Victorian Gothic Villa and Outbuilding, including interiors | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Victorian Gothic Villa and Outbuilding, including interiors

Item details

Name of item: Victorian Gothic Villa and Outbuilding, including interiors
Other name/s: The Clunes, Sefton Hall, The Anchorage, The Harbours, The Lodge
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Villa
Primary address: 95 Cambridge Street, Stanmore, NSW 2048
Local govt. area: Marrickville
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
95 Cambridge StreetStanmoreMarrickville  Primary Address
95 - 101 Cambridge StreetStanmoreMarrickville  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

This is one of the few early gentlemens villas in this area which, (because of its layout on the site), has not had its original allotment reduced in width by later subdivisions. It therefore illustrates the spaciousness and elegance of this suburb in the 1870's and 80's.

The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore, formally known as The Clunes and Sefton Hall, has local historical significance for its ability to demonstrate the cultural development of the immediate area over a period of 150 years. The property is similarly significant for its ability to demonstrate the sustained and varied involvement of the Salvation Army with the broader community over a period of 103 years.

The Lodge, built c1873, has historic and aesthetic significance as a representative example of the style and standard of villa development favoured by the upper classes of Victorian Sydney. The most likely builder of the villa, Sir Alexander Stuart (1829-1886), one time premier of New South Wales, was typical of the class of people to whom the suburban villa ideal appealed. The villa and the site is a representative example of the Victorian Gothic style and a rare local example of a garden villa development that retains a substantial proportion of its original allotment. Despite a history of modifications, the villa retains significant amounts of original fabric characteristic of its period of construction, including polished interior timber, joinery, an encaustic tiled entrance hall and stained glass stairwell window.

The Lodge was acquired by the Salvation Army in 1900 and is one of several properties in the Marrickville Municipality that possess an association with the Army. The varied use of the property as a Rescue Home for young girls, a women’s hostel and a children’s home demonstrates the Army’s ability to respond to social change and makes the property of social significance to the large number of people who have worked or resided within it. The initial acquisition of The Lodge by the Army and its conversion from private residence into a charitable institution has historical significance as part of a wider pattern which involved the conversion of a number of the larger villas within the area into hostels and boarding houses. Its use as The Harbour, a Rescue Home for girls (1900 to circa 1940), is strongly reflective of the strong moral attitudes that governed Victorian and Edwardian Sydney. The Harbour at Stanmore was one of fifteen Refugee Homes that the Army operated around Australia by 1915 and as such is part of a significant nationwide operation.

The accommodation block/annex at The Lodge is of historical significance. The operations carried out within it are representative of the many commercial laundries that operated around Sydney. The laundry was not only vital to the financial operation of the Home, but also demonstrate the prevailing attitudes of reformatory work carried out along side a duty of care. The external form of the original laundry block remains clear and there is a remnant section of the interior.

The use of The Lodge as a training facility continues a significant tradition of ongoing education within the Army.
Date significance updated: 11 Jan 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1873-1873
Physical description: This Victorian Gothic villa is still set on its original large suburban allotment. It features multiple steep pitched gables with decorative barge boarding, and a picturesque entry porch. Other than the timber work, the detailing to the building is very simple, with flat window arches, simple moulded string, and a rendered façade. Some remnants of the early garden remain and the site is enclosed by a palisade fence with tall rendered posts and an ornate wrought iron gate. To the rear of the house (Harrow Street) only a small strip has been resubdivided for unit development and a large brick outbuilding still stands in the grounds. C1943 Air raid shelter remains intact.

The Setting and The Site

The Lodge is located on the northern side of Cambridge Street. The site is approximately 3746.9 sq. metres, with frontages to Cambridge Street and Harrow Road. Cambridge Street, in the vicinity of the subject property, is level and lined with mature street trees. There are a number of nineteenth century buildings, some of which have undergone unsympathetic renovation. These buildings are interspersed with apartment blocks. The immediate neighbour to the east of The Lodge (on Cambridge Street) is a two storey late Victorian timber building with a steeply pitched roof, built forward of the building line of The Lodge. The immediate neighbour to the west is a two storey painted brick building. This building is set well forward of The Lodge to which it presents a blank side elevation.

The c.1873 villa on the site addresses Cambridge Street. The villa is well set back from the street, close to its eastern boundary, within a landscaped garden with red gravel paths. A substantial masonry wall and decorative iron fence lines the Cambridge Street boundary. The front garden contains mature plantings, a number of which appear in historic photographs.

To the rear of the villa is the former laundry building, currently an accommodation block with a small laundry annex. To the north of the laundry building is a small, detached, single storey brick cottage, facing Harrow Road.

Attached to the western most end of the rear elevation of the villa is a modern one-one to one half storey classroom building. On the western side of the villa is a single storey above ground World War II era air raid shelter. Lying parallel to the rear of the villa, and separated from it by flat grassed area and a bitumen car park is a three storey block of flats. The site of the flats is lower than the remainder of the site. No significant vegetation is located on the allotment to the rear of the villa.

Description of the Villa

Exterior

The principal building on the site is a two storey free standing villa in the Victorian Gothic style (c.1840-1890). The exterior walls are rendered and painted. The gabled roof (of glazed terracotta tiles) is broken on the front (southern) elevation by steeply pitched gabled dormers. The gables have ornate timber barge boards with an open scalloped detail and turned timber finials. The gabled dormers on the rear (northern) elevation have similarly scalloped, although less detailed, barge boards to those on the front elevation. The villa has a number of tall slender chimneys, some of which are topped with terracotta chimney pots. There is a stepped label mould around original section of the building (c.1873) at the first floor level.

The front (southern elevation) is asymmetrical and broken into a series of shallow bays. The offset front entry is entered through a projecting gabled timber entry porch. The roofing and detailing of this porch match that of the main roof and there is Federation era stained glass in a number of the window openings. To the east of the entry porch is a projecting rectangular bay window with slender engaged columns to the mullions. This detailing is repeated on the French windows of the rear facing dining room. The windows on the lower floor are timber, double hung French windows. The deeply inset upper windows are timber. The windows on the first floor are double hung and deeply inset. As befitting the Victorian Gothic style these windows are tall and narrow.

Joining the house to the east is the sympathetic addition of the c.1880s with a (later) fibro enclosure of a veranda. Adjoining these additions is a prefabricated double garage.

To the immediate west of the villa is a low-lying, flat roofed World War II above ground air raid shelter. The exterior brickwork of this shelter has been painted to match that of the house.

The rear (northern elevation) of the villa has undergone considerable alteration over time. The rear of the original villa has been enclosed by fibro additions (with a corrugated metal skillion roof) on brick piers.

Adjoining the western elevation, following the line of the main building, is a modern classroom. This addition is of face brick with a grey concrete tiled roof. A projecting veranda protects it from the northern sun. This addition is largely concealed from Cambridge Street by the air raid shelter.

Adjoining the rear of the building on the eastern side and set at right angles to it, is the accommodation block/ laundry annex (described in detail in section 2.2.3).

