St Luke's Hospital Group including buildings and their interiors, sandstone gates, pillars and grounds | NSW Environment & Heritage

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St Luke's Hospital Group including buildings and their interiors, sandstone gates, pillars and grounds

Item details

Name of item: St Luke's Hospital Group including buildings and their interiors, sandstone gates, pillars and grounds
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Health Services
Category: Hospital
Primary address: 16-20 Roslyn Street, Elizabeth Bay, NSW 2011
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
16-20 Roslyn StreetElizabeth BaySydney  Primary Address
16-20 Roslyn StreetKings CrossSydney  Alternate Address
16-20 Roslyn StreetPotts PointSydney  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

St Luke’s Hospital is of high local historic and aesthetic significance. It was one of the first denominational, non Catholic, hospitals in Sydney and has provided health services and nursing care to the people of Sydney for over 90 years.

The built form of St Luke's Hospital is a historical essay on one site, on the development of hospitals, and their architectural styles, during the twentieth century. The site contains substantial buildings of note designed by prominent architects including Burcham Clamp, Joseland and Gilling, and Fowell McConnell and Mansfield.

The site contains substantial remains of early Victorian Houses Trebartha, Kenilworth and Lulworth and covers part of the early Barker and Macleay Estates and may retain some trees and landscape elements from the Victorian period.

Lulworth is associated with Patrick White, Nobel prize winning author and playwright, and the site has associations with many prominent Sydney families who were involved in the establishment and running of the hospital.

(Based on Oultram 2006)
Date significance updated: 19 Nov 13
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Burcham Clamp, Joseland and Gilling, and Fowell, McConnel and Mansfield
Builder/Maker: Beat Bros( Main Hospital Building); Kennedy and Bird Ltd ( Hemsley House);
Construction years: 1867-
Physical description: The hospital comprises a number of significant components:

Trebartha/Hemsley House
The original Victorian house, Trebartha was constructed in 1867 and was fitted out as a hospital to provide for 11 beds in 1919. A new wing was constructed in 1921. It was converted, and extended to provide nurses quarters in 1936. This later extension is known as Hemsley House.

Trebartha is a two storey rendered masonry building, with partial basement, which has a hipped terracotta tiled roof. It now forms the western part of Hemsley House. Though heavily altered, the form of the original exterior of Trebartha remains with much internal fabric and features. Several of the windows are double hung Victorian sashes, notably to the rear. To the north is a glazed former verandah with steps down to a paved court with a café set into the basement. It retains some of its former domestic room layout and fabric of Victorian/Edwardian origins including plastered masonry walls, high moulded timber skirtings, moulded timber dado rails, decorative plaster cornices, lathe and plaster ceilings, and timber joinery. There is a fine polished timber stair with elegant timber newel posts and brackets

Hemsley House is a three/four storey inter- war stripped classical revival style building. It substantially retains Trebartha and its 1921 addition, and incorporates them into a new complex of two to three floors fronting Roslyn Street behind a unified stuccoed façade with a sandstone base. It is essentially a series of linked wings with rendered masonry walls to the upper levels with false ashlar joints on a course ashlar sandstone base. It has a multi-hipped roof clad in Marseilles pattern terracotta tiles with projecting timber boarded eaves. There are balconies to the first floor facing the main hospital.

The interiors are relatively intact with original doors, walls, stair and some bathrooms although recent refurbishment replaced the lift and reconfigured some of the rooms. There is a modern concrete fire stair at the southern end. The detailing to the earlier central section varies from that in the southern wing being Edwardian in style evidenced in the plastered masonry with plaster skirtings, fibrous plaster ceilings with batons and timber joinery . The south wing demonstrates its later construction by simple Inter-war detailing and a small scale cellular layout off a pinwheel corridor.

Kenilworth
Kenilworth, a two storey sandstone Victorian Gothic style building with a high pitched eternity slate roof with stone gables, timber framed double hung sash windows with pointed upper panes. To the north is a single storey timber verandah on a sandstone columned (now glazed) under croft. To the south is a later two storey extension in rendered masonry with coursing lines and a castellated parapet to a flat roof. The house is relatively intact internally although the basement has been altered and refurbished.

