Federation House | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Federation House

Item details

Name of item: Federation House
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 3 Allambie Crescent, Inverell, NSW 2360
Parish: Inverell
County: Gough
Local govt. area: Inverell
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
3 Allambie CrescentInverellInverellInverellGoughPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

The building dates from one of the key period of layers for the development of Inverell as a direct result of the Henderson subdivision of 1859 and in particular the boom period from 1888 to 1914. It is a good example of a highly intact Federation house which makes a positive contribution to the streetscape. An intact early Federation style brick house in good condition. The house is in a prominent location, overlooking the town.
Date significance updated: 18 Oct 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Physical description: The building is 1 storey in height and constructed of face brickwork with timber double hung and casement windows, with multi coloured fan light panels and timber panelled doors. The roof is hipped and gabled and finished in corrugated metal sheeting with dominant brick chimneys. The gables feature detailed timber fretwork with scrolled bracketed eaves and timber finials. The verandah runs across the front of the house and returns down the right side and features turned timber posts and a decorative timber frieze.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
In good condition with a high degree of original fabric intact and high potential for restoration.
Date condition updated:27 Feb 08


Historical notes: Before its exploration by Allan Cunningham in 1827, the Inverell district was included as part of the taurai of five Aboriginal tribes. Following on the explorer's steps, squatters moved into the district from about 1835, establishing large sheep and cattle stations. While some squatters and their employees lived peaceably with the Aborigines, others were determined to exploit or eradicate them. In June 1838 the Myall Creek massacre occurred 35km from present Inverell. This became famous in Australian history because it was the first time that white men were punished (hung) for killing Aborigines. It was not an isolated incident. Subsequent massacres went unreported.
Many of the early property owners came from Scotland, bringing with them their Presbyterian faith, Gaelic language and Scottish customs. One, Alexander Campbell, gave Inverell its name, made of two Gaelic words - "Inv" a meeting place & "Ell" swans, so named because of the many swans in the area at that time. Campbell was a Scottish immigrant who arrived in Australia in 1824 and was employed by Peter Macintyre in the Hunter Valley. Macintyre was also a Scotsman had been formerly employed by Lord Gwydir and then T.P. Macqueen – a British MP who invested large sums of money in NSW and thus received substantial land grants of 20 000 acres. Macintyre was in charge of Macqueen’s Australian ventures and arrived in NSW in 1825.

During the period Peter McIntyre owned “Byron Plains”, the Andersons had “Newstead” and the Borthwick family “Auburn Vale”. In 1853 the McIntyres invited Colin and Rosanna Ross to come to the hill overlooking Green Swamp and set up a store on Byron Station land. They did so, but soon settlement moved onto the flat area (present CBD), which was on Inverell Station land. The area proved to be flood-prone (notably in 1872) but was marked out as a town by Surveyor Henderson in 1856 and the first lots sold in 1859. The public school opened in 1862 and the area incorporated as a municipality in 1872.

Inverell grew slowly until 1871 when the first viable tin deposits in Australia to be discovered were announced at Elsmore and Tingha followed with thousands of mines soon dotted the granite belt. Tin remained significant in Inverell's economy for over a century. Many of the miners were from China, others from Cornwall and others were former gold miners.

From the late 1860s selectors moved in to the big stations, and a degree of closer settlement took place. During the 1890s the district suffered from climatic extremes and economic depression but two new mineral sources, silver and diamonds began to be exploited. The basic streetscape of Inverell's Otho Street reflects the prosperity of the period from 1888 to 1914.

The new century saw the arrival of the railway (as a branch line from Moree). After the breaking of the 1902 drought the mines were flourishing and as well official closer settlement began - the first in NSW was the government division of Myall Creek into 135 farms creating the township of Delungra.

The arrival of Inverell's railway permitted the introduction of dairying, which remained an important industry until the mid 1950s. From the 1860s wheat was grown successfully on Inverell's soils. The most fertile are the black soil river flats, but crops also flourish on lighter soils. Large numbers of sheep and cattle have been run since the early days of settlement. During the first half of the 20th century the country areas around Inverell were thickly populated with farmers and miners and small villages flourished everywhere, but the majority of these declined into insignificance during the second part of the 20th century (particularly after the closure of many small schools in the late 1960s).

The town of Inverell has suffered the vicissitudes common to the rest of Australia, with two world wars, a depression and the slow decline of small mixed farming since the mid 1960s. While the district is not as prone to drought as most other areas of NSW, the town was flooded seriously in 1955 and 1991.

By the 1950s Inverell had developed into a regional centre and has retained that status ever since. Its shopping centre competes favourably with Armidale, and business comes to Inverell from a very wide area of the North-West. At the same time, the rural population around Inverell has declined and Inverell's own population has been constant at around 10 000 for the past 30 years. The area has a strong tourist industry (based on the two large dams Copeton and Pindari) and an abattoir which employs around 600 people.

Elizabeth Wiedemann - Local Historian. The house was contsructed for Mr Claude Adams around 1912.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The building has historic significance as it dates from the key period of establishment of Inverell originating from the Henderson subdivision of 1859. It dates from the prosperous period of development for Inverell from 1888 to 1914 and the rebuilding of the town centre.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The house is associated with Claude Adams.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The building has aesthetic significance as a good example of a Federation house which demonstrates many of the key aspects of the style.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The area is not identified in an archaeological zoning plan and the area has been well researched and it is unlikely that the site would reveal further information that would contribute to the significance of the area.
SHR Criteria f)
The building is not rare.
SHR Criteria g)
The building is a representative example of a Federation residential building found in Inverell and the north west slopes and plains region of NSW.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement should be prepared for the building prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the building and no alterations to the facade of the building other than to reinstate original features. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, and shall not be visibly prominent. Any proposed additions and/or alterations shall be in accordance with the Inverell Shire Council Development Control Plan.


Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementDevelop a Statement of Heritage Impact27 Feb 08


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanInverell LEP 2012I05307 Dec 12   
Local Environmental PlanInverell LEPALA00119 Aug 88   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Inverell Heritage Study1988ALA001   No

References, internet links & images


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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 1820016

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