Interior

The entry porch opens into a formal entrance hall with a tessellated encaustic tiled floor. This in turn opens through a flat arch into an antechamber with a floor of highly glazed hexagonal tiles of more recent date. The cornices of these entrance rooms are highly ornate. The main rooms of the ground floor open from the entrance hallway, with the large dining room occupying the northern side of the villa. Particular features of the ground floor interiors include deeply profiled timber architraves, four panelled centre joined doors, ornamental plaster cornice mouldings and ceiling roses. The main office, dining and sitting rooms have marble fire place surrounds.

The main staircase leading to the second floor from the entrance hall has a turned and decoratively carved polished timber balustrade. The stair well is lit by a long, narrow, Tudor arched stain glassed window, flanked by two matching side lights. The central window is inscribed with intertwined thistles and the motif vulnere virtus. There is a second narrow staircase (the former servants stairwell) to the rear.

The upper floor of the villa contains six bedrooms and bathroom facilities. There is a large timber linen closet in the hallway. The house is fitted throughout with modern carpeting and reproduction light fittings.

The extensions to the rear of the house have AC sheeting ceilings and simple joinery. The class room addition has face brick walls, carpeting on the floor and a sloping plaster board ceiling.

Beneath the Villa

The area beneath the villa is accessed via a flight of stairs leading off main hall. This area is divided into rooms by timber walls. One room contains a rectangular concrete bath.

The Accommodation Block and Laundry Annex

Exterior

The long rectangular structure of the accommodation block adjoins the rear of the villa at right angles as described above. The laundry annex forms the northern end of this block and is separated from the remainder of the block by a parapet wall. This laundry annex is at a lower level than the accommodation block and has a separate roof structure. The entire wing once comprised the laundry and ironing room for The Harbour.

The exterior walls of the building are of painted brick work, with the exception of the northern most end of the veranda wall which is of painted concrete block work. The lower half of the exterior walls of the laundry annex, facing onto the veranda, have been clad in fibro panelling.

The hipped corrugated metal roofs of the accommodation block and laundry annex overhang to form a narrow, western facing veranda. The difference in levels between the two sections is accommodated for by a flight of stairs. The floor of this veranda is of unpainted concrete. Fixed to the simple squared wooden veranda posts are decorative iron brackets.

The accommodation block is entered via two doors (one at each end) opening onto the veranda. The laundry annex is likewise accessed from the veranda via a single door. The original window openings of the laundry annex have been partially bricked in. The windows of the accommodation block and those of the laundry annex are protected by aluminium security grills.

A brass plaque on the exterior wall of the accommodation block commemorates its refurbishment and opening for this purpose in 1952.

Interior

The accommodation block consists of a series of rooms accessed from a central hallway. The interior fabric dates from the 1952 renovation and consists of battened AC walls, flush hollow core doors, battened ‘canite’ ceilings and simple cornices and architraves. The bathroom is finished in tiles and sheet vinyl.

The laundry annex has interior walls of painted face brickwork. The concrete floor has no skirtings and is distinctly stained in places from equipment now removed. There is also evidence of past piping and drainage arrangements. Of particular interest is the panelled timber ceiling. The room contains a number of pieces of machinery relating to its past/ present function: a Gothic ironing machine, Avisco concrete tubs, a Horscroft flued dryer, a Gothic washer and a Wascator washer.

Other Buildings on the Site

Detailed surveys of the other buildings on the site were not part of the brief for this report. The air raid shelter, however, is possibly of high significance. Structures of this type and size are comparatively rare. The shelter should be the subject of further research. The air raid shelter is not affected by the proposed alterations and additions reviewed by the accompanying HIS.

Architectural Integrity

The Villa

The front (southern) elevation of the villa displays a high degree of architectural integrity. The original form of the villa (together with the early, sympathetic extension of the building) is clear. The gabled dormers of front elevation are characteristic of the Victorian Gothic style and are an important expression of the cult of the picturesque embraced by this style.

The cult of the picturesque had its beginnings in eighteenth century England and was concerned not with individual buildings but with the environment as a whole. Natural and man made things were to be part of a carefully composed, attractive picture. With its emphasis on the detached house form within a garden setting, the cult of the picturesque was highly compatible with the concept of the Victorian garden villa. The villa within its garden setting retains an understanding of this ideal. The ornamental masonry and iron front fence appears in early photographs (refer to Appendix 3).

Through the ‘somewhat sentimental concern for prettiness, quaintness and old world charm’ that the picturesque came to represent, the popularity of the ‘rustic’ house form, an illusion to a romantic, medieval past, evolved. A wealth of models were made available to Australian architects and builders through publications such as J.C. Loudon’s Encyclopaedia of Farm and Villa Architecture (1833) and Calvert Vaux’s Villas and Cottages (1857). The style found particular favour among the suburban middle and upper middle classes of the latter part of the nineteenth century, partially it is thought, as a result of its inherent connotations with ‘Home’ (England). The Lodge is one of a number of Gothic style residences built in the period 1860-1880 in the immediate area. Steeply pitched gables without attics, such as those evident on the subject villa, were relatively expensive to construct and hence displayed the wealth and status of the occupant. Peculiar to the Australian (and American) Gothic styles was the addition of the veranda. Historic photographs indicate that the original villa had a bull nose veranda at the front.

The rendered and painted exterior finish of the villa is contemporary to its date of construction. This was a practice dictated as much by architectural style as by the comparatively poor quality of the bricks then available. By the 1870s, Portland cement was being manufactured locally and was widely used as render and for decorative mouldings, being less expensive than carved stone. The label mould detail around the villa at first floor level is characteristic of the Gothic style. Elaborately detailed barge boards and the use of timber finials are likewise characteristics of this style.

The architectural integrity of the southern elevation has been somewhat compromised by the replacement of the original roof (which appears from early photographs to have been slate) with terracotta roof tiles. This roofing material is stylistically and visually inappropriate for a Victorian Gothic villa, appearing ‘heavier’ and more dominating than a slate finish. The integrity of this elevation is also impacted upon, although to a lesser degree, by the enclosure of the narrow bullnose veranda. The visual impact of this alteration, however, is mitigated against by the use of a sympathetic colour scheme. As is the garage, this enclosure is reversible.

The air raid shelter and classroom addition are partially concealed from Cambridge Street, mitigating their effect on the villa.

Early photographs indicate that the villa had a different eternal colour scheme, with the barge boards painted a lighter tone/colour than the main body of the villa. The insertion of Federation style stained glass into the entry porch is an architecturally inaccurate, if visually pleasing, later alteration.

The architectural integrity of the rear elevation (northern) of the villa has been compromised by the unsympathetic enclosure of the rear elevation with later additions. The red face brickwork, grey tiled roof and clerestory window of the classroom addition do not match the original building.

The masonry steps leading down from the enclosed veranda appear original.

Internal

The interior of the original section of the villa displays a high level of architecture integrity. The original ground floor plan is intact and a significant percentage of the original fabric is in evidence, including the polished timber architraves and doors, marble fireplaces, tessellated encaustic tiles in the entrance hall and stained glass window.

The original floor plan of the first floor is also substantially intact, despite references to alterations in this section of the house. There is a large polished timber linen press in the hallway that most likely dates from the time of the villa’s construction.

The area beneath the villa retains a high level of original fabric. The exact date of this fabric and the existing layout is, however, difficult to discern.

The interior of the twentieth century additions to the villa are true to their period of construction and thus do not relate to the interior finishes of the original villa.

