Tamarua - Federation weatherboard dwelling | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage


Tamarua - Federation weatherboard dwelling

Item details

Name of item: Tamarua - Federation weatherboard dwelling
Other name/s: Kelso, Dunelm
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 78 West Parade, Denistone, NSW 2114
Parish: Hunters Hill
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Ryde
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
78 West ParadeDenistoneRydeHunters HillCumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

The dwelling Tamarua, constructed 1911-1912, is of historical significantce as evidence of the subdivision of the Brush Farm Estate influenced by the construction of the railway line in the 1890s. The property constitutes two lots of the Estate purchased in 1911. The dwelling has historical association with Joseph Raine, one of the founders of real estate agency Raine & Horne, who owned and resided at the property for at least fifteen years from 1922. The dwelling is of aesthetic significance as a fine representative Federation period weatherboard dwelling, rare in the Denistone area.
Date significance updated: 26 Sep 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Construction years: 1911-1912
Physical description: A small single storey weatherboard cottage of theFederation period, set on a small allotment overlooking the railway reserve. The house has a landscaped setting with a central brick paved path leading from the road. The front fence is timber picket. The cottage has a simple, predominantly symmetrical form, with a hipped terracotta tile roof and verandah that wraps around the eastern corner. The central entry is marked by a gablet with decorative turned timber detail. The verandah comprises square timber posts with capping and fretted decorative brackets. Windows are double hung timber sash with decorative timber skirts. The house is one of a number of similar dwellings, alike in style and construction details, to be found in close proximity along West Parade. Internally the house is lined out with lathe and plaster walls and ceilings, with some timber lining boards used to the rear, in keeping with the hierarchy of materials employed at the time. The rooms are conventionally arrayed either side of the central hall. The hall earlier gave onto an open verandah, from which the former kitchen and scullery to the south were entered, and the bathroom to the north was also accessed. While the bathroom has been successively modernised, a new kitchen space has also been added, opening off the former verandah, under a lower-pitched skillion in work of inferior quality to the evident in the original house. The old kitchen is now a study and the scullery the laundry.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Date condition updated:26 Sep 12
Modifications and dates: Rear addition and a rear outbuilding have been constructed since 1943.
Current use: Dwelling
Former use: Dwelling


Historical notes: AREA HISTORY
Aboriginal people inhabited the Sydney basin for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. The northern coastal area of Sydney was home to the Guringai people, western Sydney was home to the Dharug clans, and southern Sydney was inhabited by the Dharawal clans. The Guringai lived primarily along the foreshores of the harbour, and fished and hunted in the waters and hinterlands of the area. All clans harvested food from their surrounding bush. Self-sufficient and harmonious, they had no need to travel far from their lands, since the resources around them were so abundant, and trade with other tribal groups was well established. The British arrival in 1788 had a dramatic impact on all of the Sydney clans. Food resources were quickly diminished by the invaders, who had little understanding of the local environment. As a result, the Aboriginal people throughout the Sydney Basin were soon close to starvation. The Sydney clans fought back against the invaders, but the introduction of diseases from Europe and Asia, most notably smallpox, destroyed over half the population. The clearing of land for settlements and farms displaced local tribes and reduced the availability of natural food resources, leaving Aboriginal people reliant on white food and clothing. The French surgeon and pharmacist Rene Primavere Lesson, who visited Sydney in 1824, wrote: "the tribes today are reduced to fragments scattered all around Port Jackson, on the land where their ancestors lived and which they do not wish to leave." (Information taken from City of Ryde Aboriginal Site Management Report, Aboriginal Heritage Office, 2011).

Modern day Denistone consists of a number of original land grants: those to Varnice, Evans and Ternan in 1795 (in the area of Denistone House); grants to William Kent in 1797 and George Patfield in 1798 (the area around The Hermitage) and those to William Broughton and Privates John Stone, Richard Taylor and Lewis Williams in 1795 (modern-day Outlook Estate). Subsequent to these grants, throughout much of the nineteenth century, Denistone was consolidated in the hands of a few families of the colonial elite. On 22 July 1795, 120 acres (48.5 hectares), called Porteous Mount, were granted to John Varnice, Humphrey Evans and William Ternan. Varnice was granted 45 acres (18.2 hectares), Evans 45 acres and Ternan 30 acres (12.1 hectares), but the grants were not subdivided. On August 24, 1795 the Reverend Richard Johnson acquired the property. On 7 March 1800, Johnson sold it to Michael Connor, who transferred to Roger Connor on 12 June 1816.

