House "Canonbury" including interior, front fence and front garden | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

House "Canonbury" including interior, front fence and front garden

Item details

Name of item: House "Canonbury" including interior, front fence and front garden
Other name/s: Canonbury
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Primary address: 242 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Local govt. area: Sydney
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
242 Glebe Point RoadGlebeSydney  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

The site and building provides evidence of the subdivision and development of the Toxteth Estate. The building's quality reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address at the turn of the century.

Canonbury is an outstanding example Federation Queen Anne style grand house with Art Nouveau influences. It is stylistically related to 244 Glebe Point Road and together they make a strong contribution to the streetscape. It reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address and the way in which social importance in late nineteenth century Sydney of English cultural references and Scottish baronial architecture.

The building has rarity significance as it provides evidence of "Scottish Baronial" federation residential.
Date significance updated: 14 Oct 13
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1906-1907
Physical description: The site and building provides evidence of Toxteth Estate. It isa A two-storey freestanding residence that dates from the Federation period within the key period of significance, set on a corner site that has retained its context. The building is setback from the street and the rear of the building in built to the alignment of Park Avenue. The site has an appropriate front fence of iron palisade and rock face stone approximately 1.5 metres high. The front garden is large and landscaped and features an offset concrete path and shrubs and provides an appropriate setting for the house. The original path remains however the original gate has been infilled.The façade presents a complex asymmetrical elevation and is constructed of tuck pointed face brick on a stone base course. The roof is hipped with a medium pitch, and has broad, exposed eaves. The roof is clad in terracotta tile and features a conical corner turret, shingled eyelid dormers, terracotta finial and roughest chimney and terracotta chimney pots. The verandah is bowed, corbelled and offset and has a bell cast profile. It is clad in terracotta tile and features painted timber balustrade, a timber shingle skirt painted, decorative columns at the lower level and tessellated tiles. The façade is features sandstone detail, some rough cast, projecting bays, decorative art nouveau plaster ornaments to turret. The front door is offset, recessed and is 5-panelled and glazed with leadlight fanlights and sidelight. Fenestration comprises vertically proportioned casement timber windows with some leadlight.

Alterations include a panel to verandah beam, the concrete path, the original path, and fence.According to Bernard Smith, "242 Glebe Point Road is one of the first important examples to appear in Glebe of a house in the new style. Built with exposed red brick and roofed with terracotta tiles, it makes good use of its corner site at Park Avenue and Glebe Point Road." The architect placed an oriel window, in the form of a small tourelle with a conical cap, in the north-eastern corner, commanding a view of the street. This motif, a not uncommon feature of the style, probably came to Australia as a result of Norman Shaw's interest in Scottish baronial architecture. According to Craig Burton "The towers moved into an octagonal form and gradually into a round form with conical roof (242 Glebe Point Road) in the Federation Style under the influence of Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts Movement from England ...It is interesting to note the possible development of this style through from [no 242] through "Hartford" and "Oswestry" chronologically. The tower as an independent element had evolved in the Italianate, as mentioned before, and the preference for location seemed to be the corner of the mass of the building in order to break the symmetry".
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The building appears to be in good condition and is highly intact externally.
Date condition updated:30 Oct 12
Further information: Under the provisions of Leichardt LEP 2000, the buildings at Nos 236-260 Glebe Point Road were listed under one heritage group listing sheet. In the Sydney LEP 2012, the group was divided with several individual and smaller groups’ listings; some were de-listed.

No 242 is given its own listing due to its distinct style and design from the others in the group.

Heritage Inventory sheets are often not comprehensive, and should be regarded as a general guide only. Inventory sheets are based on information available, and often do not include the social history of sites and buildings. Inventory sheets are constantly updated by the City as further information becomes available. An inventory sheet with little information may simply indicate that there has been no building work done to the item recently: it does not mean that items are not significant. Further research is always recommended as part of preparation of development proposals for heritage items, and is necessary in preparation of Heritage Impact Assessments and Conservation Management Plans, so that the significance of heritage items can be fully assessed prior to submitting development applications.
Current use: Residential
Former use: Residential

History

Historical notes: The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora.

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today.