The Accommodation Block and Laundry Annex

Exterior

The exterior of the accommodation block/ laundry annex retains a high level of architectural integrity if considered in relation to the 1952 alterations. Considerable changes, however, were made to the building’s interior at this time. From the architectural drawings of 1952 and the examination of the remaining fabric, it would appear that a number of windows were bricked up and new doorways added. Although the corrugated iron roof was replaced, original roof form was retained. There is no indication that the veranda was a 1952 addition. The metal corner brackets, however, do not appear on the 1952 drawing.

Interior

The building has a high degree of architectural integrity in terms of the 1952 conversion. Of the earlier laundry, there is a remnant section of the original timber roof panelling in the existing laundry. The laundry floor also contains evidence of past machinery.

It is possible that the original trussed roof lies above the existing ceiling in the accommodation block.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Good
Date condition updated:18 Jan 99
Modifications and dates: Minor modifications
Current use: 1993+ Residential training centre

History

Historical notes: The following history considers the site from Aboriginal occupation through to its current use by the Salvation Army. The history of the site is discussed within the context of the development of Sydney (and in particularly, of Stanmore) and with reference to the history of the Salvation Army in New South Wales.

Aboriginal Occupation

Evidence exists for the occupation of the east coast of the Australian continent over 35,600 years. It is thought that human habitation of the Sydney region first became continuous five thousand years ago. Members of Captain James Cook's 1770 journey of exploration made the earliest known written descriptions of the region's original inhabitants. The region at this time was comparatively sparsely settled. The population of the wider Sydney region eight years later, at the time of the First Fleet's arrival, has been estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000 people.

The earliest European colonists recorded few details about the kinship structures of the Aboriginal people. Recent research suggests the existence of networks of bands, as opposed to the tribal structures implied by colonial records. These bands were themselves subgroups of much larger groups bound by complex rights of language, marriage and ceremony. What were once defined as 'tribal areas' are thus more accurately described as localities where different languages were spoken. Three major language groups were thought to have occupied the Sydney region at the end of the eighteenth century. Dharug was the most predominant language over much of the Cumberland Plain. The eight known coastal Dharug speaking bands are frequently referred to as the Eora, meaning 'here' or 'from this place'. The Eora occupied the area across the southern shores of Sydney Harbour, from Botany Bay in the south to Parramatta in the west.

One of the Eora people, the Cadigal, occupied the territory that embraced Sydney Cove and stretched along the southern side of Port Jackson from South Head to modern day Petersham. The southern most extent of their territory remains unknown. The first part of each name indicated a characteristic of the band, often is location, hence the Cadigal were the 'people from the Bay of Cadi'. A second band of the Eora, the Kameygal, centred on the Botany Bay area, may also have frequented the area now contained within the Marrickville Municipality.

Archaeological evidence suggests that patterns of life in the Sydney region changed little in the period before 1788. Bands moved within their territory at the prompting of seasons and with the availability of food. A coastal sea diet of fish and shellfish was supplemented by terrestrial food sources, such as edible tubers, figs and apple berries. The Cadigal fired the Cumberland Plains to encourage new grass and hence attract game. A wide variety of materials were used in the production of tools and artefacts.

The Aboriginal people within reach of Port Jackson and Botany Bay absorbed the full impact of the European invasion of 1788. With no resistance to European diseases, they were decimated by an outbreak of small pox in 1789-90. Traditional lifestyle was further disrupted by the loss of lands and exposure to new technologies. Conflict followed from the meeting of two fundamentally different cultures. Within two and a half years of the arrival of the First Fleet, the pattern of life which had been followed by the Cadigal for thousands of years was no longer possible; within forty years the pre colonial way of life had all but disappeared from the Sydney region.?

The subsequent European use of the land now enclosed within the municipal area was such that little immediately discernible physical evidence of Cadigal occupancy survives.

Early European Land Use: 1788-1802

The vast expanses of the eastern most areas of the Cumberland Plains (modern day Stanmore, Annandale and Petersham) were known to the early European colonists as the Kangaroo Grounds or Bulananming. The colonists, as had the Aborigines before them, transversed the area as they hunted game. This otherwise isolated area was soon linked to the settlements at Sydney and Rose Hill (Parramatta) through the exploitation of is other natural resources. The Aboriginal shell middens that dotted the Cooks River and the shores of Botany Bay, for example, were processed to provide lime for mortar. The Wianamatta shales of eastern most Cumberland Plain supported valuable timbers; clearing in turn eventually provided land suitable for grazing and crop raising.

The first land grant within the modern day Marrickville Municipality was made on 20 August 1789 when 1,000 acres were set aside as Church, School and Crown Reserves. From 16 January 1793, successive colonial governors granted land outside the newly declared boundaries of the township of
Sydney to military officials, civilians and emancipated convicts, in order to open up the land and augment the colony's food supplies. Of the early recipients of these grants the Judge Advocate David Collins remarked that 'they began their settlement in high spirits, having implements furbished to them from the Government stores and the use of ten assignees each.

Thomas Rowley and Kingston Farm: 1803-1834

The site now known as The Lodge was once part of 240 acres granted to Captain Thomas Rowley (1748?-1806) of the 102nd Regiment (New South Wales Corps) by Governor King on 9 August 1803. Rowley's grant, which he named Kingston Farm, was described as

'Iaying and situate in the district of Petersham Hill, bounded on the north- west side by Annandale Farm, and separated by a small brook from the allotment of four hundred acres marked out and reserved for Government between allotments intended for the maintenance of a minister and a school master, adjacent to the town of Sydney.'

Kingston Farm stretched from modern day Parramatta Road to Stanmore Road. The designation farm was commonly included to indicate the intended purpose of the grant.

Thomas Rowley had arrived in Sydney in 1792 as a lieutenant in the New South Wales Corps. Four years later, he was promoted to Captain (1796), in which capacity he served on Norfolk Island (1799-1800). The officers of the New South Wales Corps were notorious for supplementing their pay by other means and Thomas Rowley was no exception. Indeed, in 1802 he resigned his commission in order to turn his attention to his estates, which, by this time, included not only Kingston Farm, but also land in Bankstown and Concord. Over the following three years, Rowley expanded his land holdings by obtaining further grants and through the purchase of existing grants. By 1805, he owned a total of 1,975 acres. Letters addressed to Captain Waterhouse (held by the Mitchell Library) indicate that Rowley's chief agricultural pursuit was the raising of sheep, for their meat rather than their fleeces, a shrewd move in a colony still importing large quantities of salted meat. Rowley also set up his one time servant, Simeon Lord, in business and may have been personally engaged in trade. Unlike many of his brother officers it would appear that Rowley maintained a good relationship with Governor King, becoming involved with the management of the civil and military barracks and being appointed a magistrate in 1804.

Rowley died of consumption in 1806. He was buried, in accordance with his instructions, on Kingston Farm.13 Rowley's request indicates that he may have built a house on the grant. Thomas Rowley left his estate to his 'five natural children begotten on the body of Elizabeth Selwyn; namely Isabella, Thomas, John, Mary, Eliza', with one sixth for his wife, so long as she does not live in a state of cohabitation or marriage with any man and continues to take care of my said children.'

