House Group "City View Cottages" including interiors and front gardens | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

House Group "City View Cottages" including interiors and front gardens

Item details

Name of item: House Group "City View Cottages" including interiors and front gardens
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 120-126 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
120-126 Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

City View Cottages are a rare example of a group of early villas in a garden setting built by a prorminent builder in Glebe, Joseph Walker, in 1871. The villas provide evidence of Bishopsthorpe Estate housing when Glebe Point Road was primarily a residential street.
Date significance updated: 07 Jan 14
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Joseph P Walker
Construction years: 1871-
Physical description: A group of four early Victorian free-standing cottages, variations on a theme that date from 1871 within the key period of significance, set on a wide site that has retained its context.

The buildings are setback from the street.

120 Glebe Point Road has an appropriate front fence of timber picket approximately 600/1000 millimetres high. The front garden is large and informally landscaped, features a central path and steps, mature trees and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a simple symmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered brick with a scribed paint finish on a stone base course. The roof is hipped with a medium pitch, and has boxed eaves. The roof is clad in corrugated sheet metal and features hipped dormers and terracotta chimney pots. The verandah runs across the façade and has a concave featuring timber columns and stone paving. The façade is obscured by the verandah in fill. The front door is centrally located with fanlights, a sidelight and a security screen. Fenestration comprises French doors. The building appears to be in fair condition and is substantially intact. Alterations include detracting security screens, verandah infill and fencing.

122 Glebe Point Road has an appropriate front fence of timber picket approximately 600-1000 millimetres high. The front garden is large and landscaped and features a central path and steps, mature trees and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a simple symmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered brick with a scribed render finish on a stone base course. The roof is hipped with a medium pitch, and has boxed eaves. The roof is clad in corrugated sheet metal and features corbelled chimneys and terracotta chimney pots. The veranda runs across the façade and has a concave profile, featuring timber columns and stone paving. The front door is centrally located with fanlights, a sidelight and a security screen. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned French Doors with highlights and security bars.The buildings appear to be in excellent condition and are highly intact. Alterations include detracting security screens, a stair railing and non-original picket fence.

124 Glebe Point Road has an appropriate front fence of timber picket approximately 600/1000 millimetres high. The front garden is large and informally landscaped, features a central path and steps, mature trees and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a simple symmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered brick with a scribed finish on a stone base course. The roof is gabled with a medium pitch, and has narrow boxed eaves. The roof is clad in corrugated sheet metal and features corbelled chimneys and terracotta chimney pots. The verandah runs across the façade and has a concave profile featuring timber columns and stone paving. The front door is centrally located and is panelled with fanlights, a sidelight and a security screen. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned French doors. The building appears to be in excellent condition and is highly intact. Alterations include fencing, security bars to veranda and retaining walls.

126 Glebe Point Road has a detracting front fence of altered and extended iron palisade on a stone base of approximately 2.4 metres high. The front garden is large and informally landscaped, features a central path and steps and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a simple symmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered brick with a scribed finish on a stone base course. The roof is hipped with a medium pitch, and has narrow boxed eaves. The roof is clad in corrugated sheet metal and features corbelled chimneys. The verandah runs across the façade and has a bullnose profile and features timber and cast iron columns and tessellated tiles. The front door is centrally located with fanlights, a sidelight and is obscured by security screens. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned French doors with highlights and security bars.The building appears to be in excellent condition. Alterations include detracting fencing, security screens, veranda columns and step rails.
Further information: Under the provisions of Leichardt LEP 2000, the buildings at Nos 118-134 Glebe Point Road were listed under as one heritage item. In the 2007 Glebe Conservation Area Study it was recommended that the group be split up into several listings, No 118, Nos 120-126, No 128, No 130, No 132 and No 134 Glebe Point Road. These separate listings were incorporated in Sydney LEP 2012 which was gazetted on 14/12/2012.

Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora. There is no written record of the name of the language spoken and currently there are debates as whether the coastal peoples spoke a separate language "Eora" or whether this was actually a dialect of the Dharug language. Remnant bushland in places like Blackwattle Bay retain elements of traditional plant, bird and animal life, including fish and rock oysters.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today. All cities include many immigrants in their population. Aboriginal people from across the state have been attracted to suburbs such as Pyrmont, Balmain, Rozelle, Glebe and Redfern since the 1930s. Changes in government legislation in the 1960s provided freedom of movement enabling more Aboriginal people to choose to live in Sydney.

