State Bakery (Former), including interiors | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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State Bakery (Former), including interiors

Item details

Name of item: State Bakery (Former), including interiors
Other name/s: Rippon's Pharmacy, The Old Bakery; State Bakery - former
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Retail and Wholesale
Category: Shop
Primary address: 92-96 Percival Road, Stanmore, NSW 2048
Local govt. area: Inner West
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
92-96 Percival RoadStanmoreInner West  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

Of historical significance as a building which operated as a bakery from 1910 till about 1930, operating as the State Bakery from 1913 to 1925. It provides historical evidence of political experimentation with state involvement in industry in the ealry 20th century in NSW. Of aesthetic significance as an unusual commercial/retail building with Federation Arts & Crafts style detailing.Rare as evidence of an early 20th century state-run enterprise.
Date significance updated: 11 Jan 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Builder/Maker: Joseph Boss & Son
Physical description: 2 storey brick Federation Arts & Crafts style retail façade with a larger, taller building at the rear. Walls are brick, with an elaborate parapet featuring vertical panels of green tiling and an unglazed terracotta tiled roof behind. The ground floor façade features Federation period timber-framed shop windows with recessed entries with timber framed multi-paned glazed entry doors. Decorative cast ironwork is featured above the shop windows. There is a central archway to the ground floor façade with the words "The Old Bakery" painted above. The 1st floor façade features timber framed double hung windows and casement windows.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Date condition updated:18 Jan 99
Modifications and dates: Timber shop front has been removed since last study. A/C unit added to No 92 highlight.
The site has been siginifcantly added to by a residential development addition at the rear.
Further information: Draft
Current use: Commercial/retail


