Culture and heritage


Resources and further reading

Resources: cultural landscape guidelines

There are guidelines for managing cultural landscapes used in different countries and organisations. Some cultural landscape guidelines (with links) are listed below.

Heritage Victoria 2002, Landscape assessment guidelines for cultural heritage significance.

Jane Lennon and Steve Mathews 1996, Cultural landscape management guideline for Australian Alp national parks.

Living with the land: a manual for documenting cultural landscapes in the Northwest Territories, 2007, produced by the Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

Slaiby, BE and Mitchell, N 2003, A handbook for managers of cultural landscapes with natural resource values, Conservation Study Institute, Woodstock, Vermont.

UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2005, Operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris.

Mitchell, N, Rossler, M and Tricaud, P-M 2010 World Heritage cultural landscapes: a handbook for conservation and management, UNESCO World Heritage Papers 26.

US National Park Service technical preservation brief, Protecting cultural landscapes: planning, treatment and management of historic landscapes.

Resources: cultural landscape identification and management

This section lists a number of resources relevant to the identification and management of cultural landscapes, including specific case studies.

Context P/L, Urban Initiatives P/L and Helen Doyle 2002 Port Arthur Historic Site landscape management plan.

Cultural landscapes of the Pacific Islands: ICOMOS thematic study, 2007. 

Heritage Branch (NSW) 2010, Moving towards better protection and management of our cultural landscapes.  

International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) 2009, World Heritage cultural landscapes, description and bibliography.

Vollmer, M, Guldberg, M, Maluck, M, Marrewijk, D and Schlicksbier, G2001, Landscape and cultural heritage in the Wadden Sea Region - project report, Wadden Sea Ecosystem No. 12, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhemshaven, Germany.

Further reading

Brown, J, Mitchell, N and Beresford, M 2005, The protected landscape approach: linking nature, culture and community, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Brown, S 2007, 'Landscaping heritage: toward an operational cultural landscape approach for protected areas in New South Wales', Australasian Historical Archaeology, vol 25: 33-42.

Brown, S 2008, 'Telling stories: managing cultural values at Yuraygir National Park, Australia', in Josep-Maria Mallarach (ed) Cultural and spiritual values of protected landscapes and seascapes, Volume 2 in the series Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes, IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 38-50.

Byrne, D and Nugent, M2004, Mapping attachment: a spatial approach to Aboriginal post-contact heritage, Department of Environment and Conservation NSW, Sydney.

Descola, P and Palsson, G (eds) 1996, Nature and society: anthropological perspectives, Routledge.

Fowler, PJ 2003, World Heritage cultural landscapes 1992-2002, UNESCO World Heritage Papers 6.

Heritage Victoria (nd) Protecting historic designed landscapes.

International Council on Monuments and Sites 2005, Xi'ian declaration on the conservation of the setting of heritage structures, sites and areas, adopted in Xi'an, China by the 15th General Assembly of ICOMOS on 21 October 2005.

Heritage Victoria (nd) International Council on Monuments and Sites 2005, , adopted in Xi'an, China by the 15th General Assembly of ICOMOS on 21 October 2005.


Lennon J 2006, 'Cultural heritage management' in Lockwood M, Worboys GL and Kothari A (eds), Managing protected areas: a global guide, Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 448-73.

Main, G 2000, Gunderbooka: A 'stone country' story, Resource Policy and Management, Australian Capital Territory.

Moylan, B, Brown, S and Kelly, C 'Toward a cultural landscape atlas: representing all the landscape as cultural', International Journal of Heritage Studies, vol 15, no 5 September 2009, pp447-466.

   Webb, M 1987, 'Cultural landscapes in the National Park Service', The Public Historian 9(2): 77-89, University of California.

Winchester, HPM, Kong, L and Dunn, K 2003, Landscapes: ways of imagining the world, Insights into Human Geography Series, Pearson Education Limited, United Kingdom.

Conservation Study Institute

Begun in 1998, the Conservation Study Institute (CSI) was established by the US National Park Service (NPS) to help the agency and its partners stay in touch with the evolving field of conservation and develop more sophisticated partnerships and new tools and strategies. See CSI website at:

Index to Cultural landscapes and park management

Page last updated: 23 April 2019