Wee Gnallan - Federation Queen Anne style dwelling | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Wee Gnallan - Federation Queen Anne style dwelling

Item details

Name of item: Wee Gnallan - Federation Queen Anne style dwelling
Other name/s: Wee-gnal’en (alternative spelling)
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 30 Miriam Road, Denistone, NSW 2114
Parish: Hunters Hill
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Ryde
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
30 Miriam RoadDenistoneRydeHunters HillCumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

The house at 30 Miriam Road, Denistone, constructed circa 1915-1916, is of historical significance as part of the first subdivision of the Darvall Estate of 1911 and as evidence of the early 20th century suburban development of Denistone. The covenant imposed on the original land title for the site illustrates early 20th century town planning to prevent the construction of non-residential development or inferior types of housing in the area. The house at 30 Miriam Road, Denistone, is of aesthetic significance as a fine representative example of a Federation Queen Anne style dwelling in a garden setting, contemporary with, and with a visual relationship to, other nearby heritage-listed Federation period dwellings in Miriam Road.
Date significance updated: 06 Aug 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Construction years: 1915-1916
Physical description: The property is located on the eastern side of Miriam Road.

The house on the property is a picturesque single storey Federation Queen Anne style house, located in a leafy streetscape. The house is set amidst informally landscaped grounds that feature a row of cocos palms along the street boundary, camellias, and a stand of canna lilies, to provide an appropriate setting. The allotment is not fenced at the street and has a side driveway. The house has an asymmetrical form and a dominant complex hipped roof, clad in slate. A central gabled portico marks the entry, and is adjoined by a smaller projecting gabled bay with bracketed awning. Between the two gables stands a tall roughcast chimney with distinctive decorative brick detail (brick strapwork). The south eastern corner is chamfered and also features a bracketed awning. The house is constructed of red face brickwork and features a dark brick quoining and trim, and rusticated stone base courses and column capping. Upper wall surfaces and gable ends are roughcast with decorative timber battening. Windows are timber-framed casements and feature some leadlight. A side verandah has been enclosed. The house features two gable ends facing the street, both stuccoed with imitation half-timbering, one of the gable ends defining the entry to the front verandah.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Date condition updated:14 May 12
Modifications and dates: Very intact. The house footprint today appears identical to that in 1943. The house is shown on a circa 1930s sewerage diagram as having a projecting front porch, side verandahs and a rear verandah with one rear outbuilding. The outbuilding also appears on the 1943 NSW Lands Dept aerial photo (in Six Viewer).
Further information: Opening up of enclosed side verandah is strongly encouraged.
Current use: Dwelling
Former use: Dwelling


Historical notes: AREA HISTORY
Aboriginal people inhabited the Sydney basin for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. The northern coastal area of Sydney was home to the Guringai people, western Sydney was home to the Dharug clans, and southern Sydney was inhabited by the Dharawal clans. The Guringai lived primarily along the foreshores of the harbour, and fished and hunted in the waters and hinterlands of the area. All clans harvested food from their surrounding bush. Self-sufficient and harmonious, they had no need to travel far from their lands, since the resources around them were so abundant, and trade with other tribal groups was well established. The British arrival in 1788 had a dramatic impact on all of the Sydney clans. Food resources were quickly diminished by the invaders, who had little understanding of the local environment. As a result, the Aboriginal people throughout the Sydney Basin were soon close to starvation. The Sydney clans fought back against the invaders, but the introduction of diseases from Europe and Asia, most notably smallpox, destroyed over half the population. The clearing of land for settlements and farms displaced local tribes and reduced the availability of natural food resources, leaving Aboriginal people reliant on white food and clothing. The French surgeon and pharmacist Rene Primavere Lesson, who visited Sydney in 1824, wrote: "the tribes today are reduced to fragments scattered all around Port Jackson, on the land where their ancestors lived and which they do not wish to leave." (Information taken from City of Ryde Aboriginal Site Management Report, Aboriginal Heritage Office, 2011).

