Vehicle access policy

We manage vehicle access to parks to keep staff and visitors safe and limit impacts on the park environment.

Holidaymaker caravan, cars and trailer, Warrumbungle National ParkPolicy

1. Vehicle access and associated infrastructure should:

  • not cause unacceptable impacts on nature and cultural heritage
  • be designed with sensitivity to the landscape
  • promote the principles of energy conservation and sustainability
  • be appropriate and necessary to meet park-management needs
  • be designed to supply opportunities for visitors to understand, enjoy and appreciate parks, and take maximum advantage of interpretive opportunities and scenic values
  • provide access to a range of visitor experiences in parks for people with disabilities.

2. Vehicle access, including four-wheel driving and registered trail-bike use, can be appropriate in certain places in certain parks where it is compatible with the conservation and visitor management objectives of the park.

3. New roads or trails will not be developed specifically for trail-bikes or four-wheel-drive (4WD) vehicles, except where access for these types of vehicles is required for park-management purposes, such as fire management. However, some roads and trails will be maintained at a standard that is suitable only for 4WD vehicles.

4. The roads of the public access system (defined in About the policy section), plus any information about access restrictions, will be made clear to the public through means such as signs, brochures and plans of management.

5. In general, the public can use vehicles in all parts of the public access system (defined in About the policy section), unless access is restricted in accordance with paragraph 25 of this policy.

6. In general, park visitors are not allowed to use their vehicles on management trails as these are not part of the public access system. However, park visitors and other parties may be allowed to use vehicles on management trails in the following circumstances:

  • for cycling, where this is allowed under the cycling policy
  • as part of an approved, registered and supervised volunteer activity
    • involving the use of 4WD vehicles under an approved memorandum of understanding
    • such as scientific-research
    • involving an approved fire-management or fire-training
  • to access neighbouring properties in accordance with the access to inholdings policy
  • for access by licence holders or leaseholders to infrastructure such as telecommunication towers or apiary sites
  • for contractors to carry out works or activities in parks
  • for emergency access (for which no approval is required) and for training events (such as search and rescue) by emergency-services personnel
  • for access by professional fishing operators, under conditions set out in the commercial fishing access policy
  • to enable Aboriginal people to access sites for cultural purposes in accordance with an approved partnership agreement
  • for other government agencies to perform their duties, where approved by the park authority.

7. Public vehicular access is not allowed in asset-protection zones, except upon a park road, public road or Ministerial road, if such a road is contained within the asset-protection zone.

8. Except as provided in paragraph 9 of this Policy, vehicles (other than NPWS or emergency services vehicles, watercraft or aircraft) may not be driven off-road (that is, anywhere other than on roads and trails, in designated parking areas, or on other vehicle infrastructure). Off-road use of vehicles will be limited to what is necessary for emergency operations or conducting essential management activities that cannot be accomplished reasonably by other means.

Beach access

9. Vehicle access to and along beaches (‘beach access’) affects the environment and may endanger visitors. Public beach access will not be allowed in nature reserves under any circumstances. Beach access will not be allowed in other parks except as provided for in paragraphs 10 and 11.

10. Beach access may be carried out in accordance with the commercial fishing access policy.

11. Where beach access exists at the time a park is gazetted, the preferred approach is to remove the activity or reduce its scale. Such beach access will generally not be allowed to expand after a park is gazetted unless a change in access route/s is required for environmental or safety reasons. Beach access will not be allowed to continue without discussion with relevant stakeholders and consideration of how the access may affect:

  • natural heritage, including but not limited to
    • the morphology of the beach
    • potential impacts on threatened species and ecological communities
  • cultural heritage, particularly middens
  • visitor or management access
  • the safety of other people using the beach or the park.

The provisions in paragraphs 9–11 apply only where the beach is reserved as part of the park. In many cases the beach may be controlled by a local council.

