Terrace Group Including Interiors | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Terrace Group Including Interiors

Item details

Name of item: Terrace Group Including Interiors
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Terrace
Primary address: 26-26A Francis Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
26-26A Francis StreetDarlinghurstSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

A pair of Victorian Italianate style terrace houses that are part of a row which contributes greatly to the picturesque nineteenth century streetscape of Francis Street which is enhanced by the steep slope of Francis Street. .The building is historically significant as it dates from one of the key period layers for the development of Darlinghurst as a direct result of subdivision of the Riley Estate. It is locally rare as as a purpose built lodging house (No. 26A) and manager's residence (No. 26)
Date significance updated: 25 Nov 11
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Physical description: Two storey Victorian Italianate style terrace houses. No. 26 and 26a have four panelled doors, two storey bullnosed verandahs with decorative cast iron balustrades and picket fences, vermiculated panels to the dividing walls and simple parapets with cornices and orbs.

No. 26A is one of a pair of two storey Victorian style buildings with parapeted roofs. They have cast iron palisade fences in front of small paved areas at ground floor level and cast iron lace balcony rails at first floor level. They have a four panel entrance door and French windows at ground floor level and a central French window at first floor level. The pair appear to be identical from the street, however, the interior layout of the two buildings is not identical. The interior of the terrace at No. 26 was not inspected but it appears to be a typical two-storey Victorian terrace layout.

No. 26A has an unusual layout. The two storey building has a large front room at ground and first floor levels with a stairwell behind them and three rooms along the rear wing at each level. At both ground and first floor levels the rooms along the rear wing have no internal connections and are accessed from outdoors along a passageway at ground floor level and the verandah balcony at first floor level. At ground level the four panel doorway on the west side of the façade accesses the passageway that is covered for the length of the adjacent front room. It leads to the stairwell and an external passageway largely sheltered from the weather by the overhead verandahed balcony and the adjacent building. That passageway at ground floor level gives access to a small kitchen, two small rooms and a skillion roofed, corrugated iron clad bathroom/laundry addition at the rear. The larger southern [front] ground floor room is accessed via a pair of central French doors with a top light which in turn accesses the stairwell through a four panel door. Doorways to the rooms are typically glazed in their top panels to provide day lighting. Some doors are Edwardian [1901-1910] three panelled styles with margin glazing around the top glazed panel. This is consistent with No. 26A being built to match No. 26, but at a later date incorporating some of the new fashions in window and door styles.

The stairwell contains a typical Victorian period timber staircase with turned newel posts with a ball motif on top, turned baluster rails and an open outer string with a curtail step at the bottom.

At first floor level, the southern front room extends across the width of the allotment over the passageway at ground floor level. Like the ground floor front room it has lath and plaster walls with a central plaster ceiling rose and a simple Victorian style cornice and timber skirting and architraves. It is lit by a French window which also gives access to the front first floor balcony overlooking the street. A double hung window in the north wall looks north along the balcony at the rear.

The four rooms along the rear wing, like those at first floor level have lath and plaster walls with no cornices or ceiling roses and with Victorian style joinery.

The rear yard which is small and overgrown backs onto Francis Lane which is too narrow at this point to take vehicles.

(Information sourced from Jill Sheppard Heritage Consultants "Heritage Impact Statement 26A Francis Street")
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: 26- residential
Former use: 26 - residence 26 A - appears to have been built as a lodging house

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora. There is no written record of the name of the language spoken and currently there are debates as whether the coastal peoples spoke a separate language "Eora" or whether this was actually a dialect of the Dharug language. Remnant bushland in places like Blackwattle Bay retain elements of traditional plant, bird and animal life, including fish and rock oysters.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today. All cities include many immigrants in their population. Aboriginal people from across the state have been attracted to suburbs such as Pyrmont, Balmain, Rozelle, Glebe and Redfern since the 1930s. Changes in government legislation in the 1960s provided freedom of movement enabling more Aboriginal people to choose to live in Sydney.

