House "Paxton House" including interior and front fence | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

House "Paxton House" including interior and front fence

Item details

Name of item: House "Paxton House" including interior and front fence
Other name/s: Paxton House
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 232 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
232 Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Primary Address
232, 232b-d Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

The site provides evidence of the early subdivision and development of the Toxteth Park Estate. It contains a fine example of a late Victorian Italianate villa in a garden setting that contributes to the streetscape and reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address. It is associated with Rev. Andrew Gardiner and Joseph Walker.
Date significance updated: 03 Aug 18
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Physical description: he site contains a two storey freestanding Victorian Italianate house house , set on a wide site that has partially lost its context due to the Post -war flats at No. 230, and Inter- war flats at 232A Glebe Point Road.

The building is setback from the street and there is a large and landscaped garden featuring a a central brick path and steps, floral displays and provides an appropriate setting for the house. There is a iron palisade fence. on a stone plinth, and gate to the street..

The façade presents a complex double fronted asymmetrical elevation and is constructed of rendered masonry on a rendered masonry base course. The roof is gabled with a steep pitch, and has boxed eaves. The roof is clad in terracotta tiles and features fretted barge boards and timber finia s to the front, side and rear gables. The front verandah is offse, has a straight profile and is clad in terracotta tiles and features cast iron columns, cast iron balustrade, brackets and fringe. The verandah has been infilled.

The façade features faceted parapeted bay with corbel and dentil and fluting string course. The front door is centrally located and is 4-panelled with fanlights and sidelight. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned double hung timber windows.

There is a two storey gabled rear wing with enclosed balconies.

Significant internal features, include the original layout, the main stairs, timber joinery including skirtingsm, picture rails, archtiraves and panelled doors, decorative plaster ceilings and cornices and fireplaces.
Date condition updated:13 Feb 09
Modifications and dates: The building has been converted to what appears to the flatlets. It is likely that the infilliing of the front verandah, and balconies to the rear wing occured as this time.
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential

History

Historical notes: Historical Overview

This site forms part of the land of the Gadigal people, the traditional custodians of land within the City of Sydney council boundaries. For information about the Aboriginal history of the local area see the City’s Barani website: http://www.sydneybarani.com.au/

The Sydney Glebe lands were granted to the Church of England in 1789, and in 1828 "to relieve the pressing needs of clergy", Glebe was subdivided into 28 allotments and all but three lots (numbers 7,8 and 28) were offered for sale. The Toxteth Estate comprises 4 lots from the 1828 subdivision of the Glebe. Lot 21 was acquired by AB Spark, and lots 22-24 were acquired by George Allen.Toxteth Park was built for George Allen in 1831, to the design of John Verge. Toxteth Park house consisted of a rectangular two-storey block with single-storey wings and a stone-flagged verandah which was laid around two sides of the house. Set at right angles, behind the main building, and facing a large paved courtyard, were the kitchen and servants’ quarters. Shortly after the completion of the house the Sydney Gazette described its ‘spacious garden, containing some hundreds of the choicest trees- and a tract of forest land capable of being converted into the most romantic pleasure grounds’. On George Allen’s death in 1877, George Wigram Allen, his son, moved into "Toxteth House" but not before making extensive alterations to the principal buildings of the estate under the superintendence of G.A. Mansfield somewhere between 1877 and 1881. This action must have had a large impact on the popular builders of the adjacent estates, for, the greater part of the Allen estate seems to have been sub-divided and built up from the early 1880s to the early 1900s employing the Italianate and elaborate variations of it during the 1880s and 1890s, while the late 1890s and 1900s came under the influence of a "Federation" style. George Allen, in his will, decreed that only private dwelling houses be built on the future subdivision of the estate, and that they be constructed out of either brick or stone. Being a devout Wesleyan, Allens covenant prevented alcohol being brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe. George Wigram Allen died in 1885. Subdivision of Toxteth Park had commenced in earnest in 1884 with 88 building sites offered for sale. In 1886, Mills & Pile offered forty-five allotments for sale in Wigram Road, measuring for the most part, twenty-five feet to thirty feet. One hundred and thirty-four ‘choice villa sites’ were offered in Boyce Street, Ross Street and Toxteth Road.

The 1828 subdivision made allowance for in roads into the Glebe; Bay Road and Glebe Road (Glebe Point Road) were created by cutting through bush, pulling out stumps and ‘filling in the largest of the holes’. Glebe Point Rd, or alternatively known as the Glebe Rd, opened up in 1829 as the initial exploitive action in the form of a tract with fence either side. This basic line of communication cut into the then dense forest covering the Glebe with only bush tracks made by drays penetrating off the Glebe Rd to the individual estates. A main influencing factor on the character of the subdivided areas of Toxteth Park Estate was the covenant, issued on the death of George Allen, in that being a devout Wesleyan no alcohol was to be brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development, no commercial development, and that any building be constructed out of brick of stone or both. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe.The earliest subdivision plans of the Toxteth Estate show the land of Toxteth Road as a paddock. An undated (c.1884) Mills & Pile plan of the Toxteth Park Estate shows the land subdivided but underdeveloped, and notes 'Rev. A. Gardiner' on the lot. In 1884, Joseph Walker called tenders for the construction of a house for Gardiner on Glebe Point Road: "A first class villa residence at Glebe Point for the Rev. Andrew Gardiner, MA J.P. Walker Valuator & Building Surveyor 199 George Street, Sydney." The Rev. Gardiner was brought out to Australia in 1873 from Scotland to be minister of the Glebe Presbyterian Church and held the first service in Glebe (18 October, 1874) at the University Hotel, on the corner of Glebe and Parramatta Roads - opposite the site of the Church School of 1876-79.

