Environmental issues

Water quality

Tables 1a to 1c

Table 1a: Indicators for which there are preferred standard protocols and assessment criteria

Table 1b: Indicators for which there are preferred standard protocols but for which there is no need for assessment criteria or where these are yet to be developed/standardised

Table 1c: Indicators for which standard protocols and assessment criteria are still under development

Table 1a: Indicators for which there are preferred standard protocols and assessment criteria

Indicator Preferred Standard Protocol1 Standard Assessment Criteria
Physical Properties

True colour

APHA2 2120 B

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)3

Turbidity (nephelometer)

APHA 2130

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Total suspended solids

APHA 2540 D

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Total dissolved solids

APHA 2540 C

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a

Temperature

APHA 2550

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

pH

APHA 4500-H+

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Conductivity (25 deg C)

APHA 2520

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Chemical Properties

Chloride [Cl-]

APHA 4500-Cl, 4110

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Hardness

APHA 2340

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Alkalinity

APHA 2320

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Total phosphorus

APHA 4500-P4

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Filterable reactive phosphorus

APHA 4500-P3

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Total nitrogen

APHA 4500-N

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Ammonia

APHA 4500-NH3

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Oxidised nitrogen

APHA 4500-NO3

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Biochemical oxygen demand

APHA 5210 B

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Chemical oxygen demand

APHA 5220

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Dissolved oxygen

APHA 4500-O

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Anionic surfactants as MBAS

APHA 5540

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Oil and grease

APHA 5520

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Cyanide

APHA 4500-CN-

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Sulfide

APHA 4500 S2-

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Sulfate

APHA 4500 S4--

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Contaminants

Organochlorines

USEPA5 SW-846 8081B

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Organophosphates

USEPA SW-846 8141B

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Chlorinated Herbicides

USEPA SW-846 8151A

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Carbamates

USEPA SW-846 8318

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Semi-volatile Organic Compounds

USEPA SW-846 8270D

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Diquat/Paraquat

USEPA SW-846 549.1

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Diuron

USEPA SW-846 8321B

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Glyphosate

APHA (20th) 6651

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

PCBs

APHA 6431

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Total/dissolved metals

APHA 3010 A (Methods listed in table 3010:1 are acceptable)

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Radiological: gross alpha and gross beta

AS6

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Microbiological Indicators

Thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli - most probable number (MPN)7

AS 4276.6 (1995)

NH&MRC8 1990 and ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli - membrane filtration9

APHA 9222D

NH&MRC 1990 and ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Enterococci (membrane filtration)

APHA 9230 C

NH&MRC 1990 and ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

E. coli - enzyme substrate test10

APHA 9223

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Biological Indicators

Algae (chlorophyll-a)

APHA 10200H

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Algae (cells/ml)

Hotzel and Croome (1999)

ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Cyanobacteria (cells/mL)

APHA 10200F

SACC 112001

 

Table 1b: Indicators for which there are preferred standard protocols but for which there is no need for assessment criteria or where these are yet to be developed/standardised

Indicator Preferred Standard Protocol
Hydrological Measurements

Flow12

AS 3778

River height13

AS 3778

Velocity 10

AS 3778

Physical Properties

Ultra violet absorbance organic constituents 10

APHA 5910

Chemical Properties

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen

APHA 4500-Norg

Silica (reactive)

APHA 4500-SiO2

Dissolved organic carbon

APHA 5310

Total organic carbon

APHA 5310

Iodide

APHA 4500-I

Microbiological Indicators

Faecal Streptococci MPN

AS 4276.8 (1995)

Faecal Streptococci - membrane filtration

AS 4276.9 (1995)

F-RNA Bacteriophage

ISO 10705

Biological Indicators

Phaeophytin

APHA 10200 H

Table 1c: Indicators for which standard protocols and assessment criteria are still under development

Indicator Available Non-Standard Protocol
Geomorphological Features

River cross section

IMEF14Methods Manual

Wetland morphometry

IMEF Methods Manual

Wetland description

IMEF Methods Manual

River bed shear stress and movement

IMEF Methods Manual

River bed particle size distribution

IMEF Methods Manual

Hydrological Measurements

Wetland Inundation

IMEF Methods Manual

Wetland inundation (satellite imagery)

(satellite imagery)

Microbiological Indicators

Clostridium perfringens (membrane filtration)

MI0415

phage HSP40

100M1 Method - Low level8

Human enteroviruses

MP22 11

Microbial sampling

IMEF Methods Manual

Biological Indicators

Phytoplankton - depth integrated

IMEF Methods Manual

Phytoplankton - point sampling

IMEF Methods Manual

Zooplankton - rivers

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates (rapid assessment)

Turak and Waddell 2001

Macroinvertebrates - wetland

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates - stones

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates - wood

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates - river littoral

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates - deep pools

IMEF Methods Manual

Macroinvertebrates - leaf litter

IMEF Methods Manual

Biofilms - stones

IMEF Methods Manual

Wetlands vegetation survey

IMEF Methods Manual

Fish survey - wetlands

IMEF Methods Manual

Fish survey - river

IMEF Methods Manual

Frog survey - wetlands

IMEF Methods Manual

Bird survey - wetlands

IMEF Methods Manual

Waterbird surveys - Ground or Aerial survey

Kingsford 1999

Estuarine biota - intertidal communities  

SWC EIMP  Methods Report and ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Estuarine biota - settlement panels

SWC EIMP16 Methods Report and ANZECC & ARMCANZ (2000a)

Freshwater macroinvertebrates SIGNAL-G

SWC EIMP16 Methods Report, Chessman 1995 and Chessman et al in prep.

 


1Refers to a known standard and which has been endorsed by a scientific body e.g. APHA, Standards Australia etc.

2Refers to the 20th edition of American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

3Refers to the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra, ACT.

4With appropriate sample preparation (4500P A & B).

5Refers to the following web site: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/main.htm

6Refers to Australian Standard.

7MPN should only be used for the lowest quality water as the results give least accuracy.

8Refers to the National Health & Medical Research Council (1990) - Australian Guidelines for Recreational Use of Water.

9Membrane filtration is most versatile method, but the slowest to process.

10Enzyme substrate is most suitable for higher quality samples.

11State Algal Coordinating Committee. Interim Guidelines for Recreation in Waters Impacted by Cyanobacteria in NSW.

12Assessment methods are currently evolving.

13 Does not require assessment criteria.

14Integrated Monitoring of Environmental Flows.

15In-house methods by Australian Water Technologies, NATA approved.

16 Sydney Water Environmental Indicators Monitoring Program

 

Page last updated: 26 February 2011