12. A recreational-vehicle area exists in the Worimi Conservation Lands at Stockton Bight. Certain types of recreational vehicles (such as 4WDs, quadbikes, motorbikes and dune buggies) are allowed in this area, if a permit is held. These vehicles must be conditionally registered with Roads and Maritime Services, and may only be driven on public roads or within the recreational vehicle area. No new recreational-vehicle areas will be designated in parks.

Recreational-vehicle areas can be designated only by an order published in the Government Gazette.

13. Before a new road is planned, natural and cultural heritage values should be identified and their location ascertained, to minimise the road’s impact.

14. Planning for new roads or the permanent closure of existing roads must be informed by, and consistent with, a park’s plan of management and planning for park visitation (where available). Any new roads must be proposed only for strategic reasons, such as major benefits for park management and visitation.

15. Road planning should take into account the costs of construction, ongoing maintenance and other management.

16. Any proposed acquisition of land for a new park, or an addition to a park, should take into account how park users will be able to gain legal road access to the park, and the condition and legality of the existing road network.

17. The park authority has power under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (NPW Act) and the National Parks and Wildlife Regulation 2009 (NPW Regulation) to close all or part of the public access system (except public roads), either permanently or temporarily, for management or safety reasons. 

Temporary closures

18. Roads, trails or other vehicle infrastructure may be temporarily closed where:

  • the infrastructure poses a short-term safety risk to users (for example, if weed spraying, baiting or prescribed burning operations are taking place, or the infrastructure is damaged) 
  • there is a special event 
  • there is a natural incident such as flood, fire or snow 
  • closure is necessary for short-term protection of natural or cultural heritage values, or park assets. 

19. Temporary closures may be seasonal (for instance, because there is high rainfall or snowfall, or threatened animals are breeding). 

20. Consent is required from the appropriate roads authority (usually Roads and Maritime Services, or the local council) to temporarily close a public road. 

Permanent closures

21. The road network in a park should be fit for purpose, and any road that does not have a clear purpose should be deemed surplus to needs and be permanently closed. In particular, roads classified as ‘minor’ or ‘low’ should be considered for permanent closure (for guidance on road classifications, see the roads policy and Roads Manual (internal documents available to staff)).

22. Roads may be permanently closed to the public where: 

  • the road or vehicle infrastructure poses a long-term safety risk to users
  • the infrastructure is no longer considered necessary, or duplicates other infrastructure (that is, there is alternative access) 
  • continued use or maintenance is likely to significantly affect nature or cultural heritage or wilderness values
  • closure would reduce maintenance costs. 

23. The decision to permanently close a road must take into account:

  • the current and likely future use of the road
  • the values of the road, including any heritage values
  • any impacts, including risks to safety or the environment, likely to occur if the road is not closed.

Roads, trails or other vehicle infrastructure must not be permanently closed to public access if they are:

  • a public road managed by a roads authority under the Roads Act 1993
  • identified as open for public access in a plan of management (unless the plan is amended)
  • the only practical means of access to neighbouring properties
  • access roads vested in the Minister as defined under the National Park Estate (Reservations) Acts 2002, 2003 and 2005
  • under any licence, easement or contractual agreement (unless the other party agrees to the closure)
  • identified as being open in any memorandum of understanding (MOU) or contractual agreement (such as a licence or easement) between the park authority and another person or authority (unless the MOU or agreement is amended).

24. Roads, trails or other vehicle infrastructure that are closed to public vehicular access must be signposted in accordance with the Signage Manual (internal document available to staff), and should be gated or have some form of barrier to identify that they are closed.

25. Neighbouring landholders and other stakeholders who may be affected by a proposed closure, whether temporary, seasonal or permanent, will be consulted prior to the decision, where feasible. Discussions may include whether there are alternatives to closure that meet management objectives. Where prior consultation is not feasible, neighbouring landholders and stakeholders will be informed of the closure and the reasons for it.

26. Permanent road closures must only be undertaken under an approved plan of management. Permanent closures must not be undertaken under a statement of interim management intent.

27. Roads, trails or other vehicle infrastructure that are permanently closed may be actively rehabilitated or left to rehabilitate naturally.

