Mount Gilead | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Mount Gilead

Item details

Name of item: Mount Gilead
Other name/s: Rose Hill (1828)
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Windmill
Primary address: 901 Appin Road, Gilead, NSW 2560
Local govt. area: Campbelltown

Boundary:

Current property boundary - see attached plan. Note that the historic and visual curtilage extends well beyond the legal curtilage.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
901 Appin RoadGileadCampbelltown   Primary Address

Statement of significance:

The Mount Gilead estate is of exceptional significance as a cultural landscape on account of the nationally rare surviving features within it, its intactness as an estate, its collective value as part of a continuum of notable colonial properties along Appin Road and its association with influential entrepreneurs and families. The c.1836 windmill tower is the best surviving example of its kind in New South Wales whilst the 1824 water reservoir (dam) with extensive sandstone walling by Thomas Rose is the earliest known private example of its kind remaining intact in Australia. Other individually important aspects of the place include the Upper Nepean Water Canal, the extant homestead and outbuildings, remnants of the early estate layout and remnant plantings.

The estate has high cultural value aesthetically as an archetypal rural landscape celebrated in the work of various artists such as Sydney Ure Smith and the Lindesays. The tower mill in particular is a major reference point in the local area being visible even from contemporary properties at Mount Hunter. The estate also provides expansive views across the Nepean River to the west where there are important vistas to Menangle and Camden Park. (Britton & Morris, 2000, 70).

Superbly sited on a long spur of land running parallel to the Appin Road, Mt. Gilead is the core of a relatively intact early land grant, still in operation as a working dairy farm, in a relatively intact landscape that has not changed substantially since the early 19th century. Its core includes a group of fine intact stone buildings culminating in the tower of a windmill on the highest point of the ridge, which forms a district landmark visible from similar aged estates and high points for example in Camden, Narellan and Menangle.

The rest of the group comprises the stone homestead, now altered and extended (c.1977), the two storey store and stable, There is also a substantial 'granary' or store to the south-east of the homestead and several other minor stone service buildings to the south (Proudfoot, c.1977, modified, Read, S., 2004)

Note: This inventory sheet is not intended to be a definitive study of the heritage Item, and the information it provides may not be complete. Further research is recommended as part of the preparation of development proposals affecting the Item.
Date significance updated: 12 Jan 10
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Greenway, Francis (reputed)
Builder/Maker: Rose, Thomas
Construction years: 1820-
Physical description: Superbly sited on a long spur of land running parallel to the Appin Road, Mt. Gilead comprises a group of fine stone buildings culminating in the tower of a windmill on the highest point of the ridge. The rest of the group comprises the stone homestead, now altered and extended (c.1977), the two storey store and stable, There is also a substantial 'granary' or store to the south-east of the homestead and several other minor stone service buildings to the south.

The buildings are used as part of a working dairy farm.

Landscape
The complex is the heart of a great estate on a superb site, in a relatively intact landscape that has not changed substantially since the early 19th century.

Windmill - c1835
Located on the highest point of the ridge occupied by the farm complex. Rose's Mill on the estate is potentially the only windmill still standing in New South Wales (The Home, 1/9/1927). The sails and sail structures are now missing.

Granary/ Old Store
The Old Store was used for storing grain when the adjacent windmill was in use in the early 1830s, when Campbelltown was the granary of Sydney. Rust in the wheat crops ruined the prospects and the mill fell into a state of desolation (The Home, 1/10/1927)

Store & Stable
2 storey Store & stable, southeast of the homestead.