(Information sourced from Anita Heiss, "Aboriginal People and Place", Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani )

The first land grant in the area was 100 acres on Woolloomooloo Bay granted to Commissary John Palmer in 1793. Palmers grant was immediately east of Sydney Common Grounds. To the east, a group of smaller grants were made to important colonists by Governor Darling for private residences. These included Edward Deas Thomson’s “Barham” and James Laidley’s “Rosebank”, both believed to be designed by John Verge, in the area between Darlinghurst Road and Bourke Street. Palmer built his residence at Woolloomooloo in 1801. As a farmer and grazier Palmer was a success and he subsequently became one of the pre-eminent land and stock holders in the colony. Palmer added to his holdings by purchasing farms in Surry Hills. He held the position of Commissary General until 1808 after which he returned to England to face an inquiry into the Rum Rebellion. While abroad, Palmer leased his land to Alexander Riley. On arrival back to Australia in May 1814 he found himself in increasing debt.

Upon his return, in order to meet his debts, Palmer sold his Woolloomooloo Estate to Ann Riley, Edward Riley’s wife, in 1822. When Edward suicided in 1825, the Estate was tied up with two conflicting wills. After years of litigation, the Riley Estate was eventually divided into seven parcels of land of equal value and raffled amongst the heirs. The Commission appointed to oversee this subdivision needed to create streets that would divide up the seven portfolios of blocks. This task was complicated by the Commission’s desire to confirm T.L. Mitchell’s plan for the streets within the bounds of the Riley Estate - especially Crown and Bourke Streets. The streets within the Riley Estate, including Crown Street, were finally proclaimed in 1848.

Francis Street did not appear on the first City Assessment of 1842 but appears in the second assessment of 1848. By 1858 Francis Street was well populated. Until 1956, both 26 and 26a were held under one title. The first recorded occupant at No. 26 was in 1868. No. 26A Francis Street was not part of the Torrens Title system and remained Old Title until 1904. The two lots were held together for a long period, suggesting the buildings were built by the same owner.

It is difficult to establish the exact date of construction of the current building. It appears consistent with 1890s to 1910 architecture. It could have been built in 1904-5. Murdoch (or Murdock) McKenzie's application for Title to the property in 1904 is consistent with constructing a new building, and there were some demolitions in the area during the early 1900s. The building appears to be purpose built for lodging house or tenanted style accommodation, probably managed from No. 26 as the two were joint title until 1956.

(Information sourced from Jill Sheppard Heritage Consultants "Heritage Impact Statement 26A Francis Street")

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Ths site is historically significant as a purpose built lodging house (No. 26A) and manager's residence (No. 26). It is also associated with the c1860s subdivision and occupation of the area and the subsequent close settlement by terraced rows. The history of the site reflects the nineteenth and early twentieth century history of the East Sydney area, with its associations with working class tenants and ethnic communities of the area.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
A pair of Victorian Italianate style terrace houses that are part of a row which contributes greatly to the picturesque nineteenth century streetscape of Francis Street which is enhanced by the steep slope of Francis Street.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The site is associated with the c1860s subdivision and occupation of the area and the subsequent close settlement by terraced rows. The history of the site reflects the nineteenth and early twentieth century history of the East Sydney/Darlinghurst/Woolloomooloo area, with its associations with working class tenants and ethnic communities of the area.

(Information sourced from Jill Sheppard Heritage Consultants "Heritage Impact Statement 26A Francis Street")
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
It is locally rare as as a purpose built lodging house (No. 26A) and manager's residence (No. 26)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Representative of a pair of Late Victorian Italianate style terraces.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement, or a Conservation Management Plan, should be prepared for the building prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the building and no alterations to the façade of the building other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, should not be visibly prominent and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I32714 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
South Sydney Heritage Study1993 Tropman & Tropman Architects  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City
WrittenJill Sheppard Heritage Consultants2002Heritage Impact Statement - 26A Francis Street

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2420806


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