Vehicle access may be restricted on a temporary or permanent basis:

  • to protect vulnerable park assets, such as the nesting sites of threatened species or an Aboriginal site
  • to reduce risks to public safety
  • because of fire hazard, flooding or snow
  • to minimise the risk of transporting pathogenic organisms 
  • to minimise damage to road surfaces and minimise maintenance
  • for other purposes that help achieve the aims of the NPW Act.

Restrictions may relate to

  • type of vehicle
  • times of use
  • washing of tyres

and other criteria.

Classification of a road or trail for specific types of vehicles such as 4WD vehicles and bicycles may be considered where that would help:

  • promote recreational opportunity and optimise the user’s experience of the park
  • manage impacts on the park and its values. 

NPWS will actively encourage the use of public transport and other forms of commuter transport to parks, to minimise traffic in parks and reduce air pollution. However, public transport in parks must be consistent with the general principles in paragraph 1 and other provisions of this policy.

The park authority may charge fees for vehicle use of an area.

32. The park authority may introduce a permit system (under clause 31(1)(c) of the NPW Regulation) or limit group sizes for vehicle touring where warranted by the level, intensity, impacts or extent of vehicular activities or the environmental sensitivity of the area where vehicles are permitted.

33. Where possible, the park authority will:

  • consult with relevant stakeholders prior to the introduction of a permit system within a park
  • explore other management mechanisms to achieve the management objectives.

34. The park authority has some powers to move a vehicle (including a vessel) where a person fails to comply with a direction. Clause 8(1) of the NPW Regulation provides that a designated officer (defined in About the policy) may direct a person to leave the park if he or she is trespassing, causing a nuisance or inconvenience to any other person in the park, or has committed an offence against the NPW Act or Regulation. If the person fails to comply with the direction, the authorised officer may remove the person and their vehicle from the park. 

35. A person may be directed to move their vehicle under paragraph 1 of this policy if:

  • the vehicle is parked in a manner which blocks or impedes traffic flow or access to management trails that may be required for fire management or other essential park management or emergency operation 
  • the vehicle is parked in a manner that endangers staff or visitor safety
  • the vehicle is parked in a manner that damages vegetation or a culturally or environmentally sensitive area (such as an Aboriginal area or an area that is susceptible to erosion).

This provision does not limit the power of staff with the appropriate authorisation or delegation to direct a person to move their vehicle in any other situation for which powers exist under the NPW Act or Regulation.

36. A designated officer may cause a vehicle to be towed or otherwise removed from a park or part of a park if in their opinion (refer to clause 7(3) of the NPW Regulation):

  • the vehicle is parked in a dangerous manner or in a dangerous location

and

  • it is not practicable to locate the owner or driver of the vehicle and direct them to move the vehicle.

37. Some NPWS officers are also appointed as impounding officers under the Impounding Act 1993. These officers may, in certain circumstances, impound a motor vehicle or vessel that has been abandoned or left unattended. Usually the vehicle’s owner must be given three days’ notice. However, a vehicle may be impounded immediately if it is obstructing traffic or is likely to be a danger to the public.

38. Authorised officers may seize a vehicle under the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 if:

  • they are permitted to do so under the powers given to Authorised Officers outlined in the NPWS Law Enforcement and Compliance Manual (internal document available to staff)

and

  • they reasonably believe an offence under the NPW Act or Regulation has occurred

and

  • the vehicle is connected with the offence. 

39. Towing for stranded or ‘broken-down’ vehicles should first be sought from non-NPWS sources. NPWS officers may tow a stranded or ‘broken-down’ vehicle to the nearest point where commercial towing is available if all the following conditions apply:

  • help can’t be obtained from local operators
  • the officers have undertaken training in 4WD towing
  • the activity does not jeopardise the safety of staff
  • the owner has signed a request and an indemnity form.

40. If NPWS provides towing assistance, costs to NPWS will be recovered in accordance with the procedures in this document. Where the driver of the vehicle has acted illegally, fees charged for a recovery will not negate the option for legal action against the offender.