Homestead
Stone. Altered and extended (c1977)

Outbuildings
several other minor stone service buildings to the south of the homestead. (Proudfoot, c.1977)

Dam c. 1824
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Not accessed 2009
Date condition updated:02 Dec 09
Modifications and dates: Unknown

History

Historical notes: The original inhabitants of the Campbelltown area were mostly people of the Dharawal (sometimes referred to as Tharawal) language group, who ranged from the coast to the east, the Georges River in the west, north to Botany Bay and south to Nowra. However, Campbelltown was a meeting point with the Dharug language group (whose area extended across the Blue Mountains), and early history of the area includes references to both peoples. (Liston, Carol: Campbelltown: The Bicentennial History, 1988; www.abc.net.au/indigenous). Mount Annan, to the south-west of the Campbelltown City Centre, was known as Yandel’ora to its original owners, the Dharawal people and was an important meeting place for Aboriginal people from as far away as northern Queensland and southern Victoria. (http://www.daff.gov.au/natural-resources/landcare/publications/making_a_difference_a_celebration_ of_landcare/section_6_-_indigenous_landcare)
With the establishment of the convict colony in Sydney Harbour in 1788, the displacement of Aboriginal people began. A smallpox epidemic decimated many of the coastal clans, but was less destructive amongst the inland peoples.

Escaped cattle from the settlement moved south and bred in the Campbelltown/Camden area and after their discovery in 1795, the area became known as The Cow Pastures (or Cowpasture). In 1805, John Macarthur obtained a grant of 5,000 acres (later expanded to 10,000 acres) in the area, some of the best grazing land then known in the colony.

By 1809, 34 settlers had received grants in the newly named Minto district (named after Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India) in the northern portion of Campbelltown. Many of these early settlers were Irish, including surveyor James Meehan, who allocated himself a generous portion (now Macquarie Fields). Prominent settlers included surgeon Charles Throsby, who was allocated 600 acres (now Glenfield), Dr William Redfern (Campbellfield), Dr Robert Townson (Varroville) and Richard Brooks (Denham Court).

Though peaceful, the Dharawal people bore the brunt of a punitive expedition led by Captain James Wallis in 1816. At least 14 Dharawal people were massacred at Appin, to the distress of sympathetic settlers such as Charles Throsby of Glenfield. The Appin massacre of 1816 was a devastating and tragic event for the Dharawal people and other local clans, and was a difficult period in terms of the relationship between Indigenous people and European settlers. Corroborees and other ceremonies continued under the protection of the Macarthurs of Camden, though numbers steadily declined, with diseases introduced by the Europeans also having a devastating effect on the Dharawal population.

As the district became more closely settled, a town was needed further south than Liverpool. Campbelltown was formally established in 1820 and named ‘Campbelltown’, in honour of Mrs Elizabeth Macquarie’s maiden name of Campbell. In 1826, the town plan was formalised.

Between 1835 and 1845, the number of Aboriginal people in the Campbelltown Police District had decreased from twenty to none. However, limited tribal life continued and corroborees were still held at Camden Park and Denham Court until at least the 1850s. During 1858, approximately 200 Aboriginal people attended the celebrations at Campbelltown that were held to mark the opening of the railway line.

"Mount Gilead" was originally a grant of 400 acres to Reuben Uther in 1812. Part, or all, of this grant was purchased by Colonel Christmas. Thomas Rose, who had arrived in the NSW colony in 1798 and started a bakery business in Sydney, was granted 300 acres in 1823 and purchased a portion of Uther’s grant in 1829. Rose purchased numerous other properties and by 1833 his holdings at Mt Gilead were about 2000 acres.

The Sydney Gazette of Saturday 21 July 1821 (p. 4) included an advertisement calling for fencers to complete three-rail fencing "on the farm of Mr Thomas Rose at Appin, apply to Mr. Cox". However, Rose's residence in 1822 is recorded as Castlereagh Street, Sydney. On April 17 1823 Colonial Secretary’s records show "Thomas Rose’s clearing party employed to reap wheat on his farm in the Campbelltown District "(Colonial Secretary’s records, Reel 6058; 4/1769 p. 159c). By 1828, however, following the death of his wife, it appears that Rose had moved to Appin, as the Sydney Gazette reported the marriage of "Mr. John Henderson, surgeon to Miss Kezia Jane Rose, daughter of Thomas Rose of Rose Hill, Appin." (Sydney Gazette January 6, 1829, p. 3).

