House Group "Glebe Villa" and "Carlyle" Includin Ginteriors And Front Fencing | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage


House Group "Glebe Villa" and "Carlyle" Includin Ginteriors And Front Fencing

Item details

Name of item: House Group "Glebe Villa" and "Carlyle" Includin Ginteriors And Front Fencing
Other name/s: 'Glebe Villa'/'Redland', 'Carlyle'
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 359 - 361 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
359 - 361 Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

359-36 Glebe Point Road provides evidence of the Arden Estate.The building has historical significance for its ability to evidence grand late Victorian residential development. It is an outstanding opulant Victorian Italianate pair of grand, semi-detached residences, that make a strong contribution to the character of Glebe Point Road (one of 4 pairs).

The building's quality reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a major street. It has historical associative significance for its association with Joseph Walker.
Date significance updated: 30 Oct 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Construction years: 1883-1884
Physical description: A pair of two-storey attached terraces that date from the Victorian period within the key period of significance, set on a wide site that has retained its context. The building is setback from the street. The site has a appropriate front fence of iron palisade approximately 1.4 metres high. The front garden is large and informally landscaped and features a central/offset path and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a complex double fronted symmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered masonry with a paint finish on a rendered masonry base course. The roof is gabled with a steep pitch, and has close eaves. The roof is clad in non original terracotta tile. The veranda has been infilled. The façade features classical motifs, fluting and string course. The front door is offset/recessed. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned timber windows.The building appears to be in good condition and is substantially intact. Alterations include new terracotta tiles.If the Doctors' Houses reveal a neo-classical aspect of the Italian villa style, Redland and Carlyle, 359-361 Glebe Point Road, all testify to the continuing influence of Victorian Gothic. In these Italianate houses a gabled roof is broken out over the advanced rooms. And the roof pitch is higher. This was a particularly popular High Victorian way of treating a house façade, and it continued into late Victorian times, where it came to dominate much Federation-style planning.The houses retain the original cast iron picket fencing at the front. The roof has been replaced with terracotta tiles, the small first floor verandah has been infilled.
Further information: Research on the other 3 pairs behind the shops is desirable.

Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential


Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora..

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today.

The Sydney Glebe lands were granted to the Church of England in 1789, and in 1828 "to relieve the pressing needs of clergy", Glebe was subdivided into 28 allotments and all but three lots (numbers 7,8 and 28) were offered for sale. The Glebe point precinct comprises 4 lots from the 1828 subdivision of the Glebe. Lot 1 was acquired by AB Spark, lot 2 by Mr James and lots 3-4 by Captain Dumaresq.While several of these villas were demolished at the time of these subdivisions, most survived on reduced lots, often as boarding houses until the mid 20th century. Demolition of the villas from after WW11 until the 1970s made way for higher density post war flat development, encouraged by the Cumberland Plan.

The 1828 subdivision made allowance for in roads into the Glebe; Bay Road and Glebe Road (Glebe Point Road) were created by cutting through bush, pulling out stumps and ‘filling in the largest of the holes’. Glebe Point Rd, or alternatively known as the Glebe Rd, opened up in 1829 as the initial exploitive action in the form of a tract with fence either side. This basic line of communication cut into the then dense forest covering the Glebe with only bush tracks made by drays penetrating off the Glebe Rd to the individual estates. A main influencing factor on the character of the subdivided areas of Toxteth Park Estate was the covenant, issued on the death of George Allen, in that being a devout Wesleyan no alcohol was to be brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development, no commercial development, and that any building be constructed out of brick of stone or both. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe.

