Flat Building Group, "Mayfair Flats" Including Interior and Front Fence | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Flat Building Group, "Mayfair Flats" Including Interior and Front Fence

Item details

Name of item: Flat Building Group, "Mayfair Flats" Including Interior and Front Fence
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Block of Flats
Primary address: 232A Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
232A Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

Forming the grounds of Paxton House (232 Glebe Point Road), Mayfair Flats provides evidence of the consolidation of the Toxteth Estate, and the changing social mix of Glebe due to the overlay of units in the Interwar period.Finely detailed Interwar flat building. The building is significant for its contribution to the streetscape and as a good representative example of Art Deco flats of high integrity.
Date significance updated: 19 Jul 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Physical description: A three –storey freestanding flat that dates from the period later than the key period of significance set on a wide site that has impacted upon its context.The building is setback from the street. The site has an original Interwar, neutral front fence of face brick. The front garden is large, landscaped and features an offset path, conifers of shrubs and provides an appropriate setting for the house.The façade presents a simple cubic symmetrical elevation and is constructed of face brick with herringbone brick insert panels. The roof is hipped with a medium pitch, and has broad boxed eaves. The roof is clad in terracotta tile. The corner verandahs have been infilled. It features paired arched openings to ground and first floor level and a rectanglar opening to the upper level. The façade features a Romanesque character, projecting end bays, recessed panels, decorative brickwork, string course, label moulds, hooded ventilators and original signage. The front door is located on the side and features a gothic arched opening with herringbone brick infill panel above and a pair of 9-panelled glazed doors. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned double hung timber windows with chevron design highlights, leadlight and security bars on the ground floor. Brick header and sill causes.The building appears to be in excellent condition and is substantially intact. Alterations include detracting verandah infill, letter boxes and security grills.
Further information: Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential.

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora. There is no written record of the name of the language spoken and currently there are debates as whether the coastal peoples spoke a separate language "Eora" or whether this was actually a dialect of the Dharug language. Remnant bushland in places like Blackwattle Bay retain elements of traditional plant, bird and animal life, including fish and rock oysters.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today. All cities include many immigrants in their population. Aboriginal people from across the state have been attracted to suburbs such as Pyrmont, Balmain, Rozelle, Glebe and Redfern since the 1930s. Changes in government legislation in the 1960s provided freedom of movement enabling more Aboriginal people to choose to live in Sydney.

(Information sourced from Anita Heiss, "Aboriginal People and Place", Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani )

The Sydney Glebe lands were granted to the Church of England in 1789, and in 1828 “to relieve the pressing needs of clergy”, Glebe was subdivided into 28 allotments and all but three lots (numbers 7,8 and 28) were offered for sale. The Toxteth Estate comprises 4 lots from the 1828 subdivision of the Glebe. Lot 21 was acquired by AB Spark, and lots 22-24 were acquired by George Allen.Toxteth Park was built for George Allen in 1831, to the design of John Verge. Toxteth Park house consisted of a rectangular two-storey block with single-storey wings and a stone-flagged verandah which was laid around two sides of the house. Set at right angles, behind the main building, and facing a large paved courtyard, were the kitchen and servants’ quarters. Shortly after the completion of the house the Sydney Gazette described its ‘spacious garden, containing some hundreds of the choicest trees- and a tract of forest land capable of being converted into the most romantic pleasure grounds’. On George Allen’s death in 1877, George Wigram Allen, his son, moved into “Toxteth House” but not before making extensive alterations to the principal buildings of the estate under the superintendence of G.A. Mansfield somewhere between 1877 and 1881. This action must have had a large impact on the popular builders of the adjacent estates, for, the greater part of the Allen estate seems to have been sub-divided and built up from the early 1880s to the early 1900s employing the Italianate and elaborate variations of it during the 1880s and 1890s, while the late 1890s and 1900s came under the influence of a “Federation” style. George Allen, in his will, decreed that only private dwelling houses be built on the future subdivision of the estate, and that they be constructed out of either brick or stone. Being a devout Wesleyan, Allens covenant prevented alcohol being brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe. George Wigram Allen died in 1885. Subdivision of Toxteth Park had commenced in earnest in 1884 with 88 building sites offered for sale. In 1886, Mills & Pile offered forty-five allotments for sale in Wigram Road, measuring for the most part, twenty-five feet to thirty feet. One hundred and thirty-four ‘choice villa sites’ were offered in Boyce Street, Ross Street and Toxteth Road.

The 1828 subdivision made allowance for in roads into the Glebe; Bay Road and Glebe Road (Glebe Point Road) were created by cutting through bush, pulling out stumps and ‘filling in the largest of the holes’. Glebe Point Rd, or alternatively known as the Glebe Rd, opened up in 1829 as the initial exploitive action in the form of a tract with fence either side. This basic line of communication cut into the then dense forest covering the Glebe with only bush tracks made by drays penetrating off the Glebe Rd to the individual estates. A main influencing factor on the character of the subdivided areas of Toxteth Park Estate was the covenant, issued on the death of George Allen, in that being a devout Wesleyan no alcohol was to be brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development, no commercial development, and that any building be constructed out of brick of stone or both. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe.

The earliest subdivision plans of the Toxteth Estate show the land north of Toxteth Road as a paddock. An undated (c.1884) Mills & Pile subdivision Plan of the Toxteth Park Estate shows the site subdivided but not developed, and notes "Rev. A. Gardiner" on the lot. In 1884, Joseph Walker called tenders for the construction of a house for Gardiner on Glebe Point Road. Number 232 Glebe Point Road, "Paxton House" is first listed in the Sands Directory of 1885, occupied by Gardiner. The house is shown on the 1889/90 Metropolitan Detail Series Map, with large grounds to the north, where 232A is now situated. The site of Paxton house was later subdivided and Mayfair flats were constructed in c.1935.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Flats-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Forming the grounds of Paxton House (232 Glebe Point Road), Mayfair Flats provides evidence of the consolidation of the Toxteth Estate, and the changing social mix of Glebe due to the overlay of units in the Interwar period.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Finely detailed Interwar flat building. The building is significant for its contribution to the streetscape and as a good representative example of Art Deco flats of high integrity.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site has medium archaeological potential as an early Twentieth residence.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
A representative example of an Interwar flat building in a garden setting that impacts upon its streetscape.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should be included in the Heritage Schedule of the LEP. Subdivision should not occur. Consolidation of sites should not occur. The existing residential use of the site should continue. The building should not be painted. More appropriate infill to verandah openings, increased landscaping and a relocation of the letterboxes is desirable. This frontage survives intact and retention of original detailing, particularly face brickwork and lead light windows is strongly recommended.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I74514 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Statement of Heritage Significance & Statement of Heritage Impact2019 Nigel Parsons & Associates Architects  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City
WrittenBerchervaise & Associates1991Main Street Study

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2427832


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