Lulworth
Lulworth is a two storey Victorian Style house, c 1860, with rendered masonry walls, timber framed windows and hipped roof with verandahs facing east. It has a garden to the north and east. It has been extensively altered internally with little surviving original fabric apart from two stone fire places on the ground floor and remnant joinery on the first floor. It is currently used as a nursing home.

Main Hospital Building
The Main Hospital Building is a 4-5 storey Colonial Revival/Mediterranean style building which opened in 1927. It has rendered masonry walls, a terracotta tiled roof which is hipped over the wings with projecting boarded eaves, and twelve pane double hung sash windows. The building had north facing verandahs with south facing verandahs to the outer wings in line with the medical concepts of the time.

The main entrance is to the south through a porch with a pedimented rood of columns in the classical form. Inside is the original hall with a timber stair and lift that rises up off the curved central bay. There are several unsympathetic additions to the front most notably a large lift tower and goods entrance. To the north the open balconies of the linking blocks and wings, and the arched openings to the central block have been infilled with alumium framed glazing.

The site falls to the east and there is a part basement here with new additions to the north between the hospital and Lulworth. A pool extension has been added to the upper level at Barncleuth Square.

The interior of the Main Hospital Building has been heavily altered although the main stair and principal room configuration with central corridor and wards off them is largely intact.

Site Features
Site Features including Lulworth sandstone Gate Piers, several sandstone walls and a rock cutting to the car park of the new "Trebartha."

Mature trees - these include a number of early trees, a Port Jackson Fig and cook pine that date to the garden of Kenilworth, and a camphor laurel, coral tree and lemon scented gum that may possibly have been part of the garden of Lulworth House.

( Based on Oultram 2006)
Modifications and dates: See history
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Hospital
Former use: Residential

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country." Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today.

The site was originally part of the early land grant to Thomas Barker ( 1931) and Alexander Macleay (1831) Both built substantial houses on their properties and Macleay established the important Elizabeth Bay House which still survives on a small truncated section of the estate. Thomas Barker's house, Roslyn Hall, designed by Ambrose Hallen, was demolished in 1937.

William Russell purchased Thomas Barker's 5 acres in 1860 and subdivided the Roslyn Hall Estate into seven lots created along what is now Roslyn Street with their rear boundaries fronting Macleay's land to the east.

Trebartha
On Lots 6 and 7 of the Roslyn Halle Estate a two storey building of brick and stone construction with slate roof, called Trebartha, was built for William Russell. It was sold to John Christian Hermann Bass an accountant of Sydney in March 1873 who resided at the property during the 1880s and 1890s.

Kenmore
Kenmore or Kenmure (also known as Roslyn Villa up to 1890) at 18 Roslyn Street and now demolished, was originally Lot 5 of Roslyn Hall Estate. It may have been constructed c1869 by Mary Higgins (Oultram 2006 p 20). The Higgins family retained ownership for the remainder of the 19th century.

Kenilworth
Kenilworth was built c 1869 for Henry Williams of Sydney c 1869 on Lot 4 of the Roslyn Hall Estate subdivision. It is described in the 1882 Rates Assessment as being of two floors with twelve rooms of slate with a shingle roof. It was retained in the Williams family until purchased by the hospital 1944.


The 1886 Trig Survey of Sydney, Section S, identifies the location of the three houses Trebartha, Kenmore and Kenilworth.

Lulworth
Lulworth ( 71 Roslyn Gardens) , was part of Macleay's Elizabeth Bay Estate and constructed c 1860s. In February 1916 it was purchased by Victor Martindale White. White ( 1867- 1937) was from the noted family of Hunter Valley and New England graziers. VM White married Ruth Withycombe (1877 -1958) and they had two children, Suzanne Victoria Martindale White (1915-1969) and Patrick Victoria Martindale White (1912-1990) the Nobel Prize Winning author and playwright. Shortly after the purchase of the site VM White engaged the architect Howard Joseland ( whose practice later designed the main hospital building on the site) to renovate the house. Lulworth was retained as the White's Sydney Residence until his death in December 1937.

