Terrace Group "Garrison Terrace" including interiors and grounds | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Terrace Group "Garrison Terrace" including interiors and grounds

Item details

Name of item: Terrace Group "Garrison Terrace" including interiors and grounds
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Terrace
Location: Lat: -33.8592839760691 Long: 151.205039659039
Primary address: 50-56 Lower Fort Street, Dawes Point, NSW 2000
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
50-56 Lower Fort StreetDawes PointSydney  Primary Address
50-56 Lower Fort StreetMillers PointSydney  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

50-56 Lower Fort Street is significant as containing a well-designed Federation Queen Anne style terrace group that is substantially intact. It makes a significant contribution to an architecturally diverse and historically important residential streetscape and is historically significant for its associations with the Garrison Church.

It is representative of early 20th century land occupation patterns and leaseholds and is significant in reflecting the need to provide modern accommodation by the Garrison Church. The group is also significant as one of the few parcels of land that was exempt from the government resumptions following the outbreak of the bubonic plague.

Garrison Terrace is significant for its association with Sir Charles Rosenthal who excelled in the musical, architectural, political and military fields of endeavour.
Date significance updated: 26 Mar 15
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Charles Rosenthal and James Louat
Physical description: Nos. 50-56 Lower Fort Street, known as Garrison Terrace, comprises four dwellings which share the same architectural expression. The group is a good, example of the Federation Queen Anne style - a particularly florid and picturesque style that flourished at the beginning of the 1890s through to the early years of the 20th century.

The group features classical elements of the style, decorative gable timberwork, ornate and elegant chimneys, steep terracotta tiled roofs, detailed timber verandah, combinations of materials such as wall shingles, glass and timber framed bay windows, narrow double hung windows with decorative brick arched lintels, brickwork features and detailing. Unusually in the group, the style is applied to a terrace form on a tight site instead of being a free standing building able to be seen in the round. The group is easily seen from numerous vantage points, not the least the Harbour Bridge, which was yet to be conceived when the buildings were designed.

At the northern end of the group is the rectory at No. 50, a two storey face brick house with a full attic. The plan form of the rectory is that of three principal rooms centralised about a stair hall over two levels. The shaping of the rooms is irregular. There are bays, insets, a little passage, and a verandah with curved ends. This complexity is carried into the roof which is formed by one main gabled ridge, a substantial cross roof and a parapet with skillion behind. Internally the rectory has excellent timber chimney pieces, high wasted four panelled doors with fanlights and a good quality main timber stair. Along part of the Lower Fort Street and Trinity Avenue frontages of the property is face a brick retaining wall, that sets the house above the street and contains a triangular shaped garden to the north of the house which has a number of mature trees. On top of the wall is a timber square picket fence, possibly dating from the 1920s.
Modifications and dates: 1920s - No 50: Balustrade to front verandah sheeted in pressed meta, lavatory added to the end of the ground floor passage, original sunk moulds in the internal doors replaced by quadrant mouldings, and frangipani trees planted in the garden

Later alterations to No 50 include: Internal ceilings sheeted over in plasterboard, bathroom refitted, rear fence to Trinity Ave replaced.
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential
Former use: Residential

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora.

The need for the new parish of Holy Trinity was initially raised at a community meeting held on 23 December 1839. In attendance were a number of parishioners pre-eminent in the city’s religious, political and commercial affairs, such as Robert Campbell Junior, Dr Charles Nicholson, Francis Mitchell, Captain David Scott and Rev. William Cowper, the evangelical minister of St. Philip’s. The meeting resolved to petition Governor Sir George Gibbs to establish a new parish near Fort Phillip (Observatory Hill) and dedicate a reserve for a new church, parsonage and school. The petition stated that the lack of accommodation at St. Philip’s had resulted in a total or general neglect of religious ordinances … to the .. serious injury of their moral feelings and habits and that there was an urgent necessity for another church in the northern part of the parish. Rev. William Cowper wished the new parish to be known as Holy Trinity.

The parishioners’ petition was granted in January 1840, and a vote of thanks was passed the following April. Without delay the trustees for the new parish engaged architect Henry Ginn to prepare plans for the proposed new church (a surviving Ginn drawing is dated March 1840) and opened a subscription list to fund its construction. The foundation stone for the church was laid on 23rd June 1840 at a ceremony officiated by Bishop Broughton and assisted by Rev. William Cowper.

