Federation Queen Anne style dwelling group | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Federation Queen Anne style dwelling group

Item details

Name of item: Federation Queen Anne style dwelling group
Other name/s: 25:Glen Esk; 27: Claremont; 29: Kelso; 31: Vireen, Bay View
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 23-31 Amiens Street, Gladesville, NSW 2111
Parish: Hunters Hill
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Ryde
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
23-31 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRydeHunters HillCumberlandPrimary Address
25 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRyde  Alternate Address
23 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRyde  Alternate Address
27 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRyde  Alternate Address
29 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRyde  Alternate Address
31 Amiens StreetGladesvilleRyde  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

The group of dwellings at 23-31 Amiens Street, built 1915-1920, is of historical significance as evidence of early 20th century suburban subdivision for housing in Gladesville. The group of houses are of aesthetic significance as an intact representative group of Federation Queen Anne style houses on the elevated side of Amiens Street, forming a distinctive group with landmark qualities in the streetscape, and likely to have been constructed by the same builder.
Date significance updated: 04 Feb 13
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1915-1920
Physical description: Row of elevated single storey brick Federation cottages set on the high, northern side of Amiens Street between Meriton Street and Wharf Road, Gladesville. The group is unified by their repetitive forms and the following features:-

Features that unify and contribute to the value of the group include:
- The simple gabled and hipped slate roofs with terracotta ridge capping and finials;
- Elevated street facades comprising an offset roughcast gable and verandah,
- polychrome face brickwork and rendered base coursing
- bracketed window awnings and double hung timber framed sash windows, and
- Regular setbacks and landscaped front gardens with timber-framed wire fencing..

These features are important in long views of the group up and down the street.

No. 23: Single storey painted brick (originally unpainted polychrome brick) Federation Queen Anne style freestanding house, hipped and gabled slate roof with terracotta ridge capping, rendered front fence/retaining wall on front boundary, Timber framed double hung windows. Roof retains chimneys, Rear modern additions including garage on east side at rear are evident.
No. 25: Single storey polychrome brick Federation Queen Anne style freestanding house, hipped and gabled concrete riled roof with modern dormer window to attic addition, , Rendered undercroft with garage. Inter-war period brick wall/front fence on front boundary. No chimneys.. Aluminium framed windows.
No. 27: Single storey cement rendered (originally polychrome brick) Federation Queen Anne style freestanding house, hipped and gabled slate roof with terracotta ridge capping, rendered front fence/retaining wall on front boundary, Timber framed double hung windows. Roof retains chimneys, Garage and room in undercroft of house. Modern metal gates to side of house.
No. 29: Single storey polychrome brick Federation Queen Anne style freestanding house, hipped and gabled slate roof with terracotta ridge capping, rendered undercroft and retaining wall on front boundary. No front fence. Timber framed double hung windows. Roof retains chimneys,
No. 31: Single storey polychrome brick Federation Queen Anne style freestanding house, hipped and gabled slate roof with terracotta ridge capping, rendered undercroft and retaining wall on front boundary, timber picket front fence. Timber framed double hung windows. Roof retains chimneys,
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Good
Date condition updated:07 May 12
Modifications and dates: The following alterations have been undertaken to the group:

- No.23 brickwork painted, cement rendered front fence, large modern rear addition including garage to rear. Note the site originally had a tennis court at the rear (shown on 1943 aerial photo) and has since been subdivided and a modern house built on the battleaxe lot created behind.
- No.25 roof addition, concrete roof tiles, modern metal awning to front, altered windows, and garage inserted in undercroft of house
- No.27 rendered finish, rendered brick front fence, verandah floor extended towards front, garage inserted in undercroft of house, modern rear additions and swimming pool in rear garden.
- Nos. 29 and 31 - modern rear addiitions

Note that No.33, originally occupied by a house identical to the rest of the group, was demolished and replaced and is therefore now not part of the group.
Current use: Dwellings
Former use: Dwellings