Historical notes: The original owners of the land within the Marrickville Council area were the Cadigal and Wangal clans of the coastal Eora people. They spoke Eora, which may have been a dialect of the Dharug (Darug) language, though sources differ on this point. With the establishment of the penal colony at Sydney Cove in 1788 the dispossession of the original inhabitants was begun. In 1789 a smallpox plague decimated the Aboriginal population, though descendants of the Cadigal and Wangal people still reside within the Sydney metropolitan area.
In May 1793 Captain George Johnston of the New South Wales Corps was granted 100 acres south of Parramatta Road (in the area now known as Stanmore, which became known in the late 19th century as South Annandale), which he named Annandale Farm. Adjacent to what is now Johnstons Creek, it was supplemented by two smaller grants in 1794. Johnston was granted an additional 290 acres in 1798, which extended Johnston’s land north to the shores of Sydney Harbour (covering the area now known as Annandale, known in the late 19th century as North Annandale). It is believed that Annandale House, which was built south of Parramatta Road in the vicinity of Macaulay Road, Stanmore, was constructed in about 1799. The 430 acres of Annandale Farm became the nucleus of extensive farming interests for the Johnston family, which stretched as far as the Monaro.
Annandale Farm was one of the most important sites in Australian colonial history. Captain George Johnston played key roles in the suppression of the Vinegar Hill uprising and in the Rum Rebellion. He and his family played a significant part in the development of pastoralism in Australia.
When George Johnston died in 1823 his common-law wife Esther Abrahams was left a life interest in Annandale Farm, which would ultimately be inherited by their son Robert Johnston. Esther attempted to lease the property and court proceedings taken against her in 1829 found her to be "not of sound mind". Esther moved to another family property, "Lockwood" while Robert Johnston occupied Annandale Farm, from where he superintended his extensive squatting interests.
As Sydney developed, Annandale Farm, with its stately avenue of Norfolk Island pines (the earliest avenue of Norfolk Island pines in mainland Australia (these were seedlings sent by Captain Piper to the Johnstons in 1804) and attractive gardens, was a notable landmark on Parramatta Road. Like the Macarthur’s Elizabeth Farm House at Parramatta, the Annandale Farm House was extended throughout the 19th century. By the 1870s much of the land surrounding Annandale Farm had been subdivided. In 1877 subdivision of North Annandale was commenced and shortly thereafter John Young bought the whole of North Annandale from Robert Johnston. A railway station opened at Stanmore in 1878. With Robert Johnston’s death in 1882 the way was clear for wholesale subdivision. The first subdivision, the "South Annandale Estate" was auctioned on Saturday 20 September 1884. It included the area bounded by Bruce Street, Gordon Crescent, Stanley Street and Albany Road.
The second sale at South Annandale was on Saturday 21 November 1885. It included Albany Road from Stanley Street to Charles Street, Temple Street and Stanley Street. By then the whole of Douglas Street and Gordon Crescent, from Stanley Street to Bruce Street had been sold. When the "South Annandale First Subdivision" was auctioned on 19 November 1892, it included all of the area bounded by Bruce Street, Albany Road, Percival Road and Gordon Crescent. By then most of the 1885 subdivision had sold. In 1886 Fanny Johnston, Robert Johnston’s widow, donated £3,000 for the construction of an elaborate station building at Stanmore railway station to attract purchasers to the South Annandale subdivisions.
"South Annandale Estate", the blocks south of Salisbury Road (to the north of the 2nd Subdivision West Kingston Estate) and east of Bridge Road were sold on November 30 1901. In 1902 most of the blocks between Myrtle and Temple Streets were still in the ownership of the Johnston Estate. By 1907 Joseph Boss & Son had purchased a block in this area. Boss & Son purchased two further blocks from T.F. Thompson and in 1910 they built a brick bakery and three shops on the combined site. The total value of the building works was about £3,000.
In late 1913 or early 1914 the property was purchased by the NSW Government and became the State Bakery, with Joseph Boss remaining as manager. The purchase price was £8,200 and additions to plant and vehicles brought the price to nearly £12,000. (Argus, 2 March 1916, p. 6) The State Bakery was a successful venture and in the 1915-1916 financial year made a net profit of £3,172. It joined a growing collection of state enterprises, including the State Abattoir, State Brickworks, State Timber Depot and (in 1915) State Trawlers. Though some of these enterprises had begun under conservative governments, the first NSW Labor administration of James McGowen in 1911 had accelerated this trend. The Labor Party’s aim was probably not the nationalisation of industry, but the use of State enterprises to regulate the market and prevent profiteering. A staple like bread was an obvious candidate for this kind of intervention.
It was also the subject of some controversy. There were allegations of purchases of wheat from outside the farmers’ pool, while allegations that Attorney General Hall had acted improperly were unproven. The State Bakery was used for training and testing of the 3rd Australian Field Bakery in 1916. By 1920 W.T. Wells replaced Joseph Boss as manager.
With the defeat of Labor in 1922, the future of the State Bakery was in some doubt. The State Trawlers had lost over £200,000 and were quickly disposed of. About 1925 the State Bakery was sold to Jacob Lauder Raith, who used the premises to establish the Automatic Bread Baking Company (ABBCO). Raith and ABBCO were granted several patents, from 1927 to 1930 relating to mechanisation of bread baking and wrapping. ABBCO was one of the largest independent bread bakers in Sydney for many years, though by 1943 they were operating from a premises in Leichhardt.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Of historical significance as a building which operated as a bakery from 1910 till about 1930, operating as the State Bakery from 1913 to 1925. It provides historical evidence of political experimentation with state involvement in industry in the ealry 20th century in NSW.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Of aesthetic significance as an unusual commercial/retail building with Federation Arts & Crafts style detailing.
SHR Criteria f)
Rare as evidence of an early 20th century state-run enterprise.
Integrity/Intactness: The buildings are intact and retain their integrity
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building shall be retained and conserved. A Heritage Impact Statement or a Conservation Management Plan, may be required to accompany any development application for major works to the building. There shall be no alterations to the façade of the building other than repairs or reinstatement of original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved where present. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, should not be visually prominent or overwhelm the existing building, and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls. Interpretation of the building's history should be encouraged.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanMarrickville Local Environmental Plan 2011I25612 Dec 11 2011/645 
Within a conservation area on an LEPMarrickville Local Environmental Plan 2001    
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Marrickville Heritage Study19862.18Fox and AssociatesNovember 1984 No
Marrickville Heritage Study Review19972030063Tropman & Tropman Architects1997-1999 Yes
Review of Potential Heritage Items for Marrickville Council2009 Paul Davies Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written  Sands Directory 1910- 1932-1933; Petersham Rates Books 1902-1924

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2030063
File number: 2.18

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