This free acknowledgment of 'natural' or illegitimate children was not unusual at this time and is of interest in light of the site's subsequent use by the Salvation Army as a Rescue Home. During the early years of settlement, the line between morality and immorality was blurred by an overwhelming gender
imbalance. The social code of the upper ranks of society centred on the honour attached to a gentleman's person, as oppose to his actions. It was thus entire"" possible for men of Rowley's standing to freely acknowledged and even legitimise 'natural' offspring.

By 1809 all the land within the modern day Marrickville Municipality had been granted. Although the grants had been allocated to over 30 individuals, most were rapidly consolidated into larger holdings. The estates of Thomas Moore (the colony's master boat builder), Thomas Smyth (Provost Marshal),
Thomas Rowley and Major George Johnston soon accounted for 65% of the land now contained within the municipality).

Land consolidation on this scale is attributable to a number of factors. The size of land grants in the period to 1831 generally depended on the social standing of the grantee and/or his/her affluence. Smaller grants were often not large enough to be viable. This was especially true for the Marrickville
area, given its lack of natural water supplies. The quality of the soil, although better than that around Sydney, was also variable, one visitor remarking in 1823 that ' the contemplation presents little pleasure to the agriculturist.'

Not only did the more affluent land owners have greater resources with which to develop their estates, but they also benefited from supplementary grants. Kingston Farm was in fact composed of a series of grants made to Rowley, the first being a grant of 100 acres in 1793 made soon after the dispatch authorising the granting of land to officers had been received in the colony. Rowley's original 100 acre grant had been enlarged by the addition of 70 acres in the following year, ultimately becoming the 240 acres (through additions to the south and west) defined by the 1803 grant.

By the end of the 1830s, the settlement centred on Sydney had reached out to Woolloomooloo Hill, Darlinghurst, the Glebe and New Town. The poor state of the roads, however, meant that areas beyond the township of Sydney continued to be characterised by sparsely populated settlements and/or by the spacious rural retreats of 'persons of substance,.19 By the 1830s life on the substantial estates of Annandale (Major George Johnston), Petersham House (Robert Wardell, originally Moore's grant), Tempe (Alexander Sparke) and at Enmore House (Captain Browne) was emulating (to some extent) that of the English gentry. Petersham, for example, holds the distinction of hosting one of the earliest Sydney racecourses (1842). Aside from the gentry and their families, the area was also home to several hundred people engaged in predominantly rural pursuits, including timber cutting, grain
growing (on a small scale), the raising livestock and, on the low lying alluvial plains, market-gardening.

James Holt and the Kingston Estate: 1835-1854

As the nineteenth century progressed increasing pressure was brought to bear on land within reach of Sydney. As transportation to New South Wales ended, immigration began in earnest and a free market economy developed. Land increased in value as the system of free grants ceased in 1831. From
this time onwards, land had to be purchased.

Land subdivision in the modern day Marrickville Municipality began in the late 1830s, when a number of the early grants were divided into villa estates and/or market gardens. In 1838, the population of the district from Grose Farm to Cook's River was given as 1,243. A distinct pattern of grazing land,
market gardens and out of town estates emerged over the following twenty years.

In 1835, James Holt purchased 153 acres of the Kingston Farm, including the subject property, for £1,000. These 153 acres became known as the - Kingston Estate. Stanmore Road was opened in 1835, improving access into the general area. As was often the case in early road development, the
road was aligned to natural ridge lines and private estate boundaries. Stanmore Road followed the line of the southern boundary of the Kingston Estate. Stanmore Road (and later the suburb) was named for John Jones' Stanmore Estate.

Before the construction of Enmore and Stanmore Roads, travellers had had to pass across Annandale and Kingston Estates to reach the Parramatta Road. Not all local landowners had been tolerant of trespassers. Thomas Smyth, for example, inserted a notice in the Sydney Gazette in 1803/4 warning of the presence of steel traps on his estate. Considering that Stanmore Road was to become the centre for development in the immediate area over the following decade, the Kingston Estate was well placed for future subdivision.

Thomas Holt and the Kingston Estate Subdivisions: 1855-1858

When James Holt return to England in 1854, the Kingston Estate was sold to Thomas Holt (no apparent relation) for £150 per acre, a sum that represents a considerable increase on the £1,000 paid by James Holt for 153 acres twenty years earlier. A deed of partition dated 5 July, 1861 suggests that
Kingston Estate had actually been purchased and paid for by Thomas Holt, Thomas Ware Smart, Thomas Sutcliff Mort (the well known Balmain ship builder) and George Wig ram Allen, in equal portions, and then conveyed 'to the said Thomas Holt for greater facility in selling and disposing of the
same,' Land syndicates were common in Sydney during the nineteenth century and a number of modern day suburbs were formed through the efforts of such partnerships.

The Yorkshire born Thomas Holt (1811-1888) had prospered following his arrival in Sydney in November 1842, becoming a successful wool buyer, landowner and one of Sydney's most prominent financiers. Holt was involved in gold mining, insurance and railway companies, eventually serving as the director of Sydney Tramway and Railway Company. He was elected to the first Legislative Council and become colonial treasurer under S.A. Donaldson's premiership. From 1851 to 1880, either alone or in partnership, he acquired interests in numerous pastoral properties in Queensland and
New South Wales, amassing a total of 3 million acres. Holt was particularly known for his landmark property in South Marrickville, The Warren, and for his vocal and written support for numerous public issues, including education, the treatment of accused persons and assistance to the poor to enable them to buy land. On his return to England in 1881, Holt devoted himself to the poor of London, where he assisted, among others, the Salvation Army.

A number of subdivisions occurred in the modern day Marrickville Municipality between 1854 and 1858, forming part of a Sydney wide pattern of land speculation and sale. Advertisements for these subdivisions extolled the virtues of an area that offered relative seclusion within close reach of the city via the newly constructed Sydney to Parramatta railway. Sentiments of this nature would be echoed 50 years later when the Salvation Army opened a refuge in the subject property: 'two minutes by rail, four by tram, easy walking, and you face this new acquisition, situated in Cambridge-street, Stanmore, one of the healthiest and best situated suburbs of the city.'

Despite the efforts of the relators and the coming of the railway, Stanmore of the 1860s remained essentially isolated from Sydney. Until improvements were made in ticket pricing and train timetabling, changes that would eventually make public transport convenient and affordable for all, the modern day municipal area was dominated by the upper and middle classes, who purchased the villa allotments situated along the natural ridge lines. While increasing settlement provided post offices, schools and churches, it was the earlier village of Newtown that developed as the main retail and
business centre.

The Parramatta railway line effectively cut the Kingston Estate in two. Holt consequently divided the estate into North (with occasional references to West) and South Kingston. North Kingston was bound by Parramatta Road, Australia Street (over its full length), Bedford, Trade, St Mary's, Ross and Denison Streets and thence to Parramatta Road. This section of the estate was subdivided into 770
residential allotments. South Kingston was bound by Trafalgar, Liberty and London Streets and Stanmore Road and included an irregular parcel of 5 acres to the east of the above and south of Trafalgar Street. This part of the estate was subdivided into 370 villa allotments of various sizes laid out using a wide street pattern.

