Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 3110 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 3110

Item details

Name of item: Parramatta Archaeological Management Unit 3110
Other name/s: Prince Alfred Park, First and Second Parramatta Gaols
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Law Enforcement
Category: Gaol/Lock-up
Primary address: Church Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: Field of Mars
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
Lot10DP724837

Boundary:

Church and Market Streets, Marist Place and Victoria Road
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Church StreetParramattaParramattaField of MarsCumberlandPrimary Address
Marist PlaceParramattaParramattaField of MarsCumberlandAlternate Address
Market StreetsParramattaParramatta  Alternate Address
Victoria RoadParramattaParramatta  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

This AMU has exceptional archaeological research potential.
This was the site of Parramatta's first and second gaols which were of major importance to the development of Parramatta as a penal settlement.
The physical archaeological evidence within this area may include built landforms, structural features, intact subfloor deposits, open deposits and scatters, ecological samples, and individual artefacts which have potential to yield information relating to major historic themes including Convicts, Government and Administration, Law and Order and Cultural Sites.
Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be intact.
This AMU is of State significance.
Date significance updated: 12 Sep 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Physical description: Public park with landscaped gardens and rotunda, surrounded by sandstone wall. There is a stone horse trough near the corner of Church Street and Victoria Road which is listed on the State Heritage Inventory (2240585).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The subject area has high potential to contain intact subsurface deposits.
This area is likely to contain archaeological resources related to Parramatta's first and second gaols, including structural remains, occupation deposits and individual artefacts related to the development and occupation of these early institutions, reflecting the nature of punishment within the early settlement and the quality of life experienced by the prisoners and their guards.
This evaluation is based on historical resources available to, and field survey undertaken for, the Parramatta Historical Archaeological Landscape Management Study 2000 (PHALMS). Analysis of available information has been extensive but not exhaustive. Some elements of the site represented in historical records may not have been discussed within the parameters of the PHALMS project. A comprehensive archaeological assessment of this AMU has not been undertaken.
The ‘Recommended Management’ actions listed below indicate what may be required to manage archaeological resources within this AMU. Please note that all requirements may not be required for all parts of this AMU.
Date condition updated:31 Aug 00
Current use: Prince Alfred Park
Former use: First and second Parramatta Gaols; 'Gaol Green'

History

Historical notes: This area is indicated as the site of 'government farm buildings' on a plan of Parramatta from 1790-92 (PRO, Bonwick Papers, reproduced in Kass et al, 1996, p 23).
In 1796, Governor John Hunter was committed to building much-wanted gaols in Sydney and Parramatta. Lack of masons and the need for urgent action convinced him to build in double log and thatch and he issued a 'General Order' which required every settler and householder to furnish and deliver 'ten logs weekly each'. Parramatta Gaol, 100ft long, was probably complete by May the following year. The construction was basic but the plan, with individual cells for prisoners (twenty-two), was up with the latest English concept. The Parramatta Gaol was a little apart from the township of parramatta on the northern bank of the river near the south boundary of the current Prince Alfred Park. It was torched by arsonists in 1799 (Kerr, 1995, p 1).
Work on the new Parramatta Gaol finally began in August 1802. The plan was a modest variant of an army barrack (central transverse corridor with wards to the left and right and at both ends). The construction of the gaol was the responsibility of Rev Marsden. Of all the early ashlar stone buildings in NSW, the second Parramatta Gaol was probably the one that deteriorated the most rapidly and required the most frequent repair and reconstruction (Kerr, 1995, pp 1-2).
At some time during construction, King decided to add a 'linen and woollen manufactory' to the gaol. The layout of the complex consisted of two functionally separate precincts (gaol to the south and the factory to the north). The factory yard was the domain of female convicts. The factory continued to function until December 1807 when both factory and gaol were damaged by fire (Kerr, 1995, pp 3-4).
The factory reopened in May 1809. The following decades included a series of reports regarding the structural deficiencies of the building. In 1833, the gaol was described as in a 'falling state'. Rather than undertaking major work, the building was shored up until a new gaol could be built (Kerr, 1995, pp 5-7).
By 1830, Major Lockyer applied for land near the gaol on behalf of the School of Industry for the site of an institution, but Surveyor-General Major Mitchell opposed the alienation of the land for this purpose. In 1837, Governor Bourke decided that the land should be measured for a reserve for the townspeople. It was authorised as a 'village green' on 27 November 1837 and covered an area of more than three acres. The land was levelled and fenced but complaints were made in 1853 that this ground which was set aside as a promenade was being used as a rubbish dump. In September 1869, the land known for many years as the 'Gaol Green' was planted with trees by members of the Council. In 1874, the Council was gazetted as Trustees of the reserve which became known as Alfred Square in the 1860s to commemorate the visit of Prince Alfred to the town (Jervis, 1961, p 53).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parks-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Gaol Town: How does the eighteenth-century gaol town of Parramatta compare with Sydney and the later, free town?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Free/Forced: What differences are there between the lives of free and forced or institutionalised settlers?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict-Includes settlement in town and country, in prison and in employment.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Governing-National Theme 7
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Colonial government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Government and administration-Includes maladministration.
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Crime and punishment-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Punishment: What are the material remains of punishment? Do they reflect punishment of the body, or reformation of the m-Law and Order Convict; control
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes What differences in crime and punishment were there between the penal period and civil period?-Law and Order Convict; control
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Prison colony-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes The rule of law-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Law and order-Includes protest.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. 1800–1810: What does the archaeological record tell us about this period?-Cultural Sites
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Cultural sites-From low to high culture, significant for the creation or performance of art, music, literature, drama, film etc., local symbols.