Rose built several dams, including one built in 1824 which appears to be the first successful attempt at rural water conservation in New South Wales. Rose built an embankment of stone and rammed earth across a natural decline in his land and drained the run-off water into an artificial lake. This provided a constant source of water sufficient to withstand the extensive drought of 1829. Later, Rose built a cheaper dam of rammed earth near the Campbelltown-Appin Road for the use of his neighbours and travellers.

Around 1836 Rose built the four storey stone windmill sited on the ridge, from stone quarried on the property. The millstones used for grinding flour here were believed to be the finest in the colony. (Leary, 1979, 66).

By this time the buildings at Mt Gilead are believed to have included a homestead, now altered and extended, built in stone; the two storey stone and stable building; a large substantial "Granary" or store south east of the homestead and several other minor stone service buildings situated south of the house. A photograph taken in 1870 shows the homestead as a large hipped-roofed bungalow with a bell-cast roof. (Campbelltown Ingleburn News, 10 April 1970). Campbelltown had become a significant wheat-growing area by this time and the mill testifies to the amount of grain being grown. Wheat rust first appeared about 1856, gradually reducing the importance of wheat crops.

Thomas Rose died in 1837 and "Mount Gilead" was managed as an estate by trustees. In 1858 it was transferred to his son Charles Henry Jacob Rose. A plan was drawn up for the sale of the property in 1861, but this appears not to have occurred. Charles Rose mortgaged the property, transferring it to merchant Walter Friend in 1866. In September 1867 it was sold to Edward Hume Woodhouse, a local landholder who had been born nearby at Schuldham farm (later known as Glen Lorne) in 1823. Woodhouse developed "Mount Gilead" as a grazing property, introducing sheep and experimenting with alpacas.

After Edward Woodhouse’s death in 1875 "Mount Gilead" passed to his son Edmund Bingham Woodhouse. Edmund Woodhouse developed a dairy farm at "Mount Gilead" and by the 1870s a flock of 1700 sheep grazed there. In April 1888 the property, then 2,063 acres, was offered for sale and was described as "probably unequalled in the colony". "Mount Gilead" did not sell, but the description is worth quoting at length: "The homestead contains a drawing room, five bedrooms, two dressing rooms, hall, library, office, passages, pantry, store room, etc. The woodwork throughout is of cedar. The verandah is 100 ft. Long and is continued round both ends of the house. The bathroom has a plunge-pool and a shower and is supplied by a 10,000 gallon tank. The stable contains five stalls, harness room, saddle room, and coach-man’s room, and there is a loft over the whole building. The granary is built of dressed stone, and has walls eighteen inches thick. On the ground floor is a coach-house for three vehicles, a three-stall stable, a harness room and a farrier’s shop. On the upper floor is a billiard room, complete with table and fittings. There is a large granary built of dressed stone with walls two feet thick, and is three storeys high. It was originally built as a steam mill and now contains a four horsepower circular saw. The ground floor has been used as a shearing shed." (cited in Morris, John F., "Mount Gilead Estate and Windmill, Campbelltown", Royal Australian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 27, Part 5, 1941, p. 365.)

In 1891 after Edmund Woodhouse died bankrupt "Mount Gilead" became the property of the Australian Investment Co. In settlement of debts. The property was then leased to Charles Axam.

"Mount Gilead" was sold in 1910 to Dr William Henry Harris and in 1911 was 2,065 acres, with an unimproved capital value of £5,500. Harris sold to J.T. Barnett in 1920, who sold in turn to Patrick Michael McGirr in 1927, who still owned it in 1941.

In 1927 an article noted that "Rose's Mill on the estate is probably the only windmill still standing in New South Wales" (The Home, 1/9/1927).