Allotments at North Kingston were first advertised for sale in December 1854 and proved the more successful of the two subdivisions. By 1861, 480 allotments had been sold on this half of the subdivision. Although opened for sale in 1857, only 16 allotments had been sold in South Kingston by the same date. In 1861 the unsold lots were divided among the four partners; Holt receiving about 140 of the lots, which he continued to sell. The entire estate ultimately realised slightly more than double its purchase price- ' is to be hoped that his actions will be imitated by many, and thus show the world that amid the hurry and selfishness of money-getting there are still to be found the noble virtues of mercy and charity.'

Paling's villa, Woerden, was located on the corner of Cambridge and Merchant Streets. He was closely involved in the municipal development of the local area, serving as an alderman of
Petersham Municipality (1876-89) and as Mayor in 1881-2.

The property now known as The Lodge was purchased by Alexander Stuart on 8 January, 1873. The Petersham Rate Book for 1874 clearly indicates that, by this time, the land had been built on, providing a probable building date for the villa of 1873. The Rate Books provide an image of Cambridge
Street at this time: there were two weatherboard cottages, nine brick houses, one house in progress and areas of enclosed and cultivated land. 34 For the year 1874-5 there are two assessments associated with the subject property, the owner and occupier of both being given as Alexander Stuart. The first is described as a brick house (annual value: £65); the second as, 'house building- stables, gardeners house and garden' (annual value: £120). From the following year until 1877, the property is assessed as one, 'brick house, outbuildings and grounds' (annual value of £300).

Alexander Stuart is first listed at 'Cambridge Street, South Kingston' in John Sands Suburban Directory of 1875. The original name of the property was Clunes and appears in this directory in 1876. House names were not unusual in the era before house numbering became common.

Edinburgh born (Sir) Alexander Stuart (1824-1886, knighted 1885) exemplified the type of man who could be expected to own a substantial villa in the outer Sydney suburbs. Stuart had settled in New South Wales in 1852, following earlier ventures in New Zealand and on the Ballarat goldfields. On
November 10,1853 he married Christiana Eliza Wood (d. 1889). Having joined the Bank of New South Wales in 1852, he later joined the merchant firm of R. Towns & Co., becoming a notable figure in commercial circles. Stuart prospered in the buoyant economy of the gold rush decades, holding trusteeships and directorships in a number of prominent companies. He served as Director of the Bank of New South Wales (1855-61, 1867-76 and 1877-79) and as its President in 1861. As well as being a vocal lay member of the Anglican Church, Stuart shared the philanthropic inclinations of former
owners of the subject property, serving as director of the Sydney Sailors' Home and on the committee of the Sydney Bethel Union.

Stuart was elected to the Legislative Assembly as the third member for East Sydney in 1876, serving as colonial treasurer in 1876-7. His personal financial position, however, was less secure and he faced near bankruptcy

Cambridge Street and Clunes: 1858-1890

On 8 October 1858, lots 26, 27, 28 and 29 of Section 11 of the South Kingston Estate (each parcel of land consisting of 3 rods and 8 perches) were acquired by James Thomas Hausand, a physician of Redfern. The subject property formed part of this purchase. The land at this time was valued at
£350 and appears to have been occupied on Hausand's behalf by his gardener. Hausand's allotment is described as being bound by Harrow Road to the north, Merchant Street on the west, the land of James Beckett on the east and lots 1, 2, 3, and 30 of Section 11, also owned (and occupied) by
Hausand.

On 9 January, 1873, William Henry Paling was issued with a Certificate of Title for all eight of the allotments identified above. It is clear from Hausand's Application to Bring the Property Under the Real Property Act dated 22 December, 1871, that Paling had a contract for the purchase of the land at
this earlier date. A number of local histories suggest that the villa now known as The Lodge was built by Paling as a speculative venture in 1872. The property is described in the Petersham Rate Book of this year, however, as 'building lots' and it is unlikely that Paling would have built on the land before
receiving clear title to it.

William Paling (1825-1895) 'musician, merchant, philanthropist' was born and trained as a musician in the Netherlands. Paling had arrived in Sydney in 1853 and had quickly attracted attention as a music teacher, musician, composer and entrepreneur. Two years later, he established the New South Wales Academy of Music. Paling opened his first music warehouse at 83 Wynyard Street in an 'unpretentious place, built of timber and galvanised iron' and proceeded to open a number of branch stores in Toowoomba (1884), Brisbane (1888) and Newcastle (1892). He moved to his landmark store in George Street Sydney in 1891. The favourable economic circumstances of the period ensured that Paling's activities as an importer of European pianofortes and retailer of local sheet music flourished. He combined his affluence and influence with his philanthropic concerns on numerous occasions, bringing him many honorary public offices. Paling's public contributions culminated in the presentation of Grasmere, his 450 acre model farm at Camden, to the colony on 23 April, 1888 for use as a hospital for convalescents and incurables:

'In our busy lives, now days, we do not often find time to turn aside to help brighten the dark lot of many of our fellow creatures, and we go on striving and working while our neighbours sink beside us…so,
when a man does an act of large liberality, and unselfishly gives from his store for the relief of
distress, the act, unexpected, takes us by surprise.'

Sefton Hall: 1890-1900

In August 1891 and again in January 1892 sections of the subject property were transferred from Paling to Cornelius Gorton. The latter of these transfers involved 1 acre, 1 rod and 11 perches (part of lots 4 and 25, lots 2, 3, 26-29 and part of lots 1 and 30 of section 11) and included the land on which the villa stood. Gorton’s tenant in the villa from 1893 to 1900 was John Button. Sands Directories and a later Memorandum of Transfer indicate that Clunes had been renamed Sefton Hall.

Cornelius Gorton was a builder and over the next 8 years subdivided sections of the Cambridge Street property. In February 1893 part of the land was transferred to Thomas Stericker. The Petersham Rate Books indicate that a house was built in 1892-3. The land sales continued. In November 1898, part of lots 28 and 29 were transferred to Mary Anne Angelinetta, in June and October 1899 part of lots 28 and 29 were transferred to William White and in October 1901 part of lot 29 was transferred to Jessie Marion Bothill. The land containing the villa was transferred to Herbert Henry Booth of Melbourne, Commandant of the Salvation Army, on 20 April 1900.

The Memorandum of transfer between Gorton and Booth (20 April 1900) valued the property at £3,000. The land remaining after Gorton’s subdivisions of the original estate contained lots 26, 27, 2 and 3 and part of lots 1, 4, 25, 28, 29 and 30 of section 11, a total of 3 rods and 28 perches. A Certificate of Title was issued to Herbert Henry Booth on 8 June.1900.

The Salvation Army and the Site: 1900 Onwards

William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London in 1865. The Army appeared in Australia fifteen years later, most prominently through an open air meeting in Adelaide’s Botanic Gardens. The Salvationists offered ‘practical sympathy’ from the first. Having addressed the above mentioned meeting in Adelaide in 1880, the speaker, John Gore invited ‘any man who hasn’t had a ‘square meal’ to ‘come home to tea with me.’

A Salvation Army corps was established in Newtown in 1883 and was quickly followed by the founding of other corps in the surrounding suburbs: at Marrickville (23 July 1884) Petersham (21 February, 1885) and Dulwich Hill (16 April, 1887). The Salvation Army has a significant place in Marrickville history for their contribution to music and welfare institutions. Former and existing Salvation Army institutions in the municipality, aside from the subject property, include Bethesda Hospital (later Stead House), Sunset Lodge, Eventide Home for Women, Orana Lodge hostel for homeless women and children, Booth House Hostel and the Salvation Army Training College.