History

Historical notes: AREA HISTORY
Aboriginal people inhabited the Sydney basin for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. The northern coastal area of Sydney was home to the Guringai people, western Sydney was home to the Dharug clans, and southern Sydney was inhabited by the Dharawal clans. The Guringai lived primarily along the foreshores of the harbour, and fished and hunted in the waters and hinterlands of the area. All clans harvested food from their surrounding bush. Self-sufficient and harmonious, they had no need to travel far from their lands, since the resources around them were so abundant, and trade with other tribal groups was well established. The British arrival in 1788 had a dramatic impact on all of the Sydney clans. Food resources were quickly diminished by the invaders, who had little understanding of the local environment. As a result, the Aboriginal people throughout the Sydney Basin were soon close to starvation. The Sydney clans fought back against the invaders, but the introduction of diseases from Europe and Asia, most notably smallpox, destroyed over half the population. The clearing of land for settlements and farms displaced local tribes and reduced the availability of natural food resources, leaving Aboriginal people reliant on white food and clothing. The French surgeon and pharmacist Rene Primavere Lesson, who visited Sydney in 1824, wrote: "the tribes today are reduced to fragments scattered all around Port Jackson, on the land where their ancestors lived and which they do not wish to leave." (Information taken from City of Ryde Aboriginal Site Management Report, Aboriginal Heritage Office, 2011)

European settlement of the Gladesville area has its origins in the earliest land grants in the Ryde LGA, which were made from 1792 and were known as the "Eastern Farms" (being east of Parramatta). From 1795, land grants in the Gladesville and Tennyson Point areas in the district of Kissing Point were made to John Doody, a convict artist. William House (1795), Ann Benson (1796) and Charles Raven (1799).

In 1836 John Glade, an emancipist, was issued with the deeds to Doody's grant, which he had purchased in 1817. The district became a rural farming and dairy area supplying the Sydney market, but remained isolated, with the only access via the Parramatta River. By the time of John Glade's death in 1848, he had expanded his property to include a number of adjoining holdings. His land was sold to a Sydney solicitor and developer Mr William Billyard,. Billyard promptly subdivided the land, and offered it for sale from November 1855, as the "Gladesville Estate". However, development was slow and large portions of the Gladesville Estate were offered for sale over the next thirty years.

In colonial times, a flagstaff was erected on the high point of a local ridge. It was an important communication point between Sydney and Parramatta, especially when the Governor was in residence at Parramatta. Signal flags relayed messages from Sydney to the next flagstaff near Brush Farm, and on to Parramatta.

A defining aspect of the development of Gladesville was the building of the Great North Road. The road was surveyed in 1825 and led from the road between Sydney Town and Parramatta, down modern-day Great North Road at Abbotsford, across the Parramatta River by punt through Gladesville, along the ridge line through Ryde and then north to the Hunter Valley via Wisemans Ferry. A ferry house/inn was established by December 1830, sited above the cutting leading down to the wharf. The footings for this building survive. The first commercial building in Gladesville was the Flagstaff Inn, licensed to John Worthington in 1856, set up to meet the needs of travellers along the Great North Road (Martin, A Pictorial History of Ryde 1998, 19).

The point at which the punt reached the northern shore of the Parramatta River was called Bedlam Point, presumably due to the nearby Tarban Creek Lunatic Asylum, designed by Mortimer Lewis and opened in 1838. Bedlam (a corruption of Bethlem/Bethlehem) was the name of England's first lunatic asylum. However, the name Bethlem was applied to the area as early as 1820 and it was officially called Bedlam Point soon afterwards, long before the Tarban Creek asylum was built. In 1869, Tarban Creek Lunatic Asylum was renamed Gladesville Hospital for the Insane. By the mid-1960s, the institution was known simply as Gladesville Hospital. In 1993 premises at Gladesville Hospital and Macquarie Hospital were revoked as hospitals, and were amalgamated to form the Gladesville Macquarie Hospital. Today, much of the hospital's riverfront grounds forms part of the Parramatta River Recreation Park.

The subdivision and development of Billyard's Gladesville estate included the building of a wharf at the bottom of Wharf Road to allow better access to the area and overcome the difficult task for passengers of alighting midstream from the regular Parramatta River steamers onto the punt to be conveyed to shore. The land parcels were described as suitable sites for 'gentlemen's villas' with ample grounds for gardens, lawns and orchards. A post office was established at the wharf from 1861. The regular ferry services, bringing residents and visitors, led to a decline in the use of the punt after the 1860s.

By 1880 most of the Gladesville Estate lots had been purchased and the subdivisions were extending to the west into Raven’s land that became known as Tennyson Point. Master Mariner, William Raven, had been granted and acquired 154 hectares (extending from Tennyson Point to Buffalo Road) from 1795. Raven was also part owner of HMAS Britannia and he mastered the naval store ship Buffalo, after which Buffalo Creek and Road are most likely named. The Parramatta River was the focus of rowing and sculling in NSW with highly competitive races attracting many thousands of spectators along the foreshores between Henley Point and Meadowbank. The subdivision of Raven’s land capitalised on this popularity with the advertising flyers highlighting the proximity to the "championship course" and the streets being named after rowing terms and personalities. The Tennyson Estate however was not fully settled until the early twentieth Century.