41. Where waterways and water bodies are reserved as part of a park, the use of vessels, launching and moorings may be restricted or prohibited based on user conflicts, noise or other potential environmental damage. NPWS will work with Roads and Maritime to cooperatively manage the use of vessels in and near parks.

42. Launching a vessel can cause erosion or other environmental damage, so vessels that cannot be carried should only be launched from formed roads or ramps, or other sites that are part of the public access system, where possible.

43. Boat ramps and associated facilities may be provided in some locations, subject to an assessment in accordance with the principles of paragraph 1 of this policy.

44. New moorings will be installed only if there is an environmental or public-safety benefit in doing so.

Vessel removal or towing

45. The NPW Regulation contains various offences relating to the use of vessels in parks without the consent of the park authority. The paragraphs of this policy regarding removal or towing of vehicles also apply to vessels.

46. Owners are responsible for recovering their vessels. In exceptional circumstances, where assistance from local operators is unavailable, NPWS may help to recover a vessel. Approval of the NPWS area manager is required, and the owner must sign a request and indemnity form (if possible). All costs to NPWS will be recovered under section 143 of the NPW Act.

47. A car or motorcycle rally that involves a competition based on speed and/or the time taken to complete an activity is not consistent with the aims of the NPW Act and is not permissible in any park. This includes rallies that are conducted for charitable or non-profit organisations.

48. A car or motorcycle rally that involves competition but which is not based on speed or the time taken to complete an activity may be permissible with consent (clause 22, NPW Regulation) in parks other than nature reserves or Aboriginal areas, provided that it is consistent with the relevant plan of management. (Gatherings of vintage cars, four-wheel-drive vehicles or motorcycles are examples of rallies that are not based on speed or time.)

A rally that is passing through a park but not racing must comply with the road rules that apply to all users of a public road – that is, normal speed limits and parking restrictions.

49. A plan of management may prohibit car or motorcycle rallies, or it may apply particular conditions to permissible rallies where consent is given.

50. The use of roads in parks as transit routes should only be allowed where the organisers have no feasible alternatives. Consent is not required for spectators, participants or organisers to pass through a park to a rally if that activity is not part of the organised competition or activity.

51. Any approval granted must be subject to, at a minimum, the conditions listed under procedures in this policy.

52. NPWS will monitor compliance with this policy and the conditions attached to the approval. The rally organisers will be required to pay NPWS to cover the monitoring costs.

Under clause 7 of the NPW Regulation it is an offence to operate, drive, use or have within a person’s possession an oversnow vehicle in a park without the consent of the park authority. Consent will not be given in any park except Kosciuszko National Park, where use must comply with the following requirements:

  • Oversnow vehicles can be used only for the safe and efficient functioning of ski-resort business. Oversnow vehicles are registered to operate in strictly limited areas, as stipulated on the NPWS registration certificate issued to the vehicle. 
  • Away from resort centres, oversnow vehicles must only be used for official park management, or by the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority and search and rescue operations. Commonwealth, state or local government bodies with statutory responsibilities within Kosciuszko National Park may also register oversnow vehicles to enable them to meet their statutory obligations.
  • The licencees of commercial oversnow transport operations may register such oversnow vehicles as determined are necessary to enable them to meet their licence obligations.
  • Approval will not be given for the recreational use of oversnow vehicles.
  • In determining whether and, if so, how many oversnow vehicles will be registered for use in Kosciuszko National Park by an agency, lessee or other applicant, the NPWS director will consider the need that has been demonstrated and the stipulations on oversnow vehicle numbers in any relevant lease.
  • The number of oversnow vehicles registered for any one operation will be determined by:
    • demonstrated genuine need
    • satisfactory proof that existing licensed vehicles do not provide an adequate service
    • lease conditions
    • for Perisher Valley only, the distance to the operational centre of Perisher Valley.
  • Oversnow vehicles must travel only on designated oversnow routes.

Overflights

54. All aircraft operations are subject to the regulations of the Civil Aviation Act 1988 (Cwth) and the Air Navigation Act 1920 (Cwth), and the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) is responsible for their safety.