Modern day Denistone consists of a number of original land grants: those to Varnice, Evans and Ternan in 1795 (in the area of Denistone House); grants to William Kent in 1797 and George Patfield in 1798 (the area around The Hermitage) and those to William Broughton and Privates John Stone, Richard Taylor and Lewis Williams in 1795 (modern-day Outlook Estate). Subsequent to these grants, throughout much of the nineteenth century, Denistone was consolidated in the hands of a few families of the colonial elite. On 22 July 1795, 120 acres (48.5 hectares), called Porteous Mount, were granted to John Varnice, Humphrey Evans and William Ternan. Varnice was granted 45 acres (18.2 hectares), Evans 45 acres and Ternan 30 acres (12.1 hectares), but the grants were not subdivided. On August 24, 1795 the Reverend Richard Johnson acquired the property. On 7 March 1800, Johnson sold it to Michael Connor, who transferred to Roger Connor on 12 June 1816.

Gregory Blaxland, a free settler, purchased the 450-acre (182-hectare) Brush Farm Estate in 1807 shortly after his arrival in the colony. This estate covered most of the area south from Terry Road to Victoria Road and Tramway Street and east from Brush Road to Shaftsbury Road. In 1829 he transferred Brush Farm Estate to his eldest daughter Elizabeth and her husband Dr Thomas Forster. Forster expanded the estate by purchasing the Porteous Mount grants of 120 acres, east of his Brush Farm Estate. Forster built an eight-room house which he called Deniston after his birthplace in England. He sold a portion of this land to his brother-in-law John Blaxland, eldest son of Gregory. Around 1842 John commissioned colonial architect John Bibb to build a brick and stone house which he called The Hermitage.

On May 23 1840, Dr Forster leased 'the dwelling house known by the name of Deniston' and 100 acres (40.4 hectares) of land to Major Edward Darvall for a period of 12 years. Darvall was a retired English army officer with strong family connections to the British East India Company. He and his family had arrived in January 1840.

Darvall did not remain at Deniston for the 12 years mentioned in the lease, as the property was again advertised to let in the Sydney Morning Herald on 8 March 1849. Major Darvall purchased other property in the Ryde district eventually settling on a large estate of nearly 400 acres (161.8 hectares) stretching from today's Rowe Street, Eastwood to Victoria Road, West Ryde and from Shaftsbury Road to Ryedale Road. The subdivision of the Darvall estate in the twentieth century also released land that forms part of modern-day Denistone.

After the Darvalls' departure, Deniston House was occupied by D Mackellar and his family. The house was damaged by bushfires in the summer of 1854-1855. ".. the bare walls of that once fine house are all that is to be seen. The mansion and valuable buildings of Mr. Foster (sic) were barely saved from destruction ; the orchards and vineyard were greatly injured.." (from article titled "Parramatta - Dreadful destruction from the bush fires" SMH Monday 1 January 1855, page 8). Following this event, it appears the Deniston estate was in the ownership of J. Blaxland and used for grazing, till 1872, as notices published in 1857 and 1863 confirm J. Blaxland’s ownership and use of the Deniston property at this time, and there are no further notices for letting of the house (presumably due to its damaged state).
Deniston Estate was purchased by Richard Rouse Terry on 9 December 1872, who had followed his brother Edward Terry, owner of Eastwood House, to the Ryde district. Richard Rouse Terry built the stone house known today as Denistone House and resided there for many years. This was a well designed two-storey sandstone building which was completed in 1874. The first written reference to the spelling "Denistone" is in the death notice for an infant son of R.R. Terry in 1875 at "Denistone" (Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 1875, p.1). After Terry's death in 1898, a number of tenants occupied the home and the property was gradually subdivided.