The Stanmore Rescue Home: The Anchorage and The Harbour

The Salvation Army purchased Sefton Hall intending to open a Women’s Annexe for the Officers Training Garrison. In the Annual Report of the Salvation Army 1898-9, however, the St Peters Home had been described as 'very full’, with ‘larger premises being sought’. Women and girls were relocated from St Peters Home to the subject site to continue an industrial laundry and sewing service.

The Stanmore Rescue Home was opened in February 1900 by the Premier of New South Wales, Sir William Lyne, and in the presence of Mrs Booth. The War Cry of 19 February, 1900 stated that the main purpose of Mrs Booth’s visit to the ‘mother colony’s capital’ had been the opening of ‘The Anchorage, the ‘late Sefton Hall, the ‘magnificent New Rescue Home.’ The opening of the home by the premier of New South Wales indicates how far the Salvation Army had advanced in the twenty years since their foundation in Australia and the esteem in which they were now held by the community. During the 1880s a 'skeleton army' of larrikins had devoted themselves to badgering Salvation Army officers. The depression of the 1890s, during which the Salvation Army had offered vital assistance, not the least of which was through the establishment of a series of social institutions, including welfare cottages for children, girls homes, rescue homes, maternity hospitals and people palaces, completed a slow change in public attitude.

Petersham itself had altered considerably over the final decade of the nineteenth century. While remaining largely residential in character, development of another nature had been occurring in neighbouring Marrickville. Industrial development, in the form of small manufactories and brickyards, had begun in the 1870. The scale was such that Marrickville of the 1880s was still being described as a suburban municipality mostly taken up with market gardens. The commencement of the Western Suburbs Sewerage Scheme in the early 1890s, however, allowed more substantial industrial development in the newly drained low lying areas of the municipality. As industrial development proceeded, the upper classes moved out of the surrounding suburbs into the more desirable outer Sydney suburbs. The large houses that they vacated were demolished, subdivided or converted into boarding houses, hostels and nursing homes. The area gradually developed a lower socio- economic base. The population of the Petersham Borough continued to rise over the ensuring years. By 1911 over 21,000 people would reside in the area. By the end of World War I in 1918, when the extensive public transport system (particularly the electric tram) had finally brought all parts of the area within close proximity to the city. The area would be firmly established as part of the western suburbs of Sydney.

The War Cry indicates that The Anchorage, the new name given to Sefton Hall, was enlarged and renovated before its opening in 1900. The opening and a full description of the villa and its grounds, including the basement and laundry areas, are provided by The War Cry, 10 February, 1900. While the house is given the name The Anchorage by the War Cry, it appears as The Harbour in the Annual Reports of the Salvation Army and in Sands Directories (from 1901).

By 1915, ‘The Harbour’ at Stanmore was one ten Rescue Homes operated by the Army in Australia. The purpose of a Rescue Home is perhaps best explained with reference to General William Booth’s In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890):

‘while there are homes to which any poor, ruined and degraded harlot can run for shelter, there is only here and there a corner to which a poor, friendless, moneyless, homeless, but unfallen girl can fly for shelter…Now, we want a real home for such- a house to which any girl can fly at any hour of the day or night, and be taken in, cared for, shielded from the enemy, and helped to circumstances of safety. We should accept any girl, say from fourteen years of age, who is willing to work, and to conform to discipline. There will be various kinds of labour provided…Every beneficial influence within our power would be brought to bear on the rectification and formation of character. Continued efforts would be made to secure situations according to the adaptation of the girls, to restore wanderers to their home, and otherwise provide for all.’

In light of this purpose, the origin of the name The Harbour becomes apparent:
‘…the existence of our Rescue Homes Harbours indeed! Into which may a disabled life has drifted.’

The name The Harbour was not unique to the Stanmore Home. The Annual Report of the Salvation Army for 1898-99, for example, contains a photograph of The Harbour in Melbourne. Equally, the purchase of large estates and gardens for use as Rescue Homes was not unique. That such purchases did not always meet with public approval was the subject of an article in the Annual Report of 1905. It is clear, however, that maintaining the grand houses and their gardens came to be regarded as an important part of the public presentation of the Salvation Army.

The Rescue Home, as an institution, was essentially a product of the specific climate of morality that existed in late nineteenth century Sydney. A ‘profoundly altered’ moral climate to that experienced by Thomas Rowley had enveloped Sydney as transportation slowed and ended. Sydney offered opportunities for social advancement to a class of people that England never had. The attainment of moral improvement, respectability and education was seen as not only increasingly possible, but morally desirable. Aided by the enactment of marriage laws and the influx of ‘free’ immigrants, ‘virtuous women’ and their children were increasingly viewed as being the foundation of family life and hence of the nation. Following the social turmoil of the mid nineteenth century gold rushes, ‘disorderliness’ and its policing were reinforced as major concerns. Long-term strategies involving the ‘rescuing’ of the ‘rising generation’ resulted in a series of reports on the state of disorder amongst youth and children. A NSW Select Committee on the condition of working class children (1859), for example, described them as ‘floating about lanes and streets as if in a fish pond.’

By late Victorian times, morality had become ‘sentimental’ and ‘censorious’. Given their ideological construction as the ‘bearers of society’s domestic virtue’, the behaviour of young girls was more closely scrutinised and more strongly censured than their male counterparts:

‘A dissolute woman is more of a moral renegade than a man. Women are naturally purer, more refined, more sensitive; hence her degradation cuts more deeply into her soul and produces a more utter hopelessness.’

‘If the committee think it desirable to examine any young girls, there are several now in gaol…who are well known to the police as prostitutes. In conclusion, I beg to state, that I have made diligent inquiry for male vagrants among the youths of the city, and I can confidently say there are not 50 houseless boys in Sydney.’

During the years 1850 to 1915 illegitimacy was believed to be on the rise. Communal wrath was ‘swift upon females who were deemed unfit for respect’ and ‘fallen women’ were increasingly segregated from society. Women were ‘pin pointed’ in this regard. With the exception of a few articles expressing outrage against male ‘seducers’ (Bulletin 29.4.1882 and Sydney Illustrated News 9.2.1893), little of society’s outrage was directed towards them:

‘some of us who have been familiar with Rescue Homes and similar institutions realise a fact which must be taken into consideration in solving the problem: each of these children had a father!…There is no redress for the girl and no punishment for the man.’

Coupled with these issues of morality was an important ideological shift with regard to welfare and charity. By the latter decades of the nineteenth century, social problems were no longer being simply viewed as ‘God’s will’ and there was a feeling that some sort of social transformation could be affect through positive human action. This was an attitude that was not entirely new to Sydney. From the early years of European settlement in New South Wales, ideas of effecting social change through reform and education had been manifest in a number of institutions, some of which aimed to ‘rescue’ destitute girls and train them to be domestic servants. The Salvation Army Rescue Homes continued in this tradition. From the Annual Reports of the Salvation Army, it is clear that a number of girls left the Rescue Homes for domestic situations:

‘It is not only a Christian duty, but sound policy, to facilitate as much as possible the return of those who have fallen to a condition of self respect and habits of honest industry.'