Not withstanding the construction of the wharf at Gladesville, residents had been petitioning since 1861 for improved access to Sydney by road. This was finally provided through the release of the Field of Mars Common for subdivision in 1874, which provided the funds to construct bridges at Gladesville (1881) and Iron Cove (1882) and thus direct road links to the city.

After the opening of Gladesville Bridge in 1881, horse-drawn bus services operated to the city and provided an alternative to ferry transport. In 1910 the tramline from the city to Drummoyne was extended across the Gladesville Bridge through to Gladesville and eventually to Ryde. This fast and efficient transport service was the impetus for many subsequent residential subdivisions along the Great North Road, later Victoria Road.

The Bedlam Point settlement, which had begun around the junction of Wharf and Great North roads and grew westward, emerged as the distinct village of Gladesville by the 1870s. The post office moved from the wharf to this area in 1867. Sydney's first Protestant hall was built in Gladesville in 1867, allowing different itinerant ministers to conduct services in the area. The Anglican Christ Church opened in 1877 and became a separate parish in 1878. Gladesville Public School began classes in April 1879. In 1888 the Presbyterian Church of St Andrew was built.

By the early 20th Century Gladesville and Tennyson Point were effectively developed, the residents enjoying fast commutes to the city by horse-drawn buses and later trams. The first Gladesville bridge was replaced by the present concrete-arch bridge in 1964.

ITEM HISTORY
No.23 is Lot 2 DP 597949 a later DP, No.25 is Lot 21 of DP 7709 No.27 is Lot 20 of DP 7709. No.29 is Lot 19 of DP 7709. No.31 is Lot 18 of DP 7709. DP 7709 is the original DP for the subdivision.

Numbers 23-31 Amiens Street sit on part of Lewis Gordon’s portion of 10 acres granted in 1838. Within a month Gordon had sold the land to John Terry Hughes, the owner of a neighbouring lot. Hughes also purchased the grants of John Glade (50 acres), John Doody (30 acres) and Ann Benson (30 acres); all parcels being within the area that is now known as Gladesville. Hughes sold all of this land during the 1840s recession to Charles Vallack, who resold it to William Whaley Billyard for 200 pounds. (Julie Dawson, "Site of Gladesville’s First Wharf and Post Office" in Historic Ryde [ed. Kevin Shaw], Ryde District Historical Society, 2002, 124-5.)

Billyard subdivided this now very large holding into one acre blocks of land and promoted the estate, now called "Gladesville", for residential development in 1855. Three years later, in 1858, William Henry Sargeant purchased four acres of Billyard’s subdivision in the vicinity of what is now Amiens Street. In 1869 he resold two acres of the eastern portion of the land to Mr Walter Scott Campbell (Julie Dawson, "Site of Gladesville’s First Wharf and Post Office" in Historic Ryde [ed. Kevin Shaw], Ryde District Historical Society, 2002, 125). Walter Campbell was born in Maitland and came to the area as a child when his father, Dr Francis Rawdon Hastings Campbell, was appointed medical superintendent to the Government Lunatic Asylum at Gladesville in 1848. (State Heritage Inventory for the Ryde LGA http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au)

Walter Campbell bought the land within original lots 61, 62 and 63 for 500 pounds, two years after his marriage to Mary Ann Holt. (State Heritage Inventory for the Ryde LGA http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au) The parcel was bordered by Ashburn Place, Wharf Road, Bay View Terrace and Merriton Street (now spelled Meriton).

Although Campbell did not purchase the land until 1869, an 1867 subdivision plan for the area on the southern side of Bay View Terrace/Amiens Street suggests that Campbell was living in a house (now. 39-41 Wharf Road) by this time. The house was then described as a 4-roomed stone cottage with a small attic room. In 1871 Campbell was elected as an East Ward Aldermen in Ryde’s first Municipal Council. (Julie Dawson, "Site of Gladesville’s First Wharf and Post Office" in Historic Ryde [ed. Kevin Shaw], Ryde District Historical Society, 2002, 125).

