Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2882 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2882

Item details

Name of item: Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2882
Other name/s: St George's Terraces, Oriental Hotel
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 42-56 Phillip Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
Lot10DP128474
LotA0DP384927
LotB0DP384927
LotC0DP384927
Lot10DP569139
Lot20DP569139
Lot10DP611335
Lot10DP742271
Lot10DP770901
Lot10DP799649
Lot10DP85028

Boundary:

Corner of Phillip Street and Wilde Avenue
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
42-56 Phillip StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address
Wilde AvenueParramattaParramatta  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

This AMU has high archaeological research potential.
The area was part of the early township and is associated with the early convict occupation of the Parramatta. It developed as part of the commercial centre of the town.
The physical archaeological evidence within this area may include structural features, intact subfloor deposits, open deposits and scatters, ecological samples and individual artefacts which have potential to yield information relating to major historic themes including Commerce, Environment, Housing, Industry, Utilities and Convicts.
Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be subject to minor disturbance.
This AMU is of State significance.
Date significance updated: 13 Oct 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Physical description: The subject area contains a row of two-storey terraces (St Georges Terrace) and other two-storey commercial buildings fronting Phillip Street. There is a multi-storey carpark behind these buildings towards the river, in DP 215036, and a ground-level carpark and access road in DP 384927. The access road continues under the Smith Street (Barry Wilde) bridge and continues back up to Phillip Street. The river foreshore (David Frater Reserve) is a grassed area sloping down to the river. There is a concrete retaining wall along the edge of the river, reducing the amount of slope in this area. The subject area slopes down quite steeply from Phillip Street to the river.
The archaeological and heritage significance of the site was prepared in 1999 prior to its redevelopment (Higginbotham, 1999). The design of the proposed redevelopment included the following elements:
1. Retention of six historical terraced houses for retail usage.
2. Two levels of basement car parking.
3. Residential development on Wilde Avenue.
4. Residential tower building.
(Higginbotham, 1999, p 95).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
An archaeological survey of the site in 1999 indicated that archaeological remains of earlier dwellings, shops, factories and other archaeological features may survive below ground (Higginbotham, 1999, pp 78-80). No above-ground evidence of historical archaeological remains was located. This, however, does not exclude the possibility of significant subsurface remains. The site survey indicated that the archaeological remains are likely to survive in good condition, with minor disturbance from road construction and the excavation of footing and service trenches (Higginbotham, 1999, p 78). Despite the slope of the land in this area, there does not appear to be significant ground levelling/terracing. The ground-level carpark follows the slope of the land, though the multi-storey carpark in DP 215036 would have impacted upon subsurface deposits.
The redevelopment of the site following the 1999 archaeological and heritage assessment, however, will substantially disturb archaeological remains across the site. Redevelopment had not commenced when the site was inspected in July 2000.
The river bank has probably been built up with introduced fill during the construction of the river retaining wall. There is some potential for sterile river bank deposits to remain intact in this area.
The major floods in Parramatta, however, would have significantly affected the potential for archaeological deposits associated with occupation of this area before 1890 to remain intact. The extent of disturbance caused by the flood is unclear, though much of the bank south of the river had to be reclaimed.
The ‘Recommended Management’ actions listed below indicate what may be required to manage archaeological resources within this AMU. Please note that all requirements may not be required for all parts of this AMU.
Date condition updated:09 Jun 00
Current use: Residential and Retail
Former use: Housing, retail, hotel, cordial manufacturers