Site History
The earliest subdivision plans of the Toxteth Park Estate show the land north of Toxteth Road as a paddock. An undated (c.1884) Mills & ile subdivision plan of the Toxteth Park Estate shows the land subdivided into allotments, the only development being "Ellerslie" at the corner of Toxteth Road. By 1888, the Byrne Map shows number 232 and 234 built, while the site of 232b-d remains vacant and unsold. .

The property which became the current 232 Glebe Point road, was first listed in the Sands Directory of 1885, known as Paxton House, when it was occupied by Rev. Andrew Gardiner , a Presbyterian Minister. According to Sands Directory, Rev Gardiner occupied Paxton House until 1890. The 1888 Byrne Map notes the occupant as Mrs Paxton.. There were various occupants until 1920 , when a William Miller Stokes was still in residence, and there is the first mention of 232a-c, which were later to become 232b-d with the construction of flats between 232 and 232a-c in the 1930s.

232 Glebe Point Road was later converted to flats but retained the verandah configuration at both the front and rear, and the infill probably occurred during this conversion.

Joseph Walker
Joseph Walker started off as a joiner in St. Phillips in Glebe Road in the 1850’s and was to work through to the 1890s seeing the main build-up of all areas in the Glebe. From building in St. Phillips he went on to Bishopthorpe (city view cottages plus many others) and then moving along Glebe Point Road in the late 1870’s to build the Children’s Hospital in 1879 in which he utilises the use of the projecting bay to form an asymmetrical front and follows this through in the run of houses, known as the doctors’ houses in Glebe Point echoing some of his earlier asymmetrical fronted cottages of Bishopthorpe in the late 1860s. He eventually built on property at the Glebe Point and so completed a distinct social movement along Glebe Point Road, as well as contributing to the streetscape of that road. He was particularly active in the 1880s and 90s with the later subdivisions of the Allen estates including Toxteth Park, where along with another Scotsman, Thomas Collunder Sinclair, he proceeded to build a large number of residences fronting Boyce and Mansfield Streets, Ferry Glebe and Toxteth Roads utilising similar design elements for either a two storey villa or terrace or single storey semi-detached. It is interesting to note that Walker transcends all of the major stylistic notes of the Italianate with the exception of the Federation along the major areas of the Glebe as a developing suburb and as a speculative builder he probably was reflecting the values of the real market and not just carrying out a particular style. Walker moved from Cowper Street to Glebe Street in 1867 where he is listed in Sands Directory as a carpenter, however in 1870 he calls himself a builder with his business address as 253 Riley Street. Also it is noted that he was a director of the Starr-Bowkett Building Society. In 1875 he moved to the Glebe Road and later in 1880 to Cook Street, Glebe Point and finally to Toxteth Road in 1892 until 1895. Walker was a lay preacher of the Presbyterian Church in Glebe and it is undoubtedly this connection with the Church that caused him to assist in housing Rev. Gardiner.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Rev. Gardiner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Joseph Walker-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Rev. Gardiner-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site and building provides evidence of the early subdivision and development of the Toxteth Park Estate. The building's quality reflect the development of Glebe Point Road as a major street. Built for Rev. Gardiner, the house has the ability to reflect the aspirations of the first community on the Toxteth Estate.

No's 232b-d: The site provides evidence of the early subdivision of Toxteth EstateThe building has historical significance for its ability to evidence Federation development on the Toxteth Estate. The buildings' quality reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a major street. At the time it was built it made a significant contribution to the development of the Toxteth Estate.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The building has historical associative significance for its associations with Rev. Andrew Gardiner and Joseph Walker.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
A fine example of a late Victorian Italianate villa in a garden setting that contributes to the streetscape.The building is significant for its contribution to the precinct and reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address.

No's 232b-d: The building is high quality example of a substantially intact Arts & Crafts residential exterior with potential to be restored with minimum effort. The building is significant for its contribution to the streetscape. Reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
A fine representative example of a highly intact late-Victorian residential exterior.

No's 232b-d: A representative example of an Arts & Crafts terrace.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement, or a Conservation Management Plan, should be prepared for the building prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the building and no alterations to the façade of the building other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, the main stair, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved. All conservation, adaptive reuse and future development should be undertaken in accordance with the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter). Archival photographic recording, in accordance with Heritage Council guidelines, should be undertaken before major changes. Subdivision should not occur. Consolidation of sites should not occur. The residential use of the site should continue. One-storey additions could occur at the rear of the building. Landscaping to screen the adjoining development is desirable. The front Verandah infill should be removed and the bullnose profile of its roof reinstated.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I74414 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City View detail
WrittenBerchervaise & Associates1991Main Street Study

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2427831


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