(Information sourced from Anita Heiss, "Aboriginal People and Place", Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani )

The Sydney Glebe lands were granted to the Church of England in 1789. In 1828 “to relieve the pressing needs of clergy”, Glebe was subdivided into 28 allotments and all but three lots (numbers 7,8 and 28) were offered for sale. Lot 28 was set apart for the residence of the Archdeacon and all revenue derived from the area retained for the Church and School Corporation "to and for the personal use and occupation of the Archdeacon of New South Wales and his successors forever". It was first known as the Archdeaconry. When in 1836 Dr WG Broughton was consecrated Bishop of Australia, the Archdeaconry became known as the Bishopthorpe Estate. This portion of Glebe was a part of the Parish of Christ Church St. Lawrence. In 1856 Bishopthorpe was divided into 238 allotments and offered on 99-year leases. “The subdivision has been on the most liberal scale – the streets being of the full proclaimed width of 66 ft with lanes 16.5 ft wide. The allotments all have 40 ft frontages by depths averaging about 120 ft, thus affording ample space for good improvements and a plot of garden ground for each. The situation is a most desirable one close to the city boundary but exempt from taxes and enjoying consistent communication with all parts of the city.” The Bishopthorpe leases required all buildings to be constructed either of stone or brick. Other conditions prohibited the erection of more than two dwellings on an allotment and required buildings to face the main roads. No restrictions, however, were placed on the use to which buildings could be put. Corner shops accompanied the development of Bishopthorpe, and became an integral part of domestic retailing, providing basic necessities to customers who lived nearby. An array of retail shops stretched along Glebe Point Road from Broadway to St Johns Road, and within these estates could be found bakeries, blacksmith’s shops, iron foundries, Sharp Brothers cordial factory, the Waratah Stove works and Conlon’s pottery in Broughton Street. By the early 1960s many of the leases dating from the subdivisions of the mid-nineteenth century had expired and reverted to the Church. In 1971, the Church decided to sell of these holdings. The estate was purchased by the Commonwealth Government on 12 August 1974. for $17.4 million, 723 properties used as family dwellings and 27 commercial properties. (125 Glebe Estate properties had been sold prior to Commonwealth acquisition. ) The 1828 subdivision made allowance for in roads into the Glebe; Bay Road and Glebe Road (Glebe Point Road) were created by cutting through bush, pulling out stumps and ‘filling in the largest of the holes’. Glebe Point Rd, or alternatively known as the Glebe Rd, opened up in 1829 as the initial exploitive action in the form of a tract with fence either side. This basic line of communication cut into the then dense forest covering the Glebe with only bush tracks made by drays penetrating off the Glebe Rd to the individual estates. Through the 1860’s to 1890’s the development of the church owned St Phillip’s and Bishopthorpe Estates either side of Glebe Point Road generated a need for greater commercial development. The passing omnibus (and later tram) trade provide added incentive allotments along Glebe Point Road were developed for commercial and residential use. The tramway service along Glebe Point Road to the Point was opened in 1892 using steam tram motors and trailer cars. It was the first western suburbs line to be converted to electric operation in 1900 and it used power from the Ultimo Powerhouse. A six-minute service was provided on weekdays, increasing to four minutes during peak hours and on Saturday evenings. Trams ran every 15 minutes on Sunday mornings, and at six-minute intervals for the rest of the day. The city terminus of the Glebe Point service was Millers Point, located to the west of Circular Quay. Services continued until 23 November 1958, when buses replaced the then "unfashionable trams" as a method of public transport. Old tram lines still exist under the surface of Glebe Point Road.Glebe Road passed out of Church ownership by virtue of the St Phillip’s Glebe Sale Ordinance 1972.