History

Historical notes: Prior to 1809, leases that were granted to individuals at Parramatta were mainly on large acreages surrounding the Government town centre. While there were some free settlers in the town, it was prisoners' huts that dominated the town allotments. The first permanent dwellings constructed in the new town were concentrated along the principal streets of George, Macquarie and Church Streets. Allotments in George and Macquarie Streets were the site of a number of convict huts that were later occupied by free persons.There is little information on the earliest occupants of Allotments 20, 40 and 41 prior to the 1820s. The 1804 survey map of Parramatta shows buildings located on land in the vicinity of Allotments 40 and 41.
In 1817, the rights to two timber houses were purchased by Samuel Larken. Two buildings are also shown on this site on plans of 1823 and c1830. Plans or records from 1844, 1855 and 1876 show three timber buildings on Allotment 40, Section 25. In 1877, a panorama of Parramatta shows what appear to be two buildings on the site. By 1881, George Coates built and owned seven brick terrace houses (St George's Terrace) on Allotment 40. Within three years, Coates had also built the Oriental Hotel beside the terraces on the corner of Smith and Phillip Streets. The hotel ceased to operate by 1910 and in 1922 was described as an old brick, two-storey house.
By 1823, Allotment 41, including a building, was leased to Thomas Woolley. A weatherboard shop appears to have been situated on this site by 1827. Allotment 41 was purchased by Benjamin Lee in 1834 along with Allotment 20. Lee sold a portion of the land to Margaret Anderson who ran a small weatherboard grocer's shop and dwelling until her death in 1889. The 1895 Detail Survey shows a dwelling close to the street frontage on this parcel of land.
The southern part of Allotment 20 was leased to William Morris in 1823. A building is shown on the 1823 map, which lay partially in an area now occupied by a Right of Way. The building had disappeared by 1844. Conveyed to Lee in 1834, Lee had reserved the Right of Way for himself, changing the eastern boundary of the land by 1840. Also in 1840, he assigned most of Allotment 20 to William Peisley. At this time, a slaughterhouse had been constructed on the land (location unknown). Following the sale of part of Allotment 20 to Samuel Barber in 1865, the buildings on it were gradually removed. The 1895 Detail Survey shows the southern portion of Allotment 20 as vacant land. In c1913, buildings for ice works and grocers and that of a preserving company were located on the site. This land was transferred to cordial makers in 1923-26. Then, prior to 1933, a weatherboard cottage was built on the southern part of the lot (23 Smith Street, 'Paradise').
The allotments changed owners many times over the years. In 1953, the northern part of Allotment 20 was transferred to Parramatta City Council and in 1954, the southern part of the Allotment was transferred to Ethel Elegar May Laws. In 1936, Allotment 41 was sold to the Parramatta and Granville Electricity Supply Co. who also soon purchased the Right of Way from Rosamund Ellen Dudgeon. In 1969, Salvatore Messina sold Allotment 40 to Waldor Development Pty Ltd (Higginbotham, 1999). There were two major floods in Parramatta, in 1864 and 1890. In 1890, the water rose to 8m south of the river, collecting houses on the way. The river bank collapsed in this area and was later reclaimed.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments-National Theme 1
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parramatta River-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict huts-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Why is there variability in the convict hut assemblages in Parramatta? What can this tell us about convict life?-Convicts Convict; Control; Consumption
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Gaol Town: How does the eighteenth-century gaol town of Parramatta compare with Sydney and the later, free town?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convicts/Commercial: To what extent did convicts participate in commercial life? Did they carry out work from home?-Convicts Convict; Control; Production
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Free/Forced: What differences are there between the lives of free and forced or institutionalised settlers?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convicts/Gender: In the married-convict, unmarried-convict and unmarried-female-convict huts of the 1790s, are there dif-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict-Includes settlement in town and country, in prison and in employment.
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Peopling the continent-National Theme 2
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Convicts/Commercial: To what extent did convicts participate in commercial life? Did they carry out work from home?-Commerce Convict; Control
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Convicts/Commercial: Did convicts participate in commercial life?-Commerce Convict; Control
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Economic Function: What function does Parramatta perform as the result of its physical position in relation to Sydney an-Commerce Consumption; Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Global Market: Were the people of Parramatta participating in a global market place? Does this increase as the fruits of-Commerce Consumption; Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Commercial Centre: Does nineteenth-century commercial growth in Parramatta differ from Sydney's?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Do Parramatta residents utilise mass-produced or home-spun goods?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Do Parramatta residents consume local products, such as cordial?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Commerce-Includes banking, retailing.
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Environment/Alteration: What is the result of alteration of the landscape?-Environment (Modified) Control; Control
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Environment-Natural or modified and shaped; may include Aboriginal and European features, clearing, timber getting, soil conservation, national parks, gardens, special plantings, preservation of open space.
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods To what extent was industry or manufacture a part of town life in Parramatta? How does this compare with other towns an-Industry Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Industry-Related to the rise, fall and replacement of urban and rural industries.
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Industry-Related to the rise, fall and replacement of urban and rural industries.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Can archaeological evidence of convict huts at Parramatta be used in conjunction with evidence of other convict huts to-Housing Convict; Control
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing-Includes the range from individual homes or homesteads to group accommodation.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasehold Land after 1823-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasehold Land before 1823-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Phillip's town layout-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Power Supply-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis How were utilities located within settlement patterns?-Utilities
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Utilities-Includes water, sewerage, gas, electricity.
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working-National Theme 5