Under the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (Regulation 157), aircraft must not fly at a height of less than 500 feet (152.4m) above ground level. The limit in built-up areas is 1000 feet (304.8m).

Exceptions may be made to the minimum height requirement in bad weather or if the aircraft is engaged in:

  • fire management
  • law enforcement
  • search and rescue operations
  • other operations that require low flying and for which CASA has provided a permit.

CASA can also exempt certain types of aircraft from height restrictions in certain circumstances.

55. The park authority cannot require that its consent be obtained before a commercial aircraft can undertake a flight over a park, as flights are regulated by Commonwealth law. Impacts on parks should be dealt with by entering into non-regulatory fly neighbourly agreements (see paragraph 56).

56.Fly neighbourly agreements (FNAs) are voluntary agreements that allow operators to self-regulate their use of airspace. FNAs may be developed for parks where aircraft are causing (or may cause) significant disturbance to park visitors or wildlife. They will be developed in conjunction with management planning where possible.

57. Wilderness and nature reserves are particularly sensitive to aircraft noise and aircraft use in these areas should be avoided. Flights over culturally sensitive areas, or places where animals may be disturbed (such as breeding areas) should also be avoided.

Landings

58.The private landing of an aircraft within a park will generally not be allowed other than in exceptional circumstances, and then only where all the following conditions apply:

  • it is approved by the park authority and is consistent with the NPW Act, the NPW Regulation, the Wilderness Act 1987 (if relevant), and any applicable plan of management
  • any infrastructure required for the landing already exists (noting that it is the responsibility of the Pilot in Command to ensure the landing ground meets the necessary standards)
  • the landing is for a purpose connected to the use and management of the park.

No approval is required where emergency services personnel require emergency air access.

59. In considering an application for private landing of aircraft in a park, the park authority will take into account whether:

  • the activity endangers the safety of park visitors, or interferes with other park visitors’ use of the park or park management
  • environmental impacts (including noise) of the landing and associated activities are acceptable
  • any maintenance and operational costs involved can be recovered by OEH
  • the operator has provided evidence of adequate insurance cover and an air operator’s certificate for the specific operations being undertaken
  • the operator has released and indemnified OEH from any damages resulting from accidents in the park related to the landing.

60. Despite the above, private landing of aircraft will not be allowed in wilderness areas or nature reserves, except in emergency situations. In most circumstances landing in wilderness areas or nature reserves is unlikely to be permissible under the legislation, and legal advice should be sought if such access is required.

Vehicle towing and recovery

61. Indemnity forms must be completed prior to any towing taking place, except in an emergency.

62. No fee will be charged where all the following conditions apply:

  • help can’t be obtained from commercial operators
  • the NPWS officer thinks that the visitor was driving in a responsible manner (that is, not contravening any notice or the Regulation)
  • where the necessary staff, vehicles and equipment are onsite and recovery and/or towing takes less than 10 minutes of staff time.

63. In other cases, the following charges will be made:

  • where recovery and/or towing involves between 10 minutes and one hour of NPWS staff time and there are no costs other than those associated with the use of service equipment and time, a fee of $150 will be charged
  • where recovery and/or towing exceeds one hour of NPWS staff time, an additional charge of one dollar will apply for each additional minute a NPWS officer spends on the recovery operation.

64. Any costs incurred by NPWS, over and above the time spent by staff and the use of NPWS equipment, will be charged at the rate at which those costs are incurred.

65. The vehicle owner will be billed for the charges by mail.

66. Fees charged should be in addition to any infringement notice that may be issued or damages arising from any subsequent prosecution.

67. Where significant damage has been done to any trail or the environment, staff should, as far as possible, obtain evidence of such damage. Evidence could include photographs of the vehicle and surrounds both before and after removal of the vehicle. (Legal Services Division should be consulted on the gathering of evidence for prosecution purposes.)

Car and motorcycle rallies

68. An Environmental Management Bond will be payable on application to stage a rally and must be held by NPWS prior to approval being granted. The size of the bond should reflect the damage the rally might cause.