Gregory Blaxland, a free settler, purchased the 450-acre (182-hectare) Brush Farm Estate in 1806 shortly after his arrival in the colony. This estate covered most of the area south from Terry Road to Victoria Road and Tramway Street and east from Brush Road to Shaftsbury Road. In 1829 he transferred Brush Farm Estate to his eldest daughter Elizabeth and her husband Dr Thomas Forster. Forster expanded the estate by purchasing the Porteous Mount grants of 120 acres, east of his Brush Farm Estate. Forster built an eight-room house which he called Deniston after his birthplace in England. He sold a portion of this land to his brother-in-law John Blaxland, eldest son of Gregory. Around 1842 John commissioned colonial architect John Bibb to build a brick and stone house which he called The Hermitage.

On May 23 1840, Dr Forster leased 'the dwelling house known by the name of Deniston' and 100 acres (40.4 hectares) of land to Major Edward Darvall for a period of 12 years. Darvall was a retired English army officer with strong family connections to the British East India Company. He and his family had arrived in January 1840.

Darvall did not remain at Deniston for the 12 years mentioned in the lease, as the property was again advertised to let in the Sydney Morning Herald on 8 March 1849. Major Darvall purchased other property in the Ryde district eventually settling on a large estate of nearly 400 acres (161.8 hectares) stretching from today's Rowe Street, Eastwood to Victoria Road, West Ryde and from Shaftsbury Road to Ryedale Road. The subdivision of the Darvall estate in the twentieth century also released land that forms part of modern-day Denistone.

After the Darvalls' departure, Deniston House was occupied by D Mackellar and his family. The house was damaged by bushfires in the summer of 1854-1855. ".. the bare walls of that once fine house are all that is to be seen. The mansion and valuable buildings of Mr. Foster (sic) were barely saved from destruction ; the orchards and vineyard were greatly injured.." (from article titled "Parramatta - Dreadful destruction from the bush fires" SMH Monday 1 January 1855, page 8). Following this event, it appears the Deniston estate was in the ownership of J. Blaxland and used for grazing, till 1872, as notices published in 1857 and 1863 confirm J. Blaxland’s ownership and use of the Deniston property at this time, and there are no further notices for letting of the house (presumably due to its damaged state).
Deniston Estate was purchased by Richard Rouse Terry on 9 December 1872, who had followed his brother Edward Terry, owner of Eastwood House, to the Ryde district. Richard Rouse Terry built the stone house known today as Denistone House and resided there for many years. This was a well designed two-storey sandstone building which was completed in 1874. The first written reference to the spelling "Denistone" is in the death notice for an infant son of R.R. Terry in 1875 at "Denistone" (Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 1875, p.1). After Terry's death in 1898, a number of tenants occupied the home and the property was gradually subdivided.

The Denistone Estate was opened up for sale in 1913. In November 1913 it was reported that "The Trustees of the late Mr. R.R. Terry have instructed Messrs J.E. Green and Co. to offer No. 1 subdivision of the Denistone Estate. There are 169 choice allotments to be submitted, and these are situated but three minutes from the station" (Real Estate Notes of the Week column, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 April 1913, p. 8). Also in 1913, 17 acres (6.8 hectares) of the Denistone Estate, including Denistone House, was purchased by the New South Wales Government for use as a convalescent hospital for men, which later became Ryde Hospital. Richard Rouse Terry's Denistone House is extant. The 2nd subdivision of the Denistone Estate was offered for sale between August and November 1914 (SMH, Saturday 21 November 1914, p. 9). The 3rd subdivision of the Denistone Estate was offered for sale in 1918 (SMH, 6 May 1918, p. 10).

John Blaxland died at The Hermitage on 26 January 1884 and Richard Rouse Terry is said to have been the next owner of The Hermitage and its land, which he purchased from the Blaxland estate. From 1887 to 1903 The Hermitage was leased to various tenants and unoccupied between tenancies.

Pennant Avenue was created with the subdivision of site of The Hermitage with the Highlands Estate subdivision in November 1905, following Ellen Blaxland's death in 1903. The first subdivision of the land took place in 1888 when the Miriam Hill Estate near what was then Ryde railway station (now West Ryde) was subdivided.

There were spurts of subdivision in the area. The first impetus came with the opening up of the railway to Hornsby in 1886 and the increased need for both industrial and residential lots in the area. Eastwood Station (originally called Dundas) opened in October 1886, quickly becoming a busy freight depot for local fruit produce. The arrival of the railway coincided with the deaths of a number of pioneering heads of the 'old families', opening the way for their descendants to subdivide their estates.
In the early decades of the twentieth century, land from estates such as the Highlands and Denistone Estates were advertised. Highlands Estate (1905), was an area bounded by Blaxland, Meriam, Commissioners and Inkerman roads, and it 'unlocked at last, the homestead of the Blaxland family'. Denistone Estate, no 2, (1914) was the slice of land between Blaxland and Denistone roads, immediately to the east and north of Denistone House.