The Denistone Estate was opened up for sale in 1913. In November 1913 it was reported that "The Trustees of the late Mr. R.R. Terry have instructed Messrs J.E. Green and Co. to offer No. 1 subdivision of the Denistone Estate. There are 169 choice allotments to be submitted, and these are situated but three minutes from the station" (Real Estate Notes of the Week column, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 April 1913, p. 8). Also in 1913, 17 acres (6.8 hectares) of the Denistone Estate, including Denistone House, was purchased by the New South Wales Government for use as a convalescent hospital for men, which later became Ryde Hospital. Richard Rouse Terry's Denistone House is extant. The 2nd subdivision of the Denistone Estate was offered for sale between August and November 1914 (SMH, Saturday 21 November 1914, p. 9). The 3rd subdivision of the Denistone Estate was offered for sale in 1918 (SMH, 6 May 1918, p. 10).

John Blaxland died at The Hermitage on 26 January 1884 and Richard Rouse Terry is said to have been the next owner of The Hermitage and its land, which he purchased from the Blaxland estate. From 1887 to 1903 The Hermitage was leased to various tenants and unoccupied between tenancies.

Pennant Avenue was created with the subdivision of site of The Hermitage with the Highlands Estate subdivision in November 1905, following Ellen Blaxland's death in 1903. The first subdivision of the land took place in 1888 when the Miriam Hill Estate near what was then Ryde railway station (now West Ryde) was subdivided.

There were spurts of subdivision in the area. The first impetus came with the opening up of the railway to Hornsby in 1886 and the increased need for both industrial and residential lots in the area. Eastwood Station (originally called Dundas) opened in October 1886, quickly becoming a busy freight depot for local fruit produce. The arrival of the railway coincided with the deaths of a number of pioneering heads of the 'old families', opening the way for their descendants to subdivide their estates.
In the early decades of the twentieth century, land from estates such as the Highlands and Denistone Estates were advertised. Highlands Estate (1905), was an area bounded by Blaxland, Meriam, Commissioners and Inkerman roads, and it 'unlocked at last, the homestead of the Blaxland family'. Denistone Estate, no 2, (1914) was the slice of land between Blaxland and Denistone roads, immediately to the east and north of Denistone House.

Interestingly none of these subdivision plans refer to the suburb as Denistone. Variously it is Eastwood, Eastwood Ryde, Ryde Eastwood and, for good measure, West Ryde. No doubt the establishment of a railway platform halfway between West Ryde and Eastwood in September 1937, and the naming of it as Denistone, helped with the adoption of the name.

While other estates in the district were subdivided in the last decades of the nineteenth century, Jane Darvall kept the majority of the Ryedale estate intact until the beginning of the twentieth century. The Darvall Estate sold small portions of land throughout the 1880s, including land for the Strathfield to Hornsby rail line, Eastwood Public School, and West Ryde Masonic Hall.

When Jane Darvall died in 1899 the estate was inherited by her only son Anthony William Darvall. The subdivision of the Ryedale estate was begun by him. Housing subdivisions were sold from 1902, and Denistone Estate was subdivided for sale from 1913. The subdivisions focused on land close to Ryde station (now West Ryde).

Anthony William's sons, Edward Roger and George Harrison Darvall, and his son-in-law William Herbert Bean continued the subdivision of the former Darvall Estate following Anthony's death in 1915. Darvall Estates 2 and 3, (1915) northern Anthony Road and Miriam Road in Denistone were part of this.
The Outlook Estate was the sixth and last subdivision of the Ryedale estate. The 124 home sites were advertised for private sale in 1929. The building of these houses took place during the 1930s and 1940s. Denistone Station was not added to the railway line until September 1937. (Angela Phippen, Denistone entry, Dictionary of Sydney online).

The land on which this dwelling is located was first granted to Dixon, Moss and Jones, regranted to William Balmain in 1795, and was later part of the Darvall Estate.

Miriam Road. was formed as part of the land first auctioned as a subdivision of the Darvall Estate on the 1st. April 1911.

The first documentary appearance of Miriam Road is in the 1914 Sands’ Directory, described as Miriam Street (Ryde) off West Parade, to distinguish it from Meriam/Miriam Street (off Pennant Ave). The name of this other street was later changed to Anzac Avenue. While Miriam Street (Ryde) off West Parade is listed in the 1914 Sands’, no occupants’ names are given. Likewise, the 1915 Sands’ lists the street (Miriam Street (Ryde) off West Parade) with no occupants. It is in the 1916 Sands’ Directory that the first occupants are listed: John T Allen in ‘Twyford’ and Alfred E Spinks.