In February 1889 Campbell sold his Gladesville property to Edwin Robert Mackenzie for 2500 pounds, and it was Mackenzie who extended the house at 39-41 Wharf Road and who renamed it "Woodstone" (as it is known today). (State Heritage Inventory for the Ryde LGA http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au)

Subdivision plans for the land between Ashburn Place, Bay View Terrace (Amiens Street) and Wharf Road are not readily available, and it is unknown whether Mackenzie was responsible for the construction of the matching set of cottages at 23-31 (and potentially 16-18 on the southern side of Amiens Street) or whether the land was re-sold before this occurred. It is not known therefore who owned the land when the cottages were built and then subdivided them for individual sale. Due to research constraints, investigation into the subsequent occupants and owners of the properties was limited. Further research, including a detailed search of land title and subdivision plans, would provide more clarification in this area.

The Sands Directory reveals however that all five houses (as well as numbers 33 and 16-18 Amiens Street) were built between 1915 and 1920. The 1910 directory lists only two residents on Bay View Terrace (at "Waimea" and "The Cedars"). Similarly, in 1915 only one resident is listed (at "Waimea"). By 1920, however, numbers 23-31 Bay View Terrace had been built and had occupants listed.

The name of the street was changed from Bay View Terrace to Amiens Street following WW1 in honour of the battle at Amiens, France. Although a specific date for this change is unknown, "Amiens Street" was in use by November 1923.

No. 23 Amiens Street:
The first occupants of No. 23 were William (an attendant) and Stella Treadgold, in 1920. The Treadgolds had three children: William (Bill) Henry, Muriel and John. William Henry was an elite tennis player who played for Gladesville in many interschool and inter-university tournaments throughout the 1930s. John Treadgold married Joyce Ellen and they lived at No. 45 Amiens Street until 1941 when John became a Sergeant in World War Two and was killed in an aircraft accident.

In 1943, William Henry and Muriel were listed as living at No. 23 with their parents, and in 1949 Lillian Selena Treadgold (William Henry’s wife) is also listed. By 1954 William Henry and Lillian had moved to Putney.

William and Stella Treadgold remained at No. 23 Amiens Street until the late 1960s.

No. 25 Amiens Street:
Mr Reuben A Dunk lived at No. 25 Amiens Street, "Glen Esk", in 1920. Not much is known about Mr Dunk, except that he posted a notice in the Sydney Morning Herald on the 11th of May 1920 warning "Any Person or Persons scandalizing my name after this date will be prosecuted." The reason for this is unknown, however it is possible that he was referring to a court case that ensued in 1901, where Mr Dunk was found guilty of committing adultery with Mrs Sterland of Balmain.

Dunk only lived at No. 25 for a short time. By 1922 Eliza Clinch, daughter of the well known Captain George Walker, was reported as dying of heart failure at her home Glen Esk. Her husband Patrick John Clinch was listed as living at No. 25 in the 1925 Sands Directory, and he remained living at the house for many years afterwards, most likely until his own death in 1941. Clinch was a shipping agent for the Illawara and South Coast S N Company at Merimbula for 36 years and was one of the earliest breeders of Jersey cattle in the Merimbula district.

No. 27 Amiens Street:
Joseph (a blacksmith) and Selina Fairbairn lived at No.27, "Claremont", for over twenty years. They had four children: Robert, David, Margaret and Mary. Joseph died in April 1942, aged 75 years. Selina continued to live at Claremont until her own death in June 1953. The Sands Directory lists a Margaret Crawford Fairbairn living at the house from 1930 until approximately the 1950s.

No. 29 Amiens Street:
No. 29 Amiens Street, "Kelso", saw many occupants between 1920 and 1968. In November 1923, Kelso was advertised as being "for let or sale" and was worth 1075 pounds. In the 1920 and 1925 Sands listings, Mr Robert L Reed and Mr Alexander Kidd are shown as occupants of the house respectively. By 1930 the property was occupied by Mr Samuel Downs, however in March this same year he passed away. It is unclear if Downs was married, however his daughter Ethel (a rubber worker) was listed as living at Kelso in the electoral rolls from 1930 to approximately 1943. Two later families, the Fabers and the Douglass’ were occupants at No. 29 between 1943 and 1968 (the Douglass’ for almost twenty years).