69. Rally organisers must be covered by insurance.

  • Rally organisers must hold public liability insurance of at least $10 million, recognising the interest of the Minister administering the National Parks and Wildlife Act, the Office of Environment and Heritage, the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage, and the State of NSW.
  • A certificate of currency must be attached to the signed approval.
  • Insurers must be approved by the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority.

70. The following conditions will be imposed on car, motorcycle or bicycle rallies traversing parks:

  • The rally must travel along the route agreed to on a diagram (attach the relevant map).
  • Speed limits apply as indicated by traffic signs or as imposed by the NSW Police Force.
  • In extreme weather or fire conditions, or for other management purposes, NPWS officers can redirect rally vehicles as needed.
  • Breaks in the rally to service vehicles will not be held on park. No parking for this purpose will be permitted on park. (However, a rally may stop for a meal break or to display vehicles in a properly constituted car park.)
  • No rally-related signs, directions, hoardings or other material will be erected or affixed on park, unless required for safety reasons.
  • If signs are required, these must be erected by and at the cost of the event organiser, and removed by a due date.
  • The Environmental Management Bond, or part thereof, will be returned following assessment of any damage caused by the rally. NPWS will return any part of the bond remaining once any damage caused by the rally has been repaired to the satisfaction of NPWS.

Policy adopted 24 May 2017

Objectives

The objectives of this policy are to:

  • help park staff plan, manage and regulate vehicle access in a way that conserves nature and cultural heritage, protects human life and provides for an injury-free visit to parks
  • ensure that vehicle use in parks occurs in accordance with the legislation and the management objectives of parks
  • provide appropriate vehicle access for management purposes, including emergency access
  • provide for recreational vehicle use, where appropriate, and ensure the ecologically sustainable management of such vehicles within parks
  • meet the needs and expectations of visitors that are appropriate to the management objectives of each park, and ensure that the mix and pattern of recreational use within a park (including driving, cycling, camping and walking) maintains an appropriate level of safety, equity, harmony and satisfaction amongst park visitors
    • provide for the appropriate use of oversnow vehicles in Kosciuszko National Park for ski-resort and park-management purposes
    • clarify legal jurisdiction governing aircraft access over parks and provide appropriate guidance on aircraft and air access to parks.

Scope and application

This policy applies to lands acquired or reserved under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (‘parks’) and covers all types of vehicle access, including vessels. 

Other specific vehicle-access related policies (such as the Roads Policy and Cycling Policy) may sit under this overarching policy.

Definitions and abbreviations

Aircraft is defined under vehicle.

Allowed versus permitted: permitted means that an activity is legally permissible under the NPW Act, the Wilderness Act 1987 or a plan of management. An activity may be legally permitted but not allowed under a policy.

Asset protection zone means an area surrounding a residential or other significant building that is used to reduce bushfire hazard to an acceptable level. The width of an asset protection zone depends on the slope of the land and the building’s construction type.

Car, motorcycle or bicycle rally means an organised group of more than 40 people driving cars or riding motorcycles or bicycles (or as otherwise defined in a plan of management).

OEH versus NPWS: OEH is used where the policy refers to an agency position or responsibility. NPWS is used to refer to that part of OEH which implements the NPW Act and manages parks.

Designated officer under clauses 7(9) and 8(6) of the NPW Regulation means one of the following:

  • a National Parks officer
  • a person who is authorised by the park authority to exercise the powers conferred by these clauses
  • a police officer.   

Designated parking area means an area set aside for the parking of vehicles, including boats, caravans and trailers.

Management trails are vehicle trails on lands reserved or acquired under the NPW Act and which are maintained by NPWS for the purpose of park-management activities. If these trails are open to public vehicle use then they are roads under the roads legislation. Their status will therefore vary from park to park.

Ministerial roads are roads, vested with the Minister for Climate Change and the Environment under Part 11 of the NPW Act, which traverse a park but are not reserved as part of the park. However, Ministerial roads are treated as part of the park under the NPW Regulation and this policy.