Without direct financial support from the government, the Salvation Army Rescue Homes relied on donations and whatever they could earn. From the beginning, laundries were integral to the operation of these homes, not only as an activity that facilitated the ‘habit of honest industry’, but also as one that provided income for what were often, especially where they sheltered unmarried mothers, unpopular charities.

Laundries of the type operated by the Salvation Army at The Harbour fulfilled a need of late nineteenth and early twentieth century Sydney. The increase in the amount of household linen, the diminishing size of the average household establishments and the shortage of professional laundress in the latter decades of the nineteenth century had lead to a growth in the number of professional laundries to which domestic and personal linen could be sent. A description of the laundry at The Harbour in Stanmore was provided by The War Cry in 1900. With its copper tubs for boiling clothes, the drying room with its ‘Turkish bath atmosphere’ and the ironing room, the laundry closely mirrors that of other turn-of-the-century laundries. In 1911, the Salvation Army acquired Frankfort Villa in Leicester Street, Marrickville, changing the name to Bethesda Mothers’ Hospital (later Bethesda Hospital). It is possible that The Harbour, through its work as a commercial laundry, was connected to this hospital. The officers in charge of The Harbour also sought other means to supplement their income. In October 1918, a new industry started at The Harbour, cutting cotton garments at two shillings per day. Other industries are referred to in records: bag making over 25 years for K.L Bussells & Co. (ended May 1938) and curious references to the making of holly leaves (commenced November 1932).

While ‘low’ morality was often seen as a problem of the working classes, the inmates of Salvation Army Homes came from all stations in life. ‘Fallen girls’ could as easily come from ‘families which were respectable’ and ‘had been lead astray by young fellows from homes equally respectable’ as from the working classes.’ Rescue Homes sheltered not only ‘voluntary comers’, but were also filled by the efforts of a ‘perfect network of agencies’ including police officers (the Homes accepted girls in lieu of prison terms) and the Army’s own Slum Officers and the Inquiry Department. An 1886 advertisement called for

‘parents, relations and friends, in any part of the world, interested in any woman or girl who is known, or feared to be, living in immorality, or in the danger of becoming under the control of immoral persons, to write, stating full particulars, with names, dates and addresses of all concerned, and if possible, a photograph of the person in whom the interest is taken.’

Admittance figures for the Rescue Homes, including The Harbour at Stanmore, are given by the Annual Reports of the Salvation Army and provide an insight into the scale of the operation. To provide one example, in 1902, 1,000 women passed through the Army’s fifteen Rescue Homes. Included among this number were 120 from the police courts and prisons, 431 who were found situations or sent home, 2 who died and 61 who left ‘unsatisfactorily.’

There is little doubt that the Rescue Officers who ran the Homes form an important part of their history. The first matron at The Harbour, Stanmore, was Adjutant Ward, a photograph of whom in provided in Appendix 3. Articles, newspaper clippings, photographs and other material relating to the matrons of the Home are also provided in the appendices. Of the Rescue Officers it was said:

‘No officers have worked more assiduously than the Rescue officers. A finer band of women is not to be found anywhere. The work itself is monotonous and discouraging, but the results repay every weary hour of toil and anxiet 'What an honour to be permitted to head such to His feet.'

The annual reports of the Salvation Army provide illustrations and written sketches of life in a Rescue Home. Two examples, relating to laundry operations: ‘quick the Captain steers the way downstairs again, and down further still into the ironing room. Piles of linen stand everywhere. A huge mangle smooths these out’

‘In the laundry are four girls washing away with a will; an officer with sleeves tucked up is giving a practical lesson. In answer to our question if the girls are good, she says, ‘Oh just splendid today’, with an emphasis on ‘today’, implying that her days are not all brightness.’

In May 1920, a second proposal to convert The Harbour into a Training College was dismissed. By 1931-32, however, resident numbers were decreasing and The Harbour was used to accommodate girls aged 14 to 19 years on probation. Salvation Army records indicate that the years of the Great Depression (1930s) were financially difficult ones for The Harbour, with more sewing being taken in and officers selling goods from door to door.

An above ground air raid shelter was constructed on the site during the Second World War (1939-1945). Further research into this structure (outside the bounds of this report) is required.

The Lodge: Young Women’s Hostel: 1940-1975

As the demand for the care of delinquent girls diminished in the period following World War II, The Harbour became a Young Women’s Hostel and was renamed The Lodge. The nearby Bethesda Hospital would similarly be converted into a hostel in 1979. Women’s hostels had their origins in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when a series of committees had been formed to organise the provision of hostels for working girls. These hostels had been established to overcome the problem of ‘virtuous’ girls inhabiting ‘out of necessity’ the ‘vast number of pokey rooms and lodging houses’ across the city. Such hostels, frequently run by church groups, were intended to provide women with clean, decent and respectable housing at a price that reflected the lower wages they received in comparison to their male counterparts. The function of these hostels was not dissimilar to that of the earlier Salvation Army People’s Palaces, where inexpensive accommodation, away from the environs of liquor and gambling, had been provided for travellers and visitors to the city.

It is interesting to observe that The Lodge was not the first hostel to operate out of Cambridge Street. From 1923 to 1927 a Hostel for Women Students had operated out of 90 Cambridge Street. A second women’s hostel, run by the Church of England, appears in Sands Directories of 1927 and1932-3. This particular hostel was originally known as Wellesley College and before becoming a hostel, had operated as a Salvation Army Children’s Home (from at least 1923 to 1926).

As The Lodge evolved, so to did the surrounding suburb. During the 1930s, many of the surviving large allotments of the South Kingston Estate were used for residential flat building. Between 1926 and 1932-3, Cambridge Street acquired seven new blocks of flats. Flat buildings once again proved popular in the 1960s. Large houses underwent radical alteration or were demolished to make way for flat blocks. Petersham Municipality was subsumed during this period, becoming part of the Municipality of Marrickville (1949).

The Lodge: Children’s Home: 1975-1986

In 1975 The Lodge became a children’s home, combining this function with a hostel for girl students in 1985 and women students in 1986. This was the second Salvation Army children’s home in the street (see above) and the third in the history of Cambridge Street, the other being the China Inland Mission Home in what was then No. 68 Cambridge Street (1928). The Salvation Army Children’s Home provided full accommodation and care for children over a short or long term period, catering for girls 2-18 and boys 2-12 years. The Home had beds for 23 children, who attended local schools and assisted in household chores (refer to additional information contained in Appendices 3 and 4).

The Lodge: Training Facility: 1986 Onwards

In December 1987, the Centre for Officers’ Further Training was established at The Lodge following the line of Commissioner L. Roy Lovvat who had instituted a similar venture in the United Kingdom. The COFT was officially opened by Commissioner Lovvat on 29 October, 1988, its stated purpose being ‘to better equip Officers and Salvationists to proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ.’ The COFT became Salvation Army Leadership Training (SALT) in 1993 and is currently the School for Leadership Training, part of the College of Further Education. The Lodge currently provides residential and non residential training for officers, managers, employees and other groups.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Local - strong association with the works of the Salvation Army continuously since site purchased in 1900; land ownership and house planning association with W H Paling [musical business and Mayor], who live opposite; and residence of Sir Alexander Stuart, NSW Premier and reputedly Sir Henry Parkes. Rare bomb sheldter.