Interestingly none of these subdivision plans refer to the suburb as Denistone. Variously it is Eastwood, Eastwood Ryde, Ryde Eastwood and, for good measure, West Ryde. No doubt the establishment of a railway platform halfway between West Ryde and Eastwood in September 1937, and the naming of it as Denistone, helped with the adoption of the name.

While other estates in the district were subdivided in the last decades of the nineteenth century, Jane Darvall kept the majority of the Ryedale estate intact until the beginning of the twentieth century. The Darvall Estate sold small portions of land throughout the 1880s, including land for the Strathfield to Hornsby rail line, Eastwood Public School, and West Ryde Masonic Hall.

When Jane Darvall died in 1899 the estate was inherited by her only son Anthony William Darvall. The subdivision of the Ryedale estate was begun by him. Housing subdivisions were sold from 1902, and Denistone Estate was subdivided for sale from 1913. The subdivisions focused on land close to Ryde station (now West Ryde).

Anthony William's sons, Edward Roger and George Harrison Darvall, and his son-in-law William Herbert Bean continued the subdivision of the former Darvall Estate following Anthony's death in 1915. Darvall Estates 2 and 3, (1915) northern Anthony Road and Miriam Road in Denistone were part of this.
The Outlook Estate was the sixth and last subdivision of the Ryedale estate. The 124 home sites were advertised for private sale in 1929. The building of these houses took place during the 1930s and 1940s. Denistone Station was not added to the railway line until September 1937. (Angela Phippen, Denistone entry, Dictionary of Sydney online).

78 West Parade, also known as Tamarua, was originally part of a parcel of nearly 400ha that was owned by Edward Darvall in the 1850s. This property included 8 acres, 2 roods and 34 perches granted to Darvall on the 15th of January 1869; as well as part of 100 acres granted originally to William Balmain in 1794 and the 375 acres granted first to Dixon, Moss and Jones and then re-granted to Balmain in 1795; the 100 acres granted to William Broughton, John Stone, Richard Taylor and Lewis William in 1795 and part of the 105 acre grant to James Thompson (1831). A map of the original land grants and holdings in the Ryde area (Ryde District Historical Society) indicates that the land now occupied by Tamarua is within the section of Darvall’s holding that was originally part of William Balmain’s 375 acres.

Major Darvall had arrived in New South Wales with his family in January 1840. He was a retired English army officer with strong family connections to the British East India Company (Angela Phippen, Dictionary of Sydney). Darvall was also father to the famous poet Emily Mary Barton and great-grandfather to Banjo Paterson (who spent some of his youth at Rockend Cottage in Gladesville). (Heritage Australia Magazine, September 2006, p. 15).

The Darvalls leased part of the Brush Farm Estate soon after arriving, but then moved to the larger holding described above where the family lived until Edward Darvall’s death at age 95 in 1869. Darvall’s widow Jane continued to live on the property until her death in 1899, after which Darvall’s son Anthony William Darvall initiated the subdivision of the Estate, offering it for sale in separate releases from November 1902. Lots 49 and 50 (which include the property now known as 78 West Parade) were purchased by Henry Benjamin Hughes (an insurance broker) in October 1911.

A comparison between the 1911 and 1920 subdivision maps of the area suggests that Hughes purchased Lots 49 and 50 as empty lots of similar size (66 feet wide and approximately 330 feet long) and combined the two under one purchase to construct a more substantial property than most in the new subdivision. This conclusion is supported by the 1920 subdivision map, which clearly shows the house occupying the centre of that land, and the house remains centred on a larger block of land to this day.

Earlier research had suggested that the house Tamarua was built by the Darvall family prior to its sale to Hughes (i.e. pre 1911); but it should be noted that the subdivision advertisements do not show any building on the site at the time of sale, even though buildings are indicated on other lots being offered. This suggests that the house was not built when sold to Hughes. This is supported by the evidence of the Sands Directory, which does not list the property as occupied until 1913.

The style of the house is however more consistent with that of a late Victorian/very early Federation farm cottage, rather than a later Federation home. This suggests that the house was either built in what was then an out-dated style, or alternately, that it may have been relocated from another site. A detailed investigation of the fabric in the roof and sub-floor areas would help to confirm whether this was the case.

By 1920 Tamarua was known as "Kelso" and was occupied by W. Stronick. He was quickly followed two years later by Joseph Raine and Alice Maud in 1922. Raine was a merchant banker and his family was involved in the founding of the locally prominent real estate company, Raine and Horne. The Raines lived at the property for at least fifteen years, with Joseph, Alice Maud (home duties), Alice Mawson (a stenographer) and Josephine Mary Raine (a typist) all listed as resident in 1937. The Valuation Roll entry in 1924 described the house as a weatherboard and tile cottage with four rooms plus a kitchen and detached garage valued at 1150 pounds.