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This AMU provides evidence of a range of historical processes and activities relating to the history of Parramatta, including the development of Parramatta as a penal settlement.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The archaeological resources of this AMU have no known aesthetic significance although it is recognised that exposed in situ archaeological remains may have distinctive/attractive visual qualities.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The potential social values of this AMU have not been assessed. However, some places take on high social values as a result of community interest in archaeological investigations.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The archaeological resources of this AMU provide evidence of past human culture and activity, and therefore have potential to yield scientific and historical information.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This AMU is likely to include scarce physical evidence relating to the early history of Parramatta, including the convict period.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This AMU includes archaeological resources which, as a set, provide a physical chronicle of the history of Parramatta.
Integrity/Intactness: Archaeological evidence at this site is likely to be intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Statutory: DCP. Statutory: NSW Heritage Act (Section 140). Site Requirement: Test Trench and Reassess. Site Requirement: Open Area Excavation. Site Requirement: In Situ Conservation. Interpretation: On Site Participation. Interpretation: Public Program. Interpretation: Retention of Fabric In Situ. Interpretation: Signage Permanent.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Regional Environmental PlanAlfred Square & potl archaeological siteSchedule 601 Sep 99  109
Local Environmental PlanAlfred Square (353c Church Street)12021 Feb 97 20886
Local Environmental PlanHorse Trough (353a adj Church Street)58521 Feb 97 20912
Local Environmental PlanHorse Trough (353a adj Church Street)58521 Feb 97 20949
Archaeological zoning plan Parramatta North 89  49-50

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
PHALMS2001 Godden Mackay Logan  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Map 1791Hawkes River, showing the towns of Parramatta and settlements at Rose Hill, Field of Mars, Toongabbie
MapDetail Survey Branch, Department of Lands, Sydney, NSW1895Detail Survey Series of Parramatta
MapG.C. Stewart1822Town of Parramatta Showing Urban Settlement (redrawn 1926 by Campbell)
WrittenJames Semple Kerr1995Parramatta Correctional Centre: Its Past Development and Future Care
PhotographLand and Property Information1998Aerial Photographs
PhotographLand and Property Information1951Aerial photographs
WrittenMeredith Walker1993City of Parramatta Heritage Study
MapSurveyor G.W. Evans1804Plan of the Township of Parramatta (later annotated)
MapSurveyor General's Office, Sydney1871Plan of the Environs of Parramatta, County of Cumberland, NSW
WrittenTerry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont1996Parramatta: A Past Revealed
MapW. Meadows Brownrigg1844Plan of the Town of Parramatta and the Adjacent Properties, as surveyed by W. Meadows Brownrigg, Surveyor

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2243110


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