No. 31 Amiens Street:
No. 31 Amiens Street, like No. 29, was most likely a rental property throughout the first half of the 20th century. Mr Edward Mitchell is listed as occupying the house in 1920, however the research suggests that he moved to No.33 by 1925. Victor J Turner lived at the property, known at this time as "Vireen", in 1925. By 1930, Mr Pierre Parnell Healy (a photographer) occupied the house, followed by William Henry Barrett (another photographer) and his family in 1936. The Barretts continued to live at No.31, despite it being re-offered for rent in 1939. The advertisement describes the house as being called "Bay View", and was "A DETACHED DOUBLE-FRONTED COTTAGE brick, tuckpointed front, slate and iron roof having verandah in front, wide verandah at rear, hall, 5 rooms, bathroom, kitchen and laundry combined. Land 43 feet 4 inches frontage, depth 173 feet 11 inches and 174 feet 3 inches respectively, being Lot 18 DP 7709. Torrens Title. Rental 25/ per week. Gas, water and electric light." (28th January 1939, p 26, Sydney Morning Herald)

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Suburban Development-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The group of dwellings, built 1915-1920, is of historical significance as evidence of early 20th century suburban subdivision for housing in Gladesville.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
No historical association with prominent persons has been identified.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The group of houses at Nos. 23-31 Amiens Street are of aesthetic significance as an intact representative group of Federation Queen Anne style houses on the elevated side of Amiens Street, forming a distinctive group with landmark qualities in the streetscape, and likely to have been constructed by the same builder.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
No social significance has been identified.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The group of dwellings is considered to have little research potential
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The group of houses is not rare.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The group of houses is representative of Federation Queen Anne style housing in the Gladesville area.
Integrity/Intactness: Relatively intact
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

DOCUMENTATION: A Heritage Impact Statement is required by Council to accompany any Development Application for non-minor work. Further historical research, including a detailed search of land title and subdivision plans, is required to clarify the history of these houses. Please consult Council staff about your proposal and the level of documentation that will be required as early as possible in the process. Note that Council has adopted planning provisions to assist in the making of minor changes that will not have any impact on the significance of properties without the need to prepare a formal application or Heritage Impact Statement. In this case Council must be consulted in writing to confirm the nature of the works. APPROACHES TO MANAGING HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTIES: (Note: the detailed requirements for each property will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The following advice provides general principles that should be respected by all development.) The effect and intention of the group listing is to identify a group of heritage items, each individual property in the group having been assessed as having local heritage significance, and also having value as part of a group. In assessing the heritage impact of proposals, the impact of the proposed development on each individual heritage item's significance, as well as the heritage significance of the group setting as a whole must be taken into account. Further subdivision of the land is discouraged. The overall form of the building should be retained and conserved and new uses should be restricted to those that are historically consistent and/or able to be accommodated within the existing fabric with minimal physical impact. All significant exterior fabric should be retained and conserved. Painting out painted or rendered brickwork in a brick colour, replacement of aluminium framed windows with timber framed windows to match original windows, is encouraged. The setting of the property should be protected from the impacts of development and significant plantings, walls, paths and other landscape elements should be retained in a manner that will not threaten the viability of significant gardens, landscapes or views. The external surfaces and materials of significant facades (generally, but not limited to, those visible from the street or a public place including the water) should be retained, and painted surfaces painted in appropriate colours. Face brickwork should not be painted, cement rendered or coated. Significant door and window openings should not be enlarged or enclosed. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE: All development should respect the principle of ‘do as much as necessary but as little as possible’. In most instances, new work should not attempt to replicate historic forms. A ‘contemporary neutral’ design that sits quietly on the site, and enhances the quality of the item, will be a more sympathetic outcome than a ‘fake’ historic building. Respecting the scale and overall forms, proportions and rhythms of the historic fabric is critical. As a general principle, all major alterations and additions should NOT: - result in demolition of significant fabric - result in excessive site cover; - be visually prominent or overwhelm the existing buildings. - intrude into any views of the property from the public domain, including the water; and should be: - located behind the historic building/s on the site; - visually subservient and have minimal impact on heritage significance including that of views over the property. Single storey extensions will generally be preferred over two-storey forms unless there is a sound heritage reason to do otherwise. Attic rooms must be accommodated in the original roof form. Solid fences or high walls on street boundaries and structures - including car parking structures - forward of the front building line are strongly discouraged. Timber picket fences on low rendered brick retaining walls. are encouraged.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 20104   
Local Environmental PlanDraft Ryde LEP 2011I4   
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 2014I402 Sep 14   
Local Environmental Plan - LapsedLEP No 1051117 Jan 03 14344
Heritage studyGroup of cottages11   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Ryde Heritage Study198811Jonathan Falk Planning Consutants P/L Assoc with Rodney Jensen and Assoc P/L  No
Review of 1988 Ryde Heritage Study.2002 Hill Thalis Architecture and Urban Projects.  Yes
Ryde SHI Review Stage 22012 Paul Davies Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written  Research by Ryde Library Local Studies section
Writtened. Kevin Shaw2002Historic Ryde
WrittenPaul Davies Pty Ltd2012Research for Ryde State Heritage Inventory Review Stage 2

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2340038


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