In the Sands Directory of 1917 William Brennan at ‘Fairhaven’ and Arthur A Campbell have been added. For the subsequent period of the Sands Directories (up to 1932/33) Arthur Campbell is listed at this address at 30 Miriam Road, from 1924 with the house name "Wee Gnallan". From land title records Vanda Marjorie Campbell, wife of Arthur Alfred Campbell of Sydney, warehouseman, purchased lots 84 and 84A DP 6272 of the Darvall Estate from George Harrison Darvall and William Herbert Bean and a new certificate of title was issued: vol 2567 fol 78, dated 15 April, 1915.

Therefore, the house at 30 Miriam Road was built during either late 1915 (but too late for it to be included in the 1916 Sands Directory) or during 1916.

The certificate of title contained the following covenant:

‘he shall not erect or work or permit to be erected or worked upon the lot or any part of the lot hereby transferred to him any dairy, brickyard, poultry farm, or quarry and shall not erect or permit to be erected on the said lot any main building that shall cost less than or be of a less value than two hundred and fifty pounds and the roofs of all or any buildings or structures whether main or otherwise erected thereon shall be of other material than iron. He shall not erect or suffer or permit to be erected more than one building on the said lot and shall not use or suffer or permit to be used any such building or any part thereof for the purpose of a shop or any business premises’

The house is shown on a circa 1930s sewerage diagram as having a projecting front porch, side verandahs and a rear verandah with one rear outbuilding.

Vanda Marjorie Eglinton had married Arthur Alfred Campbell (second son of Alfred B Campbell of Eastwood) at Kelvin Grove in Brisbane on 1 October, 1913. They had at least four children: Arthur E Campbell (registered 1914 at Ashfield); Jeffery B C (registered 1916 at Ryde) and Allan W C (registered 1918 at Ryde) This would be the child referred to in the birth notice from the Sydney Morning Herald of 28 September, 1918 who was recorded as being born at Wee-gnal’en, Miriam Road, Ryde. Because of the privacy restrictions births after 1918 are difficult to locate but from the Sydney Morning Herald of 4 March 1926 we learn that a son, Ian Eglinton Campbell had been born on February 26 but survived only four days.

On 16 May, 1941 Vanda Campbell transferred to Alfred Frederick Wilding, a commercial traveller, lot 84A and part of lot 84. This lot then became lot B of DP 344847. A new certificate of title was issued vol 5249 fol 11 dated 17 July, 1941.

Alfred F Wilding had married Elizabeth (or Elsie) M F Young, registered at Ryde, 1928. Prior to their purchase of 30 Miriam Road they had lived at properties in the Ryde Municipality including 5 Ross Street, Gladesville and 790 Victoria Road, Ryde.

On 29 November, 1944 the residue i.e. the remaining section of lot 84 was transferred to Walter James and Madge Amanda Brown. This was referred to as lot A of DP 344847. A new certificate of title was issued vol 5476 fol 41. This land faced Anthony Road.

Arthur Alfred and Vanda Campbell left the Ryde Municipality and lived at Killara.

On 16 January 1951 Alfred Frederick Wilding transferred lot B DP 344847 to Robert Leader Field of Ryde, accountant. (vol 5249 fol 11). Alfred and Elsie Wilding moved to 22 Fernvale Avenue, West Ryde.

Robert L Field had married Hazel W Lambert, registered at Sydney 1927. Curiously, before they purchased 30 Miriam Road they had lived at 22 Fernvale Avenue, West Ryde for at least the previous 20 years which is the property to which the Wildings moved!

On 26 January, 1972 Hazel Winifred Field of Eastwood became the registered proprietor after Robert’s death. (vol 5249 fol 11) Robert had died on 7 January, 1971 at hospital, though he was still living at the house near the time of this death. He was described as loved father of Robyn (Mrs. R Watts), Bob and Ron. Hazel died on 14 August, 1990 well after title on 30 Miriam Road had passed to its next owner.