Oversnow vehicle means a vehicle specifically designed to be driven over snow and/or capable of driving over snow.   

Park authority means the body responsible for the care, control and management of a park, as defined in the National Parks and Wildlife Regulation 2009. 

Park roads are roads reserved as part of a park that are open to the public, although they can be closed for park-management reasons. They are maintained by NPWS.

Private landing of aircraft means landing of aircraft that are not NPWS aircraft, aircraft on contract to OEH, or aircraft of a government agency engaged in authorised activities (such as search and rescue).   

PoM means a plan of management in relation to land reserved under the NPW Act that is prepared under section 72 of the Act.

Public access system comprises park roads, public roads, Ministerial roads and other infrastructure designed for vehicles (such as designated parking areas, aircraft runways and boat ramps).

Public roads are not part of the park and are designated as public roads under the Roads Act 1993, or under other legislation for the purpose of the Roads Act. Public roads are most commonly land held by Roads and Maritime Services, local government, or NSW Land and Property Information (for Crown roads). To determine if a road is a public road:

  • check what is recorded on the deposited plan for the land
  • check the relevant Gazette or Act for the acquisition or reservation of the land, or
  • ask Roads and Maritime Services.

Recreational vehicle area means land that is designated as a recreation vehicle area under section 11 of the Recreation Vehicles Act 1983

Road is defined in the roads legislation, and means an area that is open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as one of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles.

A road includes:

  • the airspace above the surface of the road
  • the soil beneath the surface of the road
  • any bridge, tunnel, causeway, road-ferry, ford or other work or structure forming part of the road.

Roads may be public roads, park roads, Ministerial roads and, in some cases, management trails.

Roads authority is the authority responsible for managing public roads. Roads and Maritime Services is the roads authority for all freeways and most highways, the NSW Land and Property Information is the roads authority for all Crown roads, and local government is generally the roads authority for all other public roads. NPWS is not a roads authority.

SIMI means statement of interim management intent. A SIMI may be prepared as an interim park management plan when a plan of management (POM) is yet to be developed.

Vehicle is defined in the NPW Act as:

  • a boat or other object that, while floating on water or submerged, whether wholly or partly, under water, is wholly or partly used for the conveyance of persons or things
  • an apparatus that, while propelled, or directed or controlled, in the air by human or mechanical power or by the wind, is wholly or partly used for the conveyance of persons or things
  • a motor vehicle
  • an apparatus propelled, or directed or controlled, upon land, snow or ice by human or animal power or by the wind
  • a trailer or caravan, whether or not it is in the course of being towed.

A vehicle therefore includes:

  • aircraft
  • watercraft
  • bicycles
  • motor vehicles (including four-wheel drive vehicles)
  • motorcycles (including trail bikes)
  • oversnow vehicles
  • blokarts (land sail vehicles).

References to vehicles in this policy use the definition from the NPW Act. However, where it is necessary to specify a certain type of vehicle, terms such as vessel and aircraft are used. The NPW Regulation also uses this method, with particular clauses applying to subsets of vehicles.

In some circumstances a surfboard, bodyboard or lilo may be considered to be a vessel (for example, in clause 7(9) of the NPW Regulation).

A horse or camel is not a vehicle under the NPW Act and is not covered by this policy unless it is drawing an apparatus referred to in the definition above. (Some clauses of the NPW Regulation treat vehicles and horses similarly, but the Regulation does not include horses in the definition of a vehicle.)

Vehicle infrastructure, for the purposes of this policy, includes designated parking areas, landing strips, boat ramps, and bridges, but excludes roads and trails.

Accountabilities

Accountabilities under this policy are in accordance with the delegation of Ministerial and Chief Executive functions under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 and National Parks and Wildlife Regulation 2009.

This table lists accountabilities which are additional to the legal delegations.

Paragraph Position
20. Consent to close a road Roads and Maritime Services, or local council (as applicable)
53. Consent for use of an oversnow vehicle in Kosciuszko National Park Park authority
58. Consent to private landing of an aircraft within park Park authority