The Hospital since 1919
The site has served as a hospital since 1919 initially providing only 11 beds. The hospital extended over time as properties were purchased and the range of medical services expanded. Nursing accommodation and training were provided on site in keeping with the ethos of the time.

Trebartha was converted to a hospital to the design of Burcham Champ ( 1869-1931) in 1919. It was extended in 1921, attributed to Burchamp Champ, in the same style as the first out with a two storey building to the south and two storey timber verandah. The rooms were large and well appointed. However the plans are not available.

In 1926 a purpose built hospital was built on the site which provided 100 beds. It was designed by Joseland and Gilling, and built by Beat Bros. This firmly changed the nature of the site from a hospital within converted residential buildings to a full scale medical establishment. This was reinforced in 1935 with the building of additional nurse accommodation in a four storey building, Hensley House, opposite the main wing. This required the demolition of the Victorian House, Kenmore. Hemsley House was designed by Fowell, McConnel and Mansfield, and the builders were Kennedy and Bird Ltd. The new building was quite substantial and tied the whole complex together by putting a new façade on the earlier extension. The plan reflects the structure of nursing accommodation at the time with cellular nurse rooms on the upper floor with larger rooms and a sitting room for the matron, and dining and kitchen accommodation on the ground floor.

The hospital continued to expand and Lulworth was purchased and converted to a maternity block in 1938 to the design of Fowell, McConnel and Mansfield. Kenilworth was purchased in 1944 for additional nurses accommodation and the flats at the corner of Roslyn Gardens in 1956 for doctors accommodation following the government's decision to subsidise the operation of the hospital in 1952. The hospital began to accept a limited number of public patients at this time.

Major developments after this time were the upgrade of the main hospital with new operation theatres in 1971 and an intensive care unit in 1972.

More recent development has focused on the provision of aged care accommodation with the construction of supported accommodation at Trebartha (1980) and nursing home accommodation in a new block along Roslyn Gardens (1980-82). The maternity accommodation in Lulworth was closed in 1969 and remodelled to form an extension of the hospital's main block. It now accommodates high support aged care. The aged care component of the site was considerably expanded by the construction of Trebartha Apartments, the St Luke's Nursing Home and the St Luke's Aged Care Hostel.

Only limited nursing accommodation is now provided on the site and the former quarters are now used for office and support staff accommodation.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site contains substantial remains of early Victorian Houses Trebatha, Kenilworth and Lulworth and covers part of the early Barker and Macleay Estates and may retain some trees and landscape elements from the Victorian period.

It was one of the first denominational, non Catholic, hospitals in Sydney and has provided health services and nursing care to the people of Sydney for over 90 years.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Lulworth is associated with Patrick White, Nobel prize winning author and playwright, and the site has associations with many prominent Sydney families who were involved in the establishment and running of the hospital.

The site is associated with a number of prominent architects including Burcham Clamp, Joseland and Gilling, and Fowell, McConnel and Mansfield.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Aesthetically, the built form provides a historical essay on one site, on the development of hospitals, and their architectural styles, during the twentieth century. The site contains substantial buildings of note designed by prominent architects. These include the inter-war classical revival/Mediterranean style of the main hospital building by Joseland and Gilling, and Hemsley House, a fine example of the inter - war stripped classical revival style by Fowell, McConnel and Mansfield.

The site retains may mature trees that make a positive contribution to an intensively developed urban area and provides much character to the surrounding streetscape.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The hospital is a built representation of the development of public attitudes to social welfare, health and aged care during the 20th century.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Representative example of a privately founded hospital in Sydney initially established in converted residential premises and later developed into a major hospital with purpose designed facilities.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The heritage buildings and significant site elements should be retained. New works should be carried out in accordance with the Conservation Management Plan that has been prepared for the site. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement,, should be prepared for the site prior to any major works being undertaken. Any new works are to have minimal impact on any significant fabric, spaces and site elements.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I59914 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
South Sydney Heritage Study1993 Tropman & Tropman Architects  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City View detail
WrittenJohn Oultram Heritage and Design2006St Luke's Hospital Complex, Conservation Management Plan

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2421258


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