Sp007 : Bolands Inn (Site Only) | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Sp007 : Bolands Inn (Site Only)

Item details

Name of item: Sp007 : Bolands Inn (Site Only)
Other name/s: Springwood Inn; Loorana Guesthouse
Primary address: 8-9 Ferguson Road, Springwood, NSW 2777
Local govt. area: Blue Mountains
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
8-9 Ferguson RoadSpringwoodBlue Mountains   Primary Address

Statement of significance:

Criterion (a) Historical
The site on Ferguson Road has special significance for the early development of Springwood, as the location first of the resited military stockade and then of the earliest inn within the settlement on the Bathurst road. Stockade sites, with a military presence supervising convicts engaged primarily on road works, are of very high significance at the State level along Cox’s and Mitchell’s lines of road over the Mountains. As an inn and guesthouse intermittently for ninety years, the site retained a historical presence, strategically located close to the railway station of 1867.

Criterion (e) Technical and research
Rare and important features of the officers’ quarters at the stockade are known to have survived, as a result of archaeological excavations in 2003. The archaeologist identified special areas of continuing significance in the south-east part of site (which was excavated in part) and in the north-west corner, which has not been excavated. Although Dr Steding’s conclusion was that the site was of local but not of State significance (Steding 2004, 59 ), the early date, the associations with a military stockade, the rarity of the cellar and the likelihood of further information to be gleaned from artefacts persuade Professor Jack and Dr Lavelle that the site continues to be of State significance.

Criterion (f) Rarity
Although there were a number of stockades controlling road works and maintenance of law and order on the Bathurst Road, few have left substantial archaeological remains. There is no equivalent in the City of the Blue Mountains of the largely undisturbed stockade site at the foot of Victoria Pass: stockades at Blackheath and Woodford and the Macquarie period one at Springwood have been essentially obliterated. The demonstration, therefore , that there are meaningful foundations and artifacts at the 1833 Springwood site gives it rarity at a State level.
Date significance updated: 17 Jan 05
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1833-1845
Physical description: The site has been occupied since 2003 by eight residential units. From c. 1940 until 2003 there had been a brick cottage with a front garden onto Ferguson Road and a substantial garden behind, including a significant old peppercorn tree. From 1833 until 1939 there had been a wooden building in a similar position, originally the officers’ quarters of the stockade, then Boland’s Inn and finally Loorana guesthouse, which was demolished around 1940, leaving only stone footings which were rediscovered in 2003.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Archaeological Potential: Very High
Date condition updated:29 Apr 02
Modifications and dates: Demolition in 1939.
Current use: Eight Residential Units
Former use: Hotel; Guesthouse; Officer's Accommodation; Doctors' Consulting Rooms

History

Historical notes: In 1833 the military stockade built in 1816 by Governor Macquarie was rebuilt on a new site on what is now Ferguson Road but was then the Bathurst Road. The new wooden barracks lay a little north of the road on an 8-hectare (20 acre) site, but there was also a three-bedroom slab hut with a stone chimney, a sitting-room, pantry, a detached kitchen, storeroom and stabling, used for officers’ accommodation. By 1844 this complex had become redundant and in 1845 was sold to Robert Martin who promptly resold the land and buildings to Thomas Boland. (Campbell 10-11)

Thomas Boland was a former constable in the Irish police force who had migrated to New South Wales in 1838 with his wife Mary Ann MacNamara and their three-year -old daughter Mary. With experience in farming as well as policing, Boland went initially to Bathurst as a property overseer, but took up the licence of the Weatherboard Inn at Wentworth Falls in 1841 and in 1843 came to Springwood as superintendent of road gangs. (Silvey 91; Bentley)

When Boland bought the former second stockade site in 1845, it is the conventional wisdom that he used the timbers from the 1833 barracks to construct a new inn-building on the road frontage. (Campbell 11) However, according to the very knowledgeable memoirs of Miss May Wiggins, who came to Springwood in 1885 and lived there until her death in 1984, Boland did not demolish the officers’ quarters, but developed the building so that it ‘had sandstone flags for the floors and the verandah, the kitchen was separate from the house with an overhead cover connecting it to the dining room’. (Wiggins) Presumably, if this is true, Boland used timber from the barracks to convert the slab building to weatherboard rather than to build from scratch. The stone foundations and cellar which were excavated early in 2003 (Stedinger 2004) almost certainly belong to the officers' quarters and support Miss Wiggins' memoirs. There is good evidence of the exact location of Boland’s inn, since the building’s footprints appear on surveys of 1891 and 1895 (Mitchell Library, ZTP: S3) and these are consistent with the archaeological findings of 2003.

The stockade had its water supply from a dam of which there are surviving elements on the north side of the present Great Western Highway, in the garden of 1 Boomerang Street, Springwood. The primary function of this dam was to irrigate the military vegetable garden, which was some distance from Boland’s building, so the well in the backyard of 8-9 Ferguson Road was either dug for the convenience of the officers or by Boland after 1845.

