Lindens, The | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Lindens, The

Item details

Name of item: Lindens, The
Other name/s: The Lindens, Polpero
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Cottage
Primary address: 227 William Street, Bathurst, NSW 2795
Parish: Bathurst
County: Bathurst
Local govt. area: Bathurst Regional
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
227 William StreetBathurstBathurst RegionalBathurstBathurstPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

Attractive mid Victorian home associated with James Rutherford and Victorian coaching firm Cobb & Co. Extended in his period at this house, and since. The house is an important links in the Cobb & Co and Rutherford story and also to local and western NSW social history.
Date significance updated: 01 Dec 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: David and William Jones
Construction years: 1862-1863
Physical description: 'The Lindens' once owned by James Rutherford of Cobb & Co. The house is in brickwork which has been paint finished. It has a hipped iron roof with a single gable projecting towards the street at one end and a long low verandah across the rest of the fa├žade. The central door on the verandah is framed on each side by two double hung windows, each with six lights per pane and the verandah roof is supported on timber posts with federation style brackets. A feature of the gable end that projects to the street is a large bay window in decorative rendered masonry work and its own separate flat iron roof.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Very good.
Date condition updated:30 Apr 07
Modifications and dates: Living room and kitchen at rear added or upgraded in the 1990s.
Current use: Residence
Former use: Residence

History

Historical notes: Former first house of James Rutherford and his wife Ada. Rutherford was the Cobb & Co director in Bathurst.

James Rutherford was one of the most remarkable Americans ever to make Australia his home. At the age of 24 years he set out to join a brother on the Californian goldfields. Unable to obtain a passage at once he took ship for Melbourne, rather than waste time in waiting. He arrived in 1852 and over the next 8 years moved about the eastern colonies, where he tried a variety of occupations and gained the experience on which later success was based.

By 1861 he had become a dealer in horses and owned a 1/5 share in the syndicate which bought out the Victorian coaching firm of Cobb & Co.
The expansion into NSW saw James Rutherford drive the first of eight coaches into Bathurst in 1862. Rutherford was Cobb & Co. for all practical purposes until his death in 1911, but he still found time to be a leader in the local government and all the civic movements of the infant city. He was a prime mover in an early decentralization venture, the Eskbank Ironworks at Lithgow, buying out the other partners when difficulties were encountered. It was later owned by an Englishman named Sandford, and then the Hoskins family, before becoming Australian Iron & Steel Ltd.

Cobb & Co history
Cobb & Co began its coaching operations in January 1854 with the intention of servicing the Victorian Goldfields. The initial trip was from Melbourne to Forest Creek (now Castlemaine) and Bendigo and marked the start of a new era in Australian communication and transport.
Four Americans - Freeman Cobb, John Murray Peck, John Lamber and James Swanton, formed the company. Although the original founders sold the company only two years after its inception, the name of Cobb & Co remained and still evokes a sense of the romance of the past,
James Rutherford led the partnership consortium that purchased the Cobb & Co coach business in 1861. Rutherford followed the gold rush to NSW and relocated the Cobb & Co headquarters to Bathurst in 1862, Within days he established the first NSW Cobb & Co route from Bathurst, via Orange to the Forbes goldfield. Approximately every 16 kms the harnessed horses were changed for a fresh team. This permitted the coach to maintain a steady travel speed, cutting a day off the previous travel time between the two towns. The need to establish stables for the horse teams frequently led to a blacksmith to be located nearby. To service the needs of the passengers inns or hotels were also located with the changing stations. This settlement pattern could lead to the nucleus of a village. Quite often the changing stations and inns were located near rivers or permanent water supplies, providing for the needs of the teams and the travellers, and capitalised on the relationship between the natural environment and the needs of the settlers.
The strategy of frequently changing horse teams contributed to the success of Cobb & Co as they developed their vast network of coach services across Victoria, NSW and Queensland, providing gold escorts, royal mail services, passenger and freight services. Their transport and communication network connected goldfields, settlements, towns and pastoral outposts to the major cities.
The company became the most successful 19th century company of its kind in Australia, pioneering transport routes and renowned for speed and efficiency of its services. At its peak Cobb & Co coaches traversed tracks extending from Queensland's Gulf of Carpentaria to the far reaches of Victoria. Its coaches travelled 44,800km a week and 6,000 of its 30,000 horses were reputed to be harnessed everyday. The company continued to operate for 70 years with the last coach run between Surat and Yeulba, Queensland on 24 August 1924.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Coach Transport-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Good example of Mid Victorian house.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The former home of James Rutherford, director of Cobb & Co. And a man who held many important local positions on Council, School of Arts, hospital board etc. The Cobb & Co story provides links to many aspects of Australian history including architecture, landscape, environment, technology, local and family history as well as economic and social history.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Important yet typical mid Victorian house, and the work of top master builder of the day, David Jones.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Important links of Cobb & Co and Rutherford to local and western NSW social history.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Could provide an important insight into the personal life of James Rutherford.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Good example of Mid Victorian house.
Integrity/Intactness: Many later additions but original house generally very intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanThe Lindens8519 Nov 14   
Within a conservation area on an LEPBathurst Conservation Area 19 Nov 14   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Bathurst City Council Heritage Study1990A704Hughes Trueman LudlowHughes Trueman Ludlow No
BRC City Conservation Area Heritage Review2006 Hickson in assoc with BRCB.J. Hickson Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenHeather Nicholls2004Cobb & Co Heriatge Committee annual report
WrittenPile and Webb1975Bathurst Sketchbook

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1080323


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