Kew Cottage built circa 1835, Forsyth Cottage (c. 1837) and Avon House (c. 1837) were early houses on Dumaresq’s land. Captain Dumaresq first subdivided his holdings as the Boissier Estate in 1840. Elmville (c.1844), Hawthorne (c.1844), Lynwood (c. 1851), Rothwell Lodge (c. 1847), Salem House (c. 1842), Bidura (c. 1857),) appeared on the Boissier subdivision.Further subdivisions and consolidation of Glebe Point occurred when the upper middle class vacated their grand villas for the suburbs in the late 19th century, with improvements in transport and the draw of the garden suburb, coupled with an increasingly industrial character to Blackwattle Bay with land reclamations. The Avona Estate was subdivided in 1899, the Strathmore Estate in 1894 and 1899. The Golden Estate and Glebe Heights Estate was subdivivded in 1908. This resulted in an overlay of speculative terrace development of a working class and middle class character, in the late Victorian and Federation styles.

359-361 Glebe Point Road dates from 1883 and were built on a subdivision of the Arden Estate. 359 Glebe Point Road was first listed in the Sands Directory of 1884 and occupied by Samuel Brown. 361 Glebe Point Road was first listed in the Sands Directory of 1884 and occupied by Hugh McLelland, teacher. The buildings were then known as ‘Glebe Villa’ and Carlyle’ respectively.They form the remaining pair from a row of four pairs of houses which originally ran to the corner of Forsyth Street, designed by Walker. The remaining pairs having been converted, or built over for shops. For all these gabled houses the gable design remains the same, whereas David Elphinstone varied each one with an interesting variety.

Joseph Walker started off as a joiner in St. Phillips in Glebe Road in the 1850s and was to work through to the 1890s seeing the main build-up of all areas in the Glebe. From building in St. Phillips he went on to Bishopthorpe. He built the city view cottages and many other and then moving along Glebe Point Road in the late 1870s to build the Children’s Hospital in 1879. His work made use of the projecting bay to form an asymmetrical front and follows this through in the run of houses, known as the doctors’ houses in Glebe Point echoing some of his earlier asymmetrical fronted cottages of Bishopthorpe. He eventually built on property at the Glebe Point and so completed a distinct social movement along Glebe Point Road, as well as contributing to the streetscape of that road. He was particularly active in the 1880s and 90s with the later subdivisions of the Allen estates including Toxteth Park, where along with another Scotsman, Thomas Collunder Sinclair, he proceeded to build a large number of residences fronting Boyce and Mansfield Streets, Ferry Glebe and Toxteth Roads utilising similar design elements. As a speculative builder, he probably was reflecting the values of the real market and not just carrying out a particular style. Walker moved from Cowper Street to Glebe Street in 1867 where he is listed in Sands Directory as a carpenter, however in 1870 he calls himself a builder with his business address as 253 Riley Street. Also it is noted that he was a director of the Starr-Bowkett Building Society. In 1875 he moved to the Glebe Road and later in 1880 to Cook Street, Glebe Point and finally to Toxteth Road in 1892 until 1895.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Joseph Walker-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site and building provides evidence of the Arden Estate.The building has historical significance for its ability to evidence grand late Victorian residential development. The building's quality reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a major street.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The building has historical associative significance for its association with Joseph Walker.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
An outstanding opulant Victorian Italianate pair of grand, semi-detached residences, essential to character of the Road (one of 4 pairs).The building is significant for its contribution to the Glebe Point Road streetscape.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site has medium archaeological potential as a late Victorian residence.
SHR Criteria f)
The building is a rare quality example of a highly intact residential exterior.
SHR Criteria g)
An outstanding example of a late Victorian grand residence in a garden setting that contributes to the streetscape.
Integrity/Intactness: Medium
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should be included in the Heritage Schedule of the LEP and should be protected by the Conservation Area Listing.These houses should be restored with reinstatement of appropriate roof cladding (slate tiles or corrugated iron roofing), the reinstatement of appropriately detailed barge board treatment, first floor verandah restoration and fencing repairs. A new colour scheme would dramatically improve the appearance of this pair of houses.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I76414 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Statement of Heritage Significance & Statement of Heritage Impact2019 Nigel Parsons & Associates Architects  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City
WrittenBerchervaise & Associates Pty Ltd1973Glebe Point Road Main Street Study, Stage Two
WrittenCraig Burton1979Housing the Glebe

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2427786

Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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