fence construction is expected to start in 2017 and be completed by 2018. Mammals will be reintroduced once all introduced predators have been removed from the exclosure. This is expected to be by mid-2019.

The NSW Government is committing over $40 million over ten years to this scientific program that will explore the responses of native species to predator control programs, and which will leverage a multimillion dollar contribution from Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) and University of NSW (UNSW).

Funding for the project is in addition to the $100 million for Saving Our Species projects and national parks funding.

There will be many positive changes associated with the removal of feral and other pest animals and the restoration of some ecosystem services by small to medium sized mammals.

However, the project will also monitor ecological impacts, such as soil erosion, whether vegetation can sustain the population of reintroduced mammals, and whether fencing will have any impacts on larger animals.

An environmental impact assessment at the start of the project will help our understanding of which species may need particular consideration when constructing the fences.

The focus on pest animal control may lead to improved strategies and techniques that can be shared with landholders and which will inform conservation strategies for many other threatened species.

The project represents a substantial investment in regional NSW. It will create new and unique visitor opportunities for the public to engage with these parks, for example, through guided nocturnal walks to see bilbies and other animals in the wild.

Many existing national parks have a visitor fee. Any visitor fee related to this initiative will be re-invested in the park estate.