Mt. Gilead was purchased by Lady Dorothy Macarthur-Onslow’s mother in 1941 and 1200 hectares have been owned by Sir Denzil Macarthur-Onslow since c. 1970. The buildings continue in use as part of a working dairy farm. (Proudfoot, c.1977). In 1993 a proposal was put forward for the subdivision and construction of approximately 10,000 dwellings on the property but did not proceed.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Processing wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new breeds of stock-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Dairy farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Pastoralism - grazing sheep, cattle, goats or other animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural estates-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Mount Gilead estate is of State historical significance as a cultural landscape on account of the nationally rare surviving features within it, its intactness as an estate, its collective value as part of a continuum of notable colonial properties along Appin Road and its association with influential entrepreneurs and families.The property is of historical significance as a colonial period agricultural property developed from 1823 and retaining structures from the 1830s.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Mt. Gilead has historical association with Thomas Rose (1823-1837) and with the Woodhouse family (1867-1891). It also has more recent association with the Macarthur-Onslow family (1941-present).
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The estate has State aesthetic value as an archetypal rural landscape celebrated in the work of various artists such as Sydney Ure Smith and the Lindesays. The tower mill in particular is a major reference point in the local area being visible even from contemporary properties at Mount Hunter. The estate also provides expansive views across the Nepean River to the west where there are important vistas to Menangle and Camden Park. (Britton & Morris, 2000, 70). Superbly sited on a long spur of land running parallel to the Appin Road, Mt. Gilead is the core of a relatively intact early land grant, still in operation as a working dairy farm, in a relatively intact landscape that has not changed substantially since the early 19th century. Its core includes a group of fine intact stone buildings culminating in the tower of a windmill on the highest point of the ridge, which forms a district landmark visible from similar aged estates and high points for example in Camden, Narellan and Menangle.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The property is considered to have archaeological research significance as a colonial period farm, occupied by 1828, and with substantial structures by 1836,
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The windmill tower is the best surviving example of its kind in New South Wales and the 1824 water reservoir (dam) with extensive sandstone walling of Thomas Rose is the earliest known private example of its kind remaining intact in Australia.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The 19th century buildings and their relationship to the surrounding cultural landscape shall be retained and conserved. A Heritage Impact Statement or a Conservation Management Plan may be required to accompany any development application for major works to the buildings or subdivision of the property. There shall be no alterations to the buildings other than repairs or reinstatement of original features. Structural alterations to the interior (for example removal of a structural wall) will require development consent. In general, any additions and alterations should be confined to areas of less significance, should not be visually prominent or overwhelm the existing buildings, and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls. It should be noted also that the significance of Mt Gilead is not limited to the buildings, but includes its relationship to the surrounding landscape, including views and vistas over and from the property. These should also be preserved through the planning process. The property is considered to be of high archaeological potential, and an archaeological assessment will be required as part of any development application involving ground disturbance. Development applicants are strongly encouraged to consult with Council planning staff prior to planning extensions or alterations. This property is recommended for investigation for State Heritage Register listing. SHR listing would enhance the probabilty of the owners obtaining state and federal heritage grants for conservation work to the property.

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentList on a Local Environmental Plan (LEP)02 Dec 09
Statutory InstrumentNominate for State Heritage Register (SHR)13 Jan 10

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanCampbelltown LEP 2015I5811 Mar 16   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Report on Heritage Parks & Gardens Study1994 National Trust of Australia (NSW) Parks & Gardens Conservation Committee  No
Campbelltown City Council Heritage Review2009 Paul Davies Pty Ltd  No
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW20004.18Geoffrey Britton and Colleen Morris for the NSW National TrustColleen Morris & Geoffrey Britton Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenLeary, F & J.1979Colonial Heritage - Historic Buildings of NSW
WrittenMills & Pile, auctioneers, 130 Pitt Street, Sydney, New South Wales1888Mount Gilead [cartographic material] : the property of Edmund B. Woodhouse, Esq. sale day Thursday 12th April 1888 11.30 a.m.
WrittenThe Home1927Sydney Landmarks

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1291064


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