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This AMU provides evidence of a range of historical processes and activities relating to the history of Parramatta. Specific historical and associated values have not been assessed.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The archaeological resources of this AMU have no known aesthetic significance although it is recognised that exposed in situ archaeological remains may have distinctive/attractive visual qualities.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The potential social values of this AMU have not been assessed. However, some places take on high social values as a result of community interest in archaeological investigations.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The archaeological resources of this AMU provide evidence of past human culture and activity, and therefore have potential to yield scientific and historical information about the development of the town of Parramatta from its earliest days.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This AMU is likely to include scarce physical evidence relating to the early history of Parramatta, including the convict period.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This AMU includes archaeological resources which, as a set, provide a physical chronicle of the history of Parramatta.
Integrity/Intactness: Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be subject to minor disturbance.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Statutory: DCP. Statutory: NSW Heritage Act (Section 140). Site Requirement: Test Trench and Reassess. Site Requirement: Open Area Excavation. Interpretation: Signage Temporary.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Regional Environmental PlanSt George's Terrace    
Regional Environmental PlanSt Georges Terrace & potential archaeological siteSchedule 6, Part 101 Sep 99  115
Local Environmental PlanSt George's Terrace (42-56 Phillip Street)44120 Feb 97 20899
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 13  60
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 14  61
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta Central 15  61

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
PHALMS2001 Godden Mackay Logan  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Map 1791Hawkes River, showing the towns of Parramatta and settlements at Rose Hill, Field of Mars, Toongabbie
MapDetail Survey Branch, Department of Lands, Sydney, NSW1895Detail Survey Series of Parramatta
WrittenEdward Higginbotham and Associates Pty Ltd1999Historical and Archaeological Assessment of Allotments 20, 40, 41, Section 25, 42-56 Phillip Street and Wilde Avenue, Parramatta, NSW
WrittenEdward Higginbotham and Associates Pty Ltd (and Terry Kass)1999Historical and Archaeological Assessment of St George's Terrace, 44-56 Phillip Street, Parramatta, NSW
MapG.C. Stewart1822Town of Parramatta Showing Urban Settlement (redrawn 1926 by Campbell)
PhotographLand and Property Information1998Aerial Photographs
PhotographLand and Property Information1951Aerial photographs
WrittenMeredith Walker1993City of Parramatta Heritage Study
MapSurveyor G.W. Evans1804Plan of the Township of Parramatta (later annotated)
MapSurveyor General's Office, Sydney1871Plan of the Environs of Parramatta, County of Cumberland, NSW
WrittenTerry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont1996Parramatta: A Past Revealed
MapW. Meadows Brownrigg1844Plan of the Town of Parramatta and the Adjacent Properties, as surveyed by W. Meadows Brownrigg, Surveyor

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2242882


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