Maryland | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Maryland

Item details

Name of item: Maryland
Other name/s: Nonorrah
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Homestead building
Location: Lat: -33 58 48 Long: 150 43 57
Primary address: 773 The Northern Road, Bringelly, NSW 2556
Parish: COOK
County: CUMBERLAND
Local govt. area: Camden
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP218779
LOT29 DP872135
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
773 The Northern RoadBringellyCamdenCOOKCUMBERLANDPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

Maryland is an outstanding complex of early homestead and farm buildings, especially significant for its completeness as a group, its excellent state of preservation, and the intergration of the buildings, garden and magnificant setting. Includes many early buildings in good repair as well as buildings of special architectural interest. The winery and store may be the oldest winery buildings in Australia. Property has been in continuous occupation by only two families for over 130 years. Long associations with the surrounding district.

The Main Building is an important historic grouping, set in magnificant garden and landscape and retaining most original fabric. The outbuildings form a substantial group which are of state significance because they are an important historic grouping and some of the earliest on the buildings on site. They illustrate the diversity of functions associated with early agricultural activity in this area. All are virtually intact.
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1820-1850
Physical description: Maryland Group:
Outstanding early homestead group consists of main building and its garden area, immediate outbuildings, stone cottage former winery and stone store, and gate keeper's cottage. These are all located on or near the landscaped hilltop. There is a second grouping down the slope, to the north, including a stone barn, stables, various sheds and a worker's cottage. Other sheds between these and the main homestead grouping are modern buildings of no particular interest. There is a second gate keeper's lodge at one of the two entrances on The Northern Road. All are set in a magnificent rural landscape, including a large dam between the hilltop and the road. There is another water feature to the west. The main homestead enjoys scenic views, east over Lowes and South Creek.

Main Building:
Large early colonial style house laid out on a rectangular plan. Despite gothic chimneys and classical verandah posts, overall styling is more traditional (Australian Georgian). Stone rubble construction with stuccoed, ashlar finish and stone quoining (now painted). Hipped, galvanised iron roof with sandstone chimneys. Skillion verandah on eastern and northern frontages with return to southern side. Supported by tuscan timber columns. A series of shuttered french doors open onto the stone flagged verandah. The main door features sidelights and skylights. Overall, simply but neatly styled with restrained detailing. The interior features are hexagonal skylight over the central hallway. The building is connected to an earlier residence at the rear (west), by the northern verandah.

Domestic Outbuildings:
There are four early structures at the rear (west side) of the main building. Three are connected to the main house, and each other, by verandahs. The largest of the three is rectangular in plan with a hipped corrugated iron roof. Has a simple skillion verandah with stop chamfered posts. Stuccoed walls. Doors and windows not original. Connected at the south west corner is a smaller sandstock brick structure, probably the original cookhouse. It has a hipped iron roof and skillion verandah. Connected to it in turn is the octagonal former meatroom. The fourth structure stands separately. It is rectangular, gabled building with vertical proportioning. Walls are of vertical boarding with a roof of corrugated iron.

Detached Kitchen:
Sandstock brick structure with corrugated iron hip roof and verandah. It has two front doorways and long rectangular windows. There are two separate rooms, one is a kitchen and the other is a laundry. There are two chimneys, a brick one at the back and an iron one at the front. The kitchen is connected to the homestead by a verandah and enclosed within a courtyard complex.

Meathouse:
An octagonal meathouse that is built from vertical weatherboards, with a conical roof, clad with corrugated iron and u-shaped gutters. It has a rectangular window with french shutters. It is connected to the detached kitchen by a rectangular weatherboard room. The meathouse is now used as a garden pavilion.

Workshop:
A rectangular vertical weatherboard building which faces the courtyard area containing the detached kitchen. It has a gabled roof with plain bargeboards and vents. The building has a number of rooms and an upper floor. The building is currently used for storing tools.

Guest-house:
A coursed rubble building with vermiculated stone quoins and stone sills. It has a hip end roof, clad with corrugated iron and a stone chimney. At the southern end of this building is a later addition constructed from ashlar masonry with a hipped roof. The early structure has two multi-paned windows. The two structures are joined together by a shallow gabled roof structure which is disguised behind french doors. The latest structure has a projecting bay window at the southern end. This building is used currently as a guest-house.

Upper Gate-house:
Gothic style gate-house with gabled roof built from ashlar sandstone with rock faced quoins and windows and stone sills. The front has a projecting gabled roof porch with decorated bargeboard. There is a scrolled string coursing around the entire structure. The front has two multi-paned windows. There are three intact chimeny pots visible from the rear. At one end of the gate-house is a gabled weatherboard addition. A few metres to the south west of this building are timber entrance posts and a section of picket fencing, denoting an entrance to the estate.