The 1947 Land Valuation records reveal that by this time Mr Charles George Christian Frederick, a milk bar proprietor, lived at the property, and the house had been renamed for a third time; now being known as "Dunelm".

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Suburban Development-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The dwelling, constructed 1911-1912, is of historical significantce as evidence of the subdivision of the Brush Farm Estate influenced by the construction of the railway line in the 1890s. The property constitutes two lots of the Estate purchased in 1911.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The dwelling has historical association with Joseph Raine, one of the founders of real estate agency Raine & Horne, who owned and resided at the property for at least fifteen years from 1922.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The dwelling is of aesthetic significance as a fine Federation period weatherboard dwelling.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
No social significance has been identified.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The dwelling and site are considered to have little archeological or research potential.
SHR Criteria f)
The dwelling is a rare example of a timber federation dwelling in the Denistone area.
SHR Criteria g)
The dwelling is a fine example of a weatheboard Federation period dwelling,
Integrity/Intactness: Dwelling is reasonably intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

DOCUMENTATION: A Heritage Impact Statement is required by Council to accompany any Development Application for non-minor work. Please consult Council staff about your proposal and the level of documentation that will be required as early as possible in the process. Note that Council has adopted planning provisions to assist in the making of minor changes that will not have any impact on the significance of properties without the need to prepare a formal application or Heritage Impact Statement. In this case Council must be consulted in writing to confirm the nature of the works. APPROACHES TO MANAGING THE HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPERTY: (Note: the detailed requirements for each property will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The following advice provides general principles that should be respected by all development.) Further subdivision of the land is discouraged. The overall form of the building should be retained and conserved and new uses should be restricted to those that are historically consistent and/or able to be accommodated within the existing fabric with minimal physical impact. All significant exterior fabric should be retained and conserved. The setting of the property should be protected from the impacts of development and significant plantings, walls, paths and other landscape elements should be retained in a manner that will not threaten the viability of significant gardens, landscapes or views. The external surfaces and materials of significant facades (generally, but not limited to, those visible from the street or a public place including the water) should be retained, and painted surfaces painted in appropriate colours. Sandstone and face brickwork should not be painted or coated. Significant door and window openings should not be enlarged or enclosed. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE: All development should respect the principle of ‘do as much as necessary but as little as possible’. In most instances, new work should not attempt to replicate historic forms. A ‘contemporary neutral’ design that sits quietly on the site, and enhances the quality of the item, will be a more sympathetic outcome than a ‘fake’ historic building. Respecting the scale and overall forms, proportions and rhythms of the historic fabric is critical. As a general principle, all major alterations and additions should NOT: - result in demolition of significant fabric - result in excessive site cover; - be visually prominent or overwhelm the existing buildings. - intrude into any views of the property from the public domain, including the water; and should be: - located behind the historic building/s on the site; - visually subservient and have minimal impact on heritage significance including that of views over the property. Single storey extensions will generally be preferred over two-storey forms unless there is a sound heritage reason to do otherwise. Attic rooms must be accommodated in the original roof form. Solid fences or high walls on street boundaries and structures - including car parking structures - forward of the front building line are strongly discouraged.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanLEP No. 10514317 Jan 03 14359
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 2010    
Local Environmental PlanDraft Ryde LEP 2011I164   
Local Environmental PlanRyde LEP 2014I16402 Sep 14   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Ryde Heritage Study1988143Jonathan Falk Planning Consutants P/L Assoc with Rodney Jensen and Assoc P/L  No
Review of 1988 Ryde Heritage Study.2002 Hill Thalis Architecture and Urban Projects.  Yes
Ryde SHI Review Stage 22012 Paul Davies Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 2006Heritage Australia Magazine, September 2006. Accessed 25th September 2012.
Written  Historic Sydney Newspapers - accessed via Trove http://trove.nla.gov.au/ - viewed 10th - 25th September 2012.
Written  Land Valuation Records, West Parade: 1924, 1939 and 1947.
Written  Local Subdivision Plans -East Ryde
Written  Original Land Grants of Hunters Hill, Hunters Hill Historical Society
Written  Sands Directory Street Index: Sydney and New South Wales, Australia, 1890-1933
Written  Electoral Rolls, Sydney, 1900-1940
WrittenPhippen, Angela.2010Dictionary of Sydney, http://www.dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/denistone. Accessed 15th – 25th September 2012.

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2340164

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