The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore, has local historical significance for its ability to closely reflect the cultural development of the local area over a period of 150 years. The evolution of the property is similarly significant for its ability to demonstrate the sustained and varied involvement of the Salvation Army within the broader community over a period of 103 years.

The Lodge is representative of the type, standard and style of buildings erected on the large suburban villa allotments of the South Kingston Estate during the 1870s and 1880s, an era of considerable change in development in the area. Properties on this section of the estate were developed primarily by members of upper classes, in this instance (Sir) Alexander Stuart, seeking semi-rural retreats within easy reach of Sydney. The property is a locally rare example of a Victorian villa development that still retains a significant proportion of its original allotment.

The Lodge has local historical significance for its ability to reflect the gradual social revolution that Stanmore underwent between 1880 and 1900. Faced with the growing industrialisation of the area, the wealthier classes gradually vacated the area. Towards the close of the century it was not uncommon for the large villas of the area to be converted into multiple dwellings or boarding houses. Sefton Hall, as the property was then known, became part of this pattern when it was acquired by the Salvation Army for use as a Refugee Home for girls (1900).

The use of The Lodge as a Refugee Home, renamed The Harbour, provides a significant and largely intact example of the contemporary Salvation Army (1900) practice of converting formally grand houses into charitable institutions. By 1915, The Harbour would be one of ten such Refugee Homes across Australia. The name, The Harbour, links the Stanmore property to at least one other shelter, a similarly grand home in Melbourne. The Army, as evidenced by historic photographs and descriptions of The Harbour took considerable pains to ensure that their buildings and grounds presented a respectable front to the community, a significant historic tradition continued at The Lodge today.

The Lodge has historic significance for the understanding it provides of the moral climate that dominated Victorian and Edwardian Sydney. The conservative ‘backlash’ that accompanied the transition of Sydney from a penal colony to a free society produced a censorious morality that played considerable emphasis on the virtue of women. This was manifest in all levels of society. Institutions such as the Refugee Homes reflect the heightened emphasis that all levels of society placed on morality as a means of raising their social status in a newly industrialised society. The Harbour at Stanmore is also strongly reflective of a concern voiced by the Salvation Army as early as the 1880s to provide shelter for the ‘unfallen’ girl who had no place to go.

The property as it exists today, through physical fabric and recorded memory, has historical significance for the strong connection it retains to its period of use as a Rescue Home. The laundry wing (now containing the accommodation block and laundry annex) is of particular significance to this period. In an era when there was no financial support from the NSW Government and when charities involving unmarried mothers were not always popular, the laundry was played a vital role in the life and running of the Home. This operation connects the Stanmore Home to its sister homes across Australia. Not only was its operation reflective of the growing commercial laundry industry, but it is exemplifies the Army’s own byword of ‘practical sympathy’. The operation of the laundry also mirrors contemporary ideas of social welfare, where redemption was carried out through reformatory work and with a sense of a duty of care. The surviving remanent of the laundry room, the presence of some of the equipment dating from its final period of use and the markings on the floor of equipment now lost, are of significance. Another area particularly capable of reflecting the Refugee Home era is the sub floor basement area of the villa, with its largely intact wooden partitions and washroom facilities. A description of these two areas figure prominently in a War Cry article of 1900.

The opening of The Harbour in 1900 is of historical significance for the statement that is provides of the social status of the Army at the time. The presence of the Premier of NSW, Sir William Lyne, illustrates a dramatic shift in public attitude towards the Army since the 1880s, when it had frequently been the subject of ridicule.

As it had in the past, the subject property continued to developed through the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s in response to changing social conditions. In its role as a Women’s Hostel from the 1940s to the 1980s, The Lodge, as it was renamed, continued an Army tradition (first manifest in the People Palaces) of providing supervised, subsidised accommodation. This was vital role during an era when women’s wages were lower then their male counterparts. Included on the subject property is a representative of a World War II above-ground air raid shelter.

The Lodge is significant for the shelter it provided as a Children’s Home from the 1960s to the early 1980s. These links are maintained, through, for example, reunions.
In its role as a training centre for Salvation Army officers, The Lodge has significance in that it continues a tradition of army education first begun in Australia over 100 years ago.

The property was owned and lived in by Sir Alexander Stuart (1829-1886), a figure who played an important role in early colonial politics and who was elected as the premier of New South Wales in 1882.

The Lodge has a strong and special association with the Australian Salvation Army (its officers and those who have benefited from their care) over 101 years. It has been the subject of numerous visits from senior Australian and overseas Army officials, including, at its opening, Catherine Booth. The Salvation Army through a number of institutions, including The Lodge, have been a presence in Marrickville since the formation of the local Corps in the mid 1880s.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Local. The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore, has aesthetic significance as a largely intact Victorian Gothic style villa (c.1873). Despite later alterations, The Lodge remains capable of illustrating the characteristics of this style. The stairwell stained glass window, the quality of surviving internal joinery and interior encaustic tiling are fine examples of their era of construction.

The Lodge has aesthetic significance for the contribution that it makes to Cambridge Street. This is derived from its Gothic form and style, its setting within a mature garden and its imposing masonry and iron fence. The Lodge retains a significant portion of its original allotment and is capable of demonstrating the principal aims of the Victorian suburban garden villa.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Integral component of the State wide operation of the Salvation Army, The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore, has ongoing significance for the Salvation Army and to the substantial community of people who have resided in, work, or been associated with the property.

The Lodge is of significance to local history groups who include the property in heritage tours.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The Lodge is a representative example of Victorian Gothic architecture. Particular characteristics of this style that are reflected in the villa include its asymmetrical elevations, the steeply pitched roof with protruding gables, window forms and the use of decorative timber barge boards. The interior timber work, encaustic tessellated tiles and the stairwell stained glass window are fine, intact, examples of the villa’s era of construction (c.1873).

The Lodge’s ability to demonstrate the operation of a commercial Victorian laundry has been substantially affected by later alterations and loss of almost all the operation’s machinery. The form of the original laundry block is, however, clear and there is a remanent of the internal panelled timber ceiling in the laundry annex.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Local. The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore is a locally rare example of a Victorian villa development that retains a significant proportion of its original allotment and some understanding of the accompanying garden layout.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Local. The Lodge, Cambridge Street, Stanmore is a representative example of the Victorian Gothic style as discussed above. Through its history, it provides an insight into the cultural development of the surrounding area since the 1850s. The property forms part of an important pattern centred around the activities of the Salvation Army and the local and state wide role that they have played over a period of over 103 years.
Integrity/Intactness: The building appears to be intact and retains its integrity.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Continue general maintenance.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanMarrickville LEP 2011I23812 Dec 11 2011/645 
Local Environmental PlanMarrickville Local Environmental Plan 2001 18 May 01 86 
Within a conservation area on an LEPwithin draft cons. area Marrickville LEP 2001    
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Marrickville Heritage Study19862.65Fox and AssociatesNovember 1984 No
Marrickville Heritage Study Review19972030107Tropman & Tropman Architects1997-1999 Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenWeir & Phillips2003Heritage report & heritage impact assessment The Lodge
WrittenWeir & Phillips Architects and Heritage Consultants2003Heritage Report - The Lodge, Stanmore

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2030107
File number: 2.65


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