The original components of the church and school reserve at the corner of Argyle and Lower Fort Streets comprised reserves for the Episcopalian church (1r 4p), Episcopalian school (31 p), Presbyterian school (31p) and Trinity Church parsonage (27 1/2p). The Presbyterian school reserve became the site for the Army Drill hall in c.1916.

With the completion of the church came the status of a new purpose built parsonage. In 1857 a reserve of crown land at the corner of Lower Fort Street and Trinity Avenue was dedicated for the use as a parsonage. However the parish built their parsonage to the design of Edmund Blacket in Princes Street Millers Point in 1867. The dedicated land remained vacant until the parsonage was resumed by the Crown under the Darling Harbour resumptions published in October 1901. However the The Holy Trinity Church site and other adjoining church lands including the subject site were exempt from the resumption of land by the Sydney Harbour Trust in 1901

It is from Fielding’s ministry of 1904-1907 that the military associations of the church were instigated on a regular basis. Fielding was the chaplain of the Royal Navy in Sydney and in this capacity drew large congregations of sailors from both the Imperial and Royal Reserve. These functions were no doubt fostered through the occasional attendance by Governor Admiral Sir Harry Rawson at services. Rawson‘s interest in the welfare of the city’s harbourside dwellers is now remembered through the Rawson Institute.

At the time of Fielding’s ministry, Charles Rosenthal (later Sir), architect and soldier (and later a Sydney alderman), was a member of the parish and soloist in the choir. Rosenthal was at this the time the architect for the Anglican Diocese of Grafton and Armidale.

The Sydney Morning Herald of 12th November 1905 announced that the architects Charles Rosenthal and James Louat were preparing plans for a new rectory and three houses for the beneift of the church on land originally set aside for this use. They were constructed c 1907 at a cost of £3600. The funds for the building came through the £4000 paid to the parish in compensation for the resumption of the parsonage on Princes Street.

The parish was without a resident rector from 1937-1952. It is assumed that the premises were let out for residential use.

The terraces at 52-56 Lower Fort Street were leased by the parish to local residents through agents Hardie and Gorman on a commercial basis. After renting them for many years the terraces were given separate titles and sold. The first terrace (it is unclear which one was sold first) was sold to private individuals in 1979 with the others soon to follow.The Rectory is still owned by the church.

Sir Charles Rowenthal (1875-1954)
As a singer and musician he was a choir master, organist and was once described as in the front rank of oratorio singers in Sydney who performed with the Philharmonic Society and the Sydney Liedertafel. As an architect he designed numerous buildings, became the Diocesan Architect for Grafton and Armidale where he designed a number of churches, and went on to be twice President of the Institute of Architects in NSW and then as Federal President. As a politician he was an Alderman on Sydney Council, and would also hold terms in the NSW Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council before becoming Governor of Norfolk Island. However his greatest contribution was as a soldier where he was a senior officer at Gallipoli, went on to become a General commanding divisions at Ypres and the Somme, and finally was a leading figure in the battles that brought World War I to a close. For this service he was knighted and received high military honours. As an example of his early architectural work, the terraces in Lower Fort Street are an interesting feature of an extraordinary life. (Australian Dictionary of Biography)

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Residential-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Garrison Terrace is of historical significance as physical evidence of the development of the area with a diverse range of terrace style housing in the late 19th and early 20th century. The building is also historically significant in reflecting the need to provide modern accommodation by the Garrison Church and represents one of the few parcels of land that was exempt from the government resumptions following the outbreak of the bubonic plague.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The terrace is associated with Holy Trinity Church, which was the first official Garrison church in the colony.

Garrison Terrace is significant for its association with Sir Charles Rosenthal who excelled in the musical, architectural, political and military fields of endeavour.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The terrace is a good example of a well designed Federation Queen Anne style building that is substantially intact. It makes a significant contribution to an architecturally diverse and historically important residential streetscape.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
A representative example of a well designed Federation Queen Anne style terrace. It is also representative of early 20th century land occupation patterns and leaseholds.
Integrity/Intactness: High Externally
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The terrace group should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement, or a Conservation Management Plan, should be prepared prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the terraces and no alterations to the principal façades other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, should not be visibly prominent and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I55714 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City View detail
WrittenHector Abrahams Architects2015The Garrison Church Rectory - Heritage Impact Statement
WrittenPaul Davies Pty Ltd2004Holy Trinity (Garrison) Anglican Church, Millers Point - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenShirley Fitzgerald & Christopher Keating1991Millers Point : the urban village

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2423643


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