Winery Group:
There are two stone coursed rubble buildings with stone lintels, sills and quoins. They are located behind the homestead to the north west, on the hill slope. Wine was produced in one building and stored in the other.

Wine Store:
A long rectangular building with random rubble and stone quoins, lintels and sills. It has a gable roof, clad with corrugated iron. The roofing support are very long round posts which in the eastern wall rest on stone piers raised above the height of the wall. The western wall has a semi circular arch entrance with mortared stones and two windows on either side. The south end has a double entrance gate. There is a stone lined path running from this building up to the winery.

Winery:
Double gable, random rubble stone building with stone quoins, lintels and sills. The front has a double opening door and two six paned windows. The rear of the building is two storeys high, to compensate for the slope of the hill. It has three square windows placed just beneath the eaves. North of the building is a large tank or vat with the base surrounded by rubble stonework. A short stone path leads from this building down to the wine storage area.

Farm Outbuildings:
The farm outbuildings associated with the homestead at Maryland are located at the base of the hill to the east. The group includes a stone rubble stable, timber barn, a worker's cottage and more recent farm buildings.

Barn:
Rectangular timber structure with gable roof, clad with corrugated iron, as is the gable fill. The timber on the eastern side of the barn are wedge cut slabs while on the west there is board and battern construction. The lower edge of the slabs are supported by a sleeper. All internal walls that were inspected were of slab construction. The northern wall has double twin doors. The barn is located within a group of outbuildings and a worker's cottage which are at the base of the hill to the east of the homestead.

Stables:
A rectangular structure built from course random rubble with stone quoins, sills and lintels. This building has been through a number of stages to reach its present state. Initially it was rectangular and contained the existing intact timber hay racks, stalls and mangers. It has a corrugated iron gable roof and a hay loft. The fa├žade has symmetrical openings and windows with multi paned glass. Additions were made to the northern and western sides of the building. On the west are living quarters containing a fireplace with an intact chimney. To the north is an animal pen with one side exposed and a grain storage area. The later was probably used originally as a carriage-house. The additions have made the stables block asymmetrical.

Worker's Cottage:
Iron hipped roof sandstone house with stone quoins and sills and a verandah. There are two brick chimneys. The verandah has timber posts. The stone has been painted white. There is a detached timber and brick structure behind the cottage with a hip end gable roof.

Lower Gate-house:
Very old stone gate-house with a weatherboard addition, close to The Northern Road. Stonework features carved mouldings over openings, but stone has deteriorated. Sheet metal roofing now over the whole building. Original stone chimney above. Good timber shed at the rear. Post and rail fence in front with excellent entry gates to the property, of characteristic local design. Solid capped timber posts with picket style fencing in splay form.

Setting and Landscape:
The homestead, set within a mass of olive and peppercorn trees and silhoutted old pines, appears as a focal point in the landscape seen from The Northern Road. The hilltop site is surrounded by grasslands with grazing dairy cattle and two lake-like dams of about 15 hectares each (built to present size in 1950 to 1960), now important landscape elements as well as for watering stock. A long circuitous entry drive in the English landscape tradition gives access to the house via a fine timber gateway (Edwardian) and inward splay fence with plumbago hedge, flanked by ornamental olives and stone pine. The red gravel (ironstone) drive extends past a Victorian gate-house with detailed garden to curve around the hilltop to the upper level. Here the colonial house with its long verandah comes into view, then a magestic outlook over the farm and countryside to the north is revealed between tall Hoop and Bunya Pines and Moreton Bay Fig. Little detailed planting remains around the courtyard of the house but the stone flagging and old well are notable. A modern swimming pool is sympathetically sited behind the house. Besides additional mature exotic trees around the property, significant stands of native trees are retained particularly along Lowes Creek and the northern paddocks. Two particularly old forest Red Gum and Grey Box remain within the farm complex, being over 1.2 metres in diameter and possibly 100 years old. James Broadbent Writes: "House, garden and landscape are inseparable, this more than any other quality distinguishes Maryland. There is a wonderful colonial garden surrounding the house, with plants typical of the period; olives, dark oaks, bunya pines, blue periwinkles, iris and oxalis. Maryland, like Kelvin, has been fortunate in having a stable history of careful mangement and good care.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
General layout well maintained but some overgrown areas need attention; some thinning and replanting necessary. (National Estate Database)
Date condition updated:11 Oct 02
Further information: It is understood that some of the outbuildings are in a state of disrepair. However, this does not alter the significance of the item.
Current use: Homestead
Former use: Homestead

History

Historical notes: Maryland Group:
Part of 1815 grant to John Dickson. He named the 1215 hectare (3000 acres) property "Nonorrah". By 1828 it was just one of a number of large pastoral holdings which he began selling in 1833. "Nonorrah" was purchased by his former apprentice, Thomas Barker, then resident at Darlinghurst. He remarried in 1857 and moved to the property after his first wife, Dickson's niece, died. He renamed the property "Maryland". Most of the buildings of interest were built during his occupancy. His son Thomas Charles took over the property after his death in 1875, and extended the planting. After he died in 1940 it was purchased by N A Thompson whose daughters, Annette and Elizabeth still manage the property.