Boland licensed the reconditioned building as the Springwood Inn, a single-storey weatherboard on what was then the main road west and is now Ferguson Road: he remained the owner and licensee for more than two decades and many local identities used his facilities, including Sir Henry Parkes, Sir James Martin and W.B. Dalley. (Bentley) This period saw the opening of the western railway, with Springwood station conveniently close to the inn, and Boland became the first stationmaster in 1867. (Silvey 91)

The rail-link to the city encouraged travel, tourism and the construction of holiday homes. The Springwood Inn (usually known as Boland's Inn) benefited from this increased traffic. Presumably because of diversifying interests and advancing years, Boland chose to sell his inn around 1870, while continuing to live locally, along with Madeline, his stormy petrel of a daughter. (Silvey 91)

By 1890 the old inn had become a guesthouse, called Loorana, run initially by Thomas Edwin Boland, a son of the original Thomas who died in 1889. Thomas Edwin also ran the Royal Hotel (SP 045), built by his father around 1808. (BMCC Local Studies, Boland file). In the early 1890s Loorana was operated by W. Jenkins and from 1895 until probably 1898 by Mrs Eeg. For a time the guesthouse was unoccupied and used by the Reading Room Group in the township in 1898, but from at least World War I until 1939 it was run by the Johnstone family. (Pam Smith) A photograph of Loorana, in use as a guesthouse, survives from about 1930. (Local Studies, photo 270).

In 1939, on the death of Theodore Johnstone, the building which had successively been the former officers’ house, an inn and a guesthouse was demolished and a single-storey brick cottage was built on the site (Silvey 91). The cottage was used as a residence and also as medical consulting rooms until it was demolished in 2002. Before eight residential units with sunken garages were constructed on the site in 2003, Dr Louise Steding for Stedinger Associates conducted a test excavation in December 2002 and more extensive excavations in January and February 2003. The conclusion reached as result of the limited test excavation was that ‘the site seems to have been cleared of nineteenth century remains’ and that ‘the site is considered to be of low archaeological significance’ (Stedinger 2003, 26, 27). This unexpected conclusion was substantially modified by the second excavation early in 2003. This revealed, most importantly, stone corner footings and a part of a stone-walled cellar with a stone-flagged floor. Both these features can be fairly confidently attributed to the stockade period. Dr Steding concluded that the cellar was part of the officers’ quarters and that it remained a necessary storage area also for Boland’s Inn (Stedinger 2003, 32-39, 56). As a result the significance of the site was reassessed by Stedinger and Associates, who now conclude that ‘the site is considered to be of high archaeological significance'. The site, or part thereof, does constitute a rare and valuable archaeological resource that is likely to provide important evidence of past activities.’ (Stedinger 2004, 57-58)

This archaeological resource remains underground. Though the construction of the eight residential units went ahead in 2003, care seems to have been taken to preserve the cellar and corner footings of the earliest period.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site on Ferguson Road has special significance for the early development of Springwood, as the location first of the resited military stockade and then of the earliest inn within the settlement on the Bathurst road. Stockade sites, with a military presence supervising convicts engaged primarily on road works, are of very high significance at the State level along Cox’s and Mitchell’s lines of road over the Mountains. As an inn and guesthouse intermittently for ninety years, the site retained a historical presence, strategically located close to the railway station of 1867.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Rare and important features of the officers’ quarters at the stockade are known to have survived, as a result of archaeological excavations in 2003. The archaeologist identified special areas of continuing significance in the south-east part of site (which was excavated in part) and in the north-west corner, which has not been excavated. Although Dr Steding’s conclusion was that the site was of local but not of State significance (Steding 2004, 59 ), the early date, the associations with a military stockade, the rarity of the cellar and the likelihood of further information to be gleaned from artefacts persuade Professor Jack and Dr Lavelle that the site continues to be of State significance.
Integrity/Intactness: It is likely that the archaelogical remains have high integrity.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

A policy for the conservation of the surviving footings and cellar under the buildings constructed in 2003 is needed. The artefacts recovered from the two archaeological excavations by Stedinger Associates in 2002 and 2003 should be available for study in a suitable approved repository.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanLEP2005SP00707 Oct 05 122 
Heritage study SP007   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Blue Mountains Heritage Study1983SP007Croft & Associates Pty Ltd & Meredith Walker  Yes
Heritage Study Review, Blue Mountains1992SP007Tropman and Tropman  Yes
Springwood, Blaxland, Hazelbrook HA2002SP007Jack, Hubert, Lavelle, MorrisRIJ & SL Yes
Technical Audit BM Heritage Register2008SP007Blue Mountains City CouncilCity Planning Branch No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Photograph 1930Photograph of Leuralla Guesthouse
Written 1895Subdivision Plans of Springwood, 1891 and
WrittenF May Wiggins197090 Years of Springwood and how it received its name circa
WrittenGwen Silvey1996Happy Days: Blue Mountains Guesthouses Remembered
WrittenJ F Campbell1937Historical Notes on the earliest days of Springwood and District
WrittenPam Smith2002Notes on Leuralla Guesthouse
WrittenS J Bentley1986The Boland Family in Springwood Historical Society Bulletin, Number 53, April
WrittenStedinger Associates2004Excavation Report, The Officers' Quarters and Boland's Inn, 8-9 Ferguson Road, Springwood, NSW, Report to Ron Natoli, February
WrittenStedinger Associates2003Test Excavation Report, Officers' Quarters and Boland's Inn, at 8-9 Ferguson Road, Springwood, NSW, Report to Ron Natoli, January

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1170524


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