The Sydney Glebe lands were granted to the Church of England in 1789, and in 1828 “to relieve the pressing needs of clergy”, Glebe was subdivided into 28 allotments and all but three lots (numbers 7,8 and 28) were offered for sale. The Toxteth Estate comprises 4 lots from the 1828 subdivision of the Glebe. Lot 21 was acquired by AB Spark, and lots 22-24 were acquired by George Allen.Toxteth Park was built for George Allen in 1831, to the design of John Verge. Toxteth Park house consisted of a rectangular two-storey block with single-storey wings and a stone-flagged verandah which was laid around two sides of the house. Set at right angles, behind the main building, and facing a large paved courtyard, were the kitchen and servants’ quarters. Shortly after the completion of the house the Sydney Gazette described its ‘spacious garden, containing some hundreds of the choicest trees- and a tract of forest land capable of being converted into the most romantic pleasure grounds’. On George Allen’s death in 1877, George Wigram Allen, his son, moved into “Toxteth House” but not before making extensive alterations to the principal buildings of the estate under the superintendence of G.A. Mansfield somewhere between 1877 and 1881. This action must have had a large impact on the popular builders of the adjacent estates, for, the greater part of the Allen estate seems to have been sub-divided and built up from the early 1880s to the early 1900s employing the Italianate and elaborate variations of it during the 1880s and 1890s, while the late 1890s and 1900s came under the influence of a “Federation” style. George Allen, in his will, decreed that only private dwelling houses be built on the future subdivision of the estate, and that they be constructed out of either brick or stone. Being a devout Wesleyan, Allens covenant prevented alcohol being brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe. George Wigram Allen died in 1885. Subdivision of Toxteth Park had commenced in earnest in 1884 with 88 building sites offered for sale. In 1886, Mills & Pile offered forty-five allotments for sale in Wigram Road, measuring for the most part, twenty-five feet to thirty feet. One hundred and thirty-four ‘choice villa sites’ were offered in Boyce Street, Ross Street and Toxteth Road. The 1828 subdivision made allowance for in roads into the Glebe; Bay Road and Glebe Road (Glebe Point Road) were created by cutting through bush, pulling out stumps and ‘filling in the largest of the holes’. Glebe Point Rd, or alternatively known as the Glebe Rd, opened up in 1829 as the initial exploitive action in the form of a tract with fence either side. This basic line of communication cut into the then dense forest covering the Glebe with only bush tracks made by drays penetrating off the Glebe Rd to the individual estates. A main influencing factor on the character of the subdivided areas of Toxteth Park Estate was the covenant, issued on the death of George Allen, in that being a devout Wesleyan no alcohol was to be brought on to the estate in the form of Hotel or Inn development, no commercial development, and that any building be constructed out of brick of stone or both. As a consequence of the covenants, the Glebe Point end as it became known was a very desirable and fashionable part of Sydney to live in, with some large houses being built along the Glebe Point Road around the turn of the century. These mainly belonged to a higher socio-economic group than would be found in the Church lands or other speculative pockets of the Glebe.

242 Glebe Point Road was first listed in the Sands Directory of 1907 and occupied by Daniel Clarke. The building was then known as ‘Canonbury’. The dwelling is mistakenly referred to as 'Lasswade' c.1893 in several texts. The Sands Directory, city engineers maps and the style of the building all confirm that 'Lasswade' was indeed No. 240.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The site and building provides evidence of the subdivision and development of the Toxteth Estate.The building has historical significance for its ability to evidence Federation development on the Estate. The building's quality reflects the development of Glebe Point Road as a prestige address at the turn of the century. At the time it was built it made a significant contribution to the development of the Toxteth Estate as a precinct.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Significant for its association with the development transport node. Reflects the importance of the Allen family in shaping the area.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
An outstanding example of Art Nouveau/ Federation Queen Anne style grand house. The building is significant for its contribution to the streetscape as a landmark and group values with 'Hartford' at No. 244 Glebe Point Road Reflects the way in which social importance in late nineteenth century Sydney of English cultural references and Scottish baronial architecture.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The building is a rare and outstanding example of a highly intact original Federation residential exterior and interior of high quality design with outstanding potential to be restored with minimum effort. It has a high quality of design intention noted for its use of the round tower element.

The building has rarity significance as it provides evidence of "Scottish Baronial" federation residential.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The building is representative of the grand villas built in Glebe Point aroudn the turn of the 20th century.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The building should bereamin in the Heritage Schedule of the LEP and be protected by the Conservation Area Listing. The building should be retained and conserved. A Heritage Assessment and Heritage Impact Statement, or a Conservation Management Plan, should be prepared for the building prior to any major works being undertaken. There shall be no vertical additions to the building and no alterations to the façade of the building other than to reinstate original features. The principal room layout and planning configuration as well as significant internal original features including ceilings, cornices, joinery, flooring and fireplaces should be retained and conserved. Any additions and alterations should be confined to the rear in areas of less significance, should not be visibly prominent and shall be in accordance with the relevant planning controls. Subdivision should not occur. Consolidation of sites should not occur. The existing use of the site should continue.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental PlanSydney LEP 2012I74914 Dec 12   
Heritage study     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Statement of Heritage Significance & Statement of Heritage Impact2019 Nigel Parsons & Associates Architects  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAnita Heiss Aboriginal People and Place, Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City View detail
WrittenBerchervaise & Associates1991Main Street Study
WrittenCraig Burton1979Housing the Glebe
WrittenNational Trust of Australia, NSW Classification Cards
WrittenSmith, Bernard and Kate1989The Architectural Character of Glebe, Sydney,

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2427836


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