Main Building:
This building was built by Thomas Barker when he moved to the property. Completed in 1859 and connected to a pre-existing house (1840's) still standing. It is believed that an earlier 1820's dwelling was demolished to make way for this building. Apart from minor alterations and rear additions the building has been maintained in original condition.

Domestic Outbuildings:
The largest building was an earlier dwelling believed to have been erected in the 1840's, or possibly the 1830's. The cookhouse building would be of similar age. The octagonal structure was a meatroom. The timber building was probably the workshop of Councillor Barker, Thomas Barker's son.

Detached Kitchen:
The detached kitchen was part of the early group of homestead buildings built by Thomas Barker in the 1840's. This kitchen is next to the early homestead and a weatherboard meathouse. The kitchen is significant because extant detached kitchens are uncommon.

Meathouse:
Date of construction is uncertain but it was probably built by Thomas Barker between 1840 and 1860.

Workshop:
There is a record of a workshop belonging to Councillor Barker, Thomas Barker's son.

Guest-house:
The original structure was built as part of the buildings constructed by Thomas Barker.

Upper Gate-house:
Possibly built during Thomas Barker's period of buildings in the 1840's. This is one of two gate-houses on the estate. As one of two gate-houses it is unusual. They suggest it was a very large and profitable estate and perhaps that the owners needed to control access to the estate and to provide housing for employees. The later would infer a construction date after the cessation of transportation. The gate-house is significant because it reflects the social standing of Thomas Barker and the need for security and housing on his estate.

Wine Store:
The winery was built by Thomas Barker in the 1840's. This is one of the few extant early wineries in the area.

Winery:
The winery was built by Thomas Barker in the 1840's. This is one of the few extant early wineries in ther area.

Farm Outbuildings:
These outbuildings confirm that it was a very large and profitable estate. Many of the structures were built during a period of expansion when the estate was owned by Thomas Barker in the 1840's. The estate would have been self sufficient and productive. The sheer variety of types of extant outbuildings and their integrity makes this estate rare.

Barn:
Probably built by Thomas Barker while he lived on the estate. The unusual mix of two construction techniques suggest later repairs to the western side of the buildings.

Stables:
The original stable is believed to be part of a building program on the estate during the 1840's when it was owned by Thomas Barker. This building is significant because it is a rare intact stone stable. It is part of an estate with consistently early outbuildings. Three of the outbuildings are built in the same style.

Worker's Cottage:
Stylistically this house dates from the same period of construction as the gate-houses. They were built by Thomas Barker probably at a later date than the stables and winery. The date of the addition is uncertain. This building is significant because it is a well constructed worker's cottage, associated with intact early outbuildings and homestead.

Lower Gate-house:
Important building forming part of a significant grouping, and one of the earlier buildings on the property. Probably built in the 1860's, preceding the second gatekeeper's lodge closer to the homestead. The addition is probably post 1940 and is of no value.


Historical sources add that many of the buildings and in particular the stable and winery areas have been determined to be structurally unsafe. Other buildings are in need of major repairs. Also the date of the intial construction is inaccurate.

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Important historic complex of early homestead and farm outbuildings.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Representative of the Camden countryside homestead vernacular and surrounding rural landscape.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The extent of the Maryland estate reflects the social standing of Thomas Barker.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Maryland has the potential to provide evidence of past farming techniques. Early building methods and early winery practices may also be researched.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The sheer variety of types of extant outbuildings and their integrity makes this estate rare.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Representative of an early homestead and farming complex.
Integrity/Intactness: The buildings are still in use and intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Retain and conserve signficant fabric and landscape and setting.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanCamden LEP 2010I103 Sep 10   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Survey and Report 19th Century Buildings and Sites Camden  Proudfoot, Helen  No
Macarthur Region Heritage Study1986 JRC Planning Services  Yes
South Creek Valley Heritage Study1990 Perumal Murphy Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Management PlanAustralian Heritage Commission National Estate Database

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1280029


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