On 16 February, 1972 Albert John Pestell and Iris Gertrude Pestell became the owners. (Vol 5249 fol 11). Thereafter the land titles are computerised.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses from rural to suburban/ subdivision of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Suburban Development-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The house at 30 Miriam Road, Denistone, constructed circa 1915-1916, is of historical significance as part of the first subdivision of the Darvall Estate of 1911 and as evidence of the early 20th century suburban development of Denistone. The covenant imposed on the original land title for the site illustrates early 20th century town planning to prevent the construction of non-residential development or inferior types of housing in the area.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
No identified association with historically prominent or important persons has been identified.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The house at 30 Miriam Road, Denistone, is of aesthetic significance as an example of a Federation Queen Anne style dwelling in a garden setting, contemporary with, and with a visual relationship to, other nearby heritage-listed Federation period dwellings in Miriam Road.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
No social significance has been identified.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The dwelling is considered to have little archeological or research potential.
SHR Criteria f)
SHR Criteria g)
The dwelling is a fine example of a Federation Queen Anne style dwelling in Denistone.
Integrity/Intactness: Dwelling is very intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

DOCUMENTATION: A Heritage Impact Statement is required by Council to accompany any Development Application for non-minor work. Please consult Council staff about your proposal and the level of documentation that will be required as early as possible in the process. Note that Council has adopted planning provisions to assist in the making of minor changes that will not have any impact on the significance of properties without the need to prepare a formal application or Heritage Impact Statement. In this case Council must be consulted in writing to confirm the nature of the works. APPROACHES TO MANAGING THE HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTY: (Note: the detailed requirements for each property will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The following advice provides general principles that should be respected by all development.) Further subdivision of the land is discouraged. The overall form of the building should be retained and conserved and new uses should be restricted to those that are historically consistent and/or able to be accommodated within the existing fabric with minimal physical impact. All significant exterior fabric should be retained and conserved. The setting of the property should be protected from the impacts of development and significant plantings, walls, paths and other landscape elements should be retained in a manner that will not threaten the viability of significant gardens, landscapes or views. The external surfaces and materials of significant facades (generally, but not limited to, those visible from the street or a public place including the water) should be retained, and painted surfaces painted in appropriate colours. Sandstone and face brickwork should not be painted or coated. Significant door and window openings should not be enlarged or enclosed. Opening up of enclosed side verandah is strongly encouraged. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE: All development should respect the principle of ‘do as much as necessary but as little as possible’. In most instances, new work should not attempt to replicate historic forms. A ‘contemporary neutral’ design that sits quietly on the site, and enhances the quality of the item, will be a more sympathetic outcome than a ‘fake’ historic building. Respecting the scale and overall forms, proportions and rhythms of the historic fabric is critical. As a general principle, all major alterations and additions should NOT: - result in demolition of significant fabric - result in excessive site cover; - be visually prominent or overwhelm the existing buildings. - intrude into any views of the property from the public domain, including the water; and should be: - located behind the historic building/s on the site; - visually subservient and have minimal impact on heritage significance including that of views over the property. Single storey extensions will generally be preferred over two-storey forms unless there is a sound heritage reason to do otherwise. Attic rooms must be accommodated in the original roof form. Solid fences or high walls on street boundaries and structures - including car parking structures - forward of the front building line are strongly discouraged.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanLEP No. 105 17 Jan 03 14 
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 201075   
Local Environmental PlanDraft Ryde LEP 2011I75   
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 2014I7502 Sep 14   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Ryde Heritage Study1988169Jonathan Falk Planning Consutants P/L Assoc with Rodney Jensen and Assoc P/L  No
Review of 1988 Ryde Heritage Study.2002 Hill Thalis Architecture and Urban Projects.  Yes
Ryde SHI Review Stage 22012 Paul Davies Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAngela Phippen2012Research by Angela Phippen, Local Studies and Family History Librarian, City of Ryde Library

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2340144

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