"City View Cottages" were built in 1871 by Joseph P. Walker in Glebe Point Road adjacent to the earlier Blacket houses on the Bishopthorpe Estate. Joseph Walker started off as a joiner in St. Phillips in Glebe Road in the 1850’s and was to work through to the 1890s seeing the main build-up of all areas in the Glebe. From building in St. Phillips he went on to Bishopthorpe (city view cottages plus many others) and then moving along Glebe Point Road in the late 1870’s to build the Children’s Hospital in 1879 in which he utilizes the use of the projecting bay to form an asymmetrical front and follows this through in the run of houses, known as the doctors’ houses in Glebe Point echoing some of his earlier asymmetrical fronted cottages of Bishopthorpe in the late 1860s. He eventually built on property at the Glebe Point and so completed a distinct social movement along Glebe Point Road, as well as contributing to the streetscape of that road. He was particularly active in the 1880s and 90s with the later subdivisions of the Allen estates including Toxteth Park, where along with another Scotsman, Thomas Collunder Sinclair, he proceeded to build a large number of residences fronting Boyce and Mansfield Streets, Ferry, Glebe and Toxteth Roads utilising similar design elements for either a two storey villa or terrace or single storey semi-detached. It is interesting to note that Walker transcends all of the major stylistic notes of the Italianate with the exception of the Federation along the major areas of the Glebe as a developing suburb and as a speculative builder he probably was reflecting the values of the real market and not just carrying out a particular style.

No. 120 Glebe Point Road appears in the first Sands Directory for Glebe occupied by James Spooner indicating a construction date of 1879 or before. The building was then known as “City View Cottage 4”

No. 122 Glebe Point Road appears in the first Sands Directory for Glebe occupied by William Crispin, Engineer, indicating a construction date of 1879 or before. The building was then known as “City View Cottage 3”.

No. 124 Glebe Point Road appears in the first Sands Directory for Glebe occupied by Richard Sewell indicating a construction date of 1879 or before. The building was then known as “City View Cottage 2”.

No. 126 Glebe Point Road appears in the first Sands Directory for Glebe occupied by Timothy Hart, indicating a construction date of 1879 or before. The building was then known as “City View Cottage 1”. According to Craig Burton …”Most of Walker's houses were built in the Italianate idiom and this house represents a transitional phase from the Australian Regency to the Italianate. The verandah roof is a convex form and, instead of using rectangular, or round timber columns or the flat, open cast iron columns for the verandah, round cast iron columns imitating elaborate "classical" designs on a fluted base, are used. Also cast iron lace is used in place of the timber valence board of the Australian Regency, describing a series of suggestive flat arches. The main door is two-panelled with a vertical emphasis instead of the old six or four-panelled door. Also the walls are cement rendered, although this too occurred in the Australian Regency, it now became common – a regular practice. The planning and room layout is very similar to that of the Australian Regency examples and serves to point to another characteristic of this style, in that it is mainly a frontal presentation, with the exception of some of the interiors of the larger houses.” This row of houses was owned by the New South Wales Department of Housing and has been rehabilitated and repainted as part of the Glebe Estate Project.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Residential-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Villas-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Joseph Walker-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site and villass provide evidence of Bishopthorpe Estate and reflect the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The buildings have historical associative significance for their association with builder Joseph Walker.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
City View Cottages are an externally intact group of early residences in garden settings on Glebe Point Road.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The group has high archaelogical potential as an early villa site.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The buildings are a rare example of a group of early villas in garden settings on a primary road.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Representative of housing on the Bishopthorpe Estate.
Integrity/Intactness: This item has high integrity.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The group of buildings should be protected and included on the Heritage Schedule of the LEP. Subdivision should not occur. Consolidation of sites should not occur. The existing use of the site should continue. One-storey additions could occur at the rear of the building. Appropriate palisade fencing should be incorporated. There shall be no alterations to the facades of the villas other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal features including ceilings, cornices, joinery , flooring and fireplace should be retained and conserved. This row of houses, except for No 126, is currently owned by the New South Wales Department of Housing and has been rehabilitated and repainted as part of the Glebe Estate Project. Careful ongoing maintenance for these properties and their gardens is recommended.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I71714 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Glebe Point Road Main Street Study Stage 21991 Bechervaise and Associates  No
Glebe Conservation Area Study2007 Architectural Projects  Yes
Leichhardt Municpal Heritage Study1990 McDonald McPhee P/L  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City View detail
WrittenCraig Burton1979Housing the Glebe

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2427818


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.