Former House "Pendower" Including Interior | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage


Former House "Pendower" Including Interior

Item details

Name of item: Former House "Pendower" Including Interior
Other name/s: The Caspium Gallery
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 469 Oxford Street, Paddington, NSW 2021
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
469 Oxford StreetPaddingtonSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

469 Oxford Street is an assured, substantial and characteristic example of a Federation Queen Anne style dwelling, which is rare within its local context. The building is substantially intact externally. It is an Important item within the streetscape, particularly as a result of its location on a corner site.
Date significance updated: 05 Jun 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Physical description: 469 Oxford Street is a substantial two storey brick building with a hipped and gabled roof covered with slate that demonstrates many of the characteristics of the Federation Queen Anne style. These include a complicated hipped roof configuration containing prominent subsidiary gables, tall and distinctive brick chimneys, extensive use of red face bricks, and stucco embellishments (particularly around windows). A characteristic verandah extends across the front of the house up to the projecting bay at the western end of the building and features turned timber posts, brackets, valances and balustrading. The roof is further elaborated by terracotta cresting along ridges, terracotta finials and ridge cappings.

A brick single car garage with a gabled roof form is located at the rear of the property, on the south western corner of the site facing Church Place.

A low timber picket fence extends along parts of the Oxford and Ulster Street boundaries.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The building has been well maintained and is in very good condition.
Date condition updated:05 Jun 07
Modifications and dates: The following applications for modifications are noted in Council records:

1977: Development application - conversion of the room above the garage to a one bedroom flat; building application – alterations and additions.
1987: Development application - change of use as an educational establishment (exhibition gallery) and residence; building application - works comprising rebuild of existing kitchen and bathrooms, new deck at first floor level, removal of two internal walls.
1989: Development application - use part of the premises as an art gallery.
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Art Gallery
Former use: Residence


Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today. All cities include many immigrants in their population.

The site of 469 Oxford Street forms part of Block C of the subdivision of Sydney Common land. The Sydney Common was proclaimed on 5 October 1811 and dedicated on 5 October 1866 under the Sydney Commons Improvement Act, which appointed the Municipal Council of Sydney trustees. The Act empowered the Council to sell a portion of the Common lands. The money raised was to go towards improving the remainder of the Common, renamed Moore Park in 1871. The affected land was (and is) contained by Oxford Street, South Dowling Street and Moore Park Road.

In February 1869 the Municipal Council of Sydney conveyed the title of several allotments to a merchant, James Martyn Combes. A little over two months later Combes sold the land to Arthur Alexander Wickham. After Wickham died in April 1872 his estate passed to his widow Laura and on her demise in August 1877 it was inherited by her son, Charles Henry Wickham. In December 1896 he sold the Oxford Street property to George Henry Walton Smith, a medical practitioner. Smith had been residing in the dwelling known as "Erang", two doors to the west of 469 Oxford Street, since 1894. Smith mortgaged the land to John Spence and this may have helped financed the construction of the two storey building that now occupies the site, which is thought to have been completed during 1898, although other evidence suggests that it may have been standing in 1893. The house was originally known as "Pendower" and was occupied by Dr Smith and other members of his family.

At the end of May 1922 Smith sold "Pendower" to Dr Reginald McDougall Bowman. It remained in his possession for almost fifty years. Dr Bowman is known to have occupied the premises until the beginning of the 1930s, if not later. A portion of the site was acquired by the Commissioner for Main Roads around 1960, presumably to expedite road widening. Dr Bowman conveyed the title to the property to Dr Reginald Bowman (possibly his son) in August 1971, who subsequently applied to bring it under the provisions of the Real Property Act in June 1976 and then sold it to William Evans and Nicoletta Zanardi during 1986. The building took on its present use as an art gallery around 1987 or slightly later.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Community facilities-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
There is insufficient evidence to determine whether this criterion is applicable.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
There is insufficient evidence to determine whether this criterion is applicable.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
469 Oxford Street is an assured, substantial and characteristic example of a Federation Queen Anne style dwelling.

The building is an Important item within the streetscape, particularly as a result of its location on a corner site, and is unusual within its local context.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
This criterion is not applicable.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
This criterion is not applicable.
SHR Criteria f)
469 Oxford Street is a rare example of a detached Federation Queen Anne dwelling within this section of Oxford Street in Paddington.
SHR Criteria g)
The architectural expression of 469 Oxford Street is representative of the Federation Queen Anne style.
Integrity/Intactness: The building appears to have retained a substantial amount of original or early building fabric.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

• All conservation, adaptive reuse and future development should be undertaken in accordance with the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter). • A Conservation Management Strategy should be prepared for the entire building to ensure that future change is managed in a coordinated fashion. • All original external brick fabric should be left unpainted. • Retain and conserve all intact original external and internal building fabric and the external appearance of the building. • Detailing of new fabric should respect the integrity and existing character of the building and its original fabric. The building should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement, or a Conservation Management Plan, should be prepared for the building prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the building and no alterations to the façade of the building other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, should not be visibly prominent and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I109414 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1977Certificate of Title Volume 13301 Folio 122
Written 1976Primary Application 52566
Written 1890Sands Sydney and suburban directory
Written 1869Old Systems Book 112 Number 241
Written 1869Old Systems Book 113 Number 228
Written 1869Old Systems Book 589 Number 979
Written  CRS South Sydney Street Cards: Oxford Street
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City
GraphicNSW Department of Lands1893Metropolitan Detail Sheet Paddington Section 6
WrittenRichard Apperly, Robert Irving and Peter Reynolds1989A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2421075

Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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