Cataract Dam | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Cataract Dam

Item details

Name of item: Cataract Dam
Other name/s: Cataract Dams & Pumping Station
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Utilities - Water
Category: Water Supply Reservoir/ Dam
Location: Lat: 0 Long: 0
Primary address: Cataract Dam Rd, Appin, NSW
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Cataract Dam RdAppinWollondilly  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

The Cataract Dam was completed in 1907 and is the first of the four water supply dams in the Metropolitan Catchment Area constructed between 1903 and 1936 to provide a secure water supply to satisfy the demands of industrial, commercial and residential development of metropolitan Sydney up to c.1960. The dam wall is unique in Australia in regard to its construction, its high and straight upstream face, construction of cyclopean masonry, crest parapet, concrete valve house superstructure, and screen tower precast concrete facing blocks.
The Cataract Dam is part of a group of like structures which are the State's largest and most intact ensemble of large dams completed prior to the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electricity Scheme.
The dam contains in-situ items of Federation era water delivery technologies developed by the Public Works Department that are unique such as the lengths of iron discharge pipes, and system of penstocks, and valve tower water inlet system. The site of the Cataract Dam contains a number of resident maintenance men's cottages and a residence used by board members of the Water Board that collectively continue to evoke the manner in which the dam was maintained and emphasise the importance of the dam to successive generations of management of the Water Board.
The dam is a landmark that has engendered beautification works undertaken from the 1910s and again in the 1960s for the general visiting public through the picnic areas and for the management hierarchy of the Water Board in the Manor (former Official Quarters).
The setting of the dam's picnic grounds within the plantations of pine trees amidst native bushland of the catchment is one of the most attractive of the Metropolitan Dams.
The site of the Cataract Dam contains areas which with archaeological examination may reveal new information about the construction era of the dam.
The Cataract Dam is associated by sections of the wider community as an integral part of the history of water supply for metropolitan Sydney. The grounds of the dam being associated with the local and regional community as a place of passive recreation.

The four dams of the Metropolitan Catchment were completed between 1907 and 1936 and collectively represent the largest major water supply scheme undertaken in New South Wales in the first half of the twentieth century, and are one of the major engineering feats undertaken in Australia at any time.
The construction of the system of dams marked a natural progression from the Upper Nepean Water Supply Scheme which was inaugurated in the 1880s as the principle water supply source for metropolitan Sydney. The construction of the dams in providing for security of water supply ensured the continued industrial, commercial and residential development of metropolitan Sydney up to the 1950s.
The design and construction of the dams was principally under the one Government authority - the Water Supply and Sewerage Branch of the NSW Department of Public Works. This Branch was led at different periods by two of Australia's leading water supply engineers - Leslie A.B. Wade and Ernest M. de Burgh. The dams present a major legacy for present and future generations of the work of this Branch and the role of the Public Works Department in general played in the development of the State.
The effective long-tem management of the Metropolitan Dams by the Water Board, expressed through continuation of water supply use and on going development of the grounds for passive recreational use, represents a major episode in the history of this government department.
The completion of the dams necessitated the introduction of overseas derived forms of construction technologies that were subsequently developed as standard practice in major civil engineering works. Similarly, the technologies of water delivery required for the dams were on a scale and complexity hitherto unseen in New South Wales. Collectively there is no larger resource for the investigation of such pre Second World War era technologies and construction methods in New South Wales.
Date significance updated: 25 Mar 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Public Works Department
Construction years: 1907-1907
Physical description: The dam is built of cyclopean masonry, composed of sandstone blocks weighing from two to four and a half tons. These were quarried at the site and bedded in cement mortar. The vertical joints were filled with basalt or sandstone concrete. The upstream face consisted of basalt concrete moulded blocks set in a cement mortar. The downstream face was of basalt concrete, 1.8m thick in the lower section and 0.9m thick in the upper section. There were two lines of 122cm diameter pipes which passed through the dam and discharged water into the river. The flow is controlled by a Larner Johnson Needle valve., The dam wall was given a decorative finish. The upstream parapet was castellated with sandstone blocks while the top of the downstream wall was corbelled in concrete. In approximately the mid section of the dam, stands the valve house. This is finished in quarried sandstone blocks with ashlar coursing. It features a steeply pitched slate covered pipped roof topped with finials and gables at either side. , The total cost of construction of the dam was 329136 pounds ($658,272) when the dam was handed over to the Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board. The reservoir was filled to capacity for the first time on 13 January 1911. However, it was realised that the spillway should be widened to avoid the risk of floodwaters overtopping the wall. This work was completed in 1915. During the construction of the dam, extensive use was made of electricity on site, and production line techniques for the quarrying of stone blocks were used for the first time., The water from cataract is discharged into the Cataract River downstream to Broughton's Pass. From here it is diverted into the Cataract tunnel, the first of the Upper Canal structures by which it is conveyed to Prospect reservoir.
Further information: The Cataract Dam is the first and oldest of the great dams of the Upper Nepean River, tamed to provide water for the growing population of Sydney.

One of the major tributaries of the Nepean River, the Cataract River rises in the mountains along the escarpment above Wollongong and flows inward - north towards Appin, west towards Wilton, then north again to join the Nepean near Douglas Park.

As the name implies, it flows much of its course through deep cataracts and ravines, hidden among the rough countryside except at Broughton Pass - on the road between Appin and Wilton - where it was forded in colonial times.

One of the world's great engineering feats.

Broughton Pass was on the first of the great south roads from the early colony of Sydney (1810s) and the upper reaches of the Cataract were probably first explored over a century and three quarters ago.

The great gorges further south no doubt inspired engineers to build the first of the great dams for Sydney, the Cataract - completed in 1907.

When built it was the largest engineering project ever undertaken in Australia, and the fourth largest engineering project of its type in the world.
The Dam Wall

Falls on the spillway - A scenic wonderland.

Close to Sydney, Cataract quickly became a haven for sightseers, and the owners - the then Metropolitan Water, Sewerage, and Drainage Board - were proud to show it off to daytrippers.

In those days man-made marvels were as popular as anything that nature could show to rival them, all the more so because they showed man's mastery over the environment.

(It's hard to imagine that only a century ago people were still coming to grips with the great advances of the industrial revolution.)

National engineering landmark.

The dam wall itself is actually of primitive construction (monolithic sandstone blocks blasted out of the surrounding cliffs) combined with then modern concrete technology for the facings.

The builders, Lane & Peters, topped the structure with sandstone crenellations and a sort of Victorian-Edwardian transition building housing the controlling mechanisms for the outfall.

The MWS&DB completed this marvel by building a vast picnic area hewn from the bush, with pathways, staircases, grottos, lookouts, and landscaped gardens to give the site a veneer of civilisation.
Picnic areas

Room for everyone - THE family picnic destination.

A trip to Cataract would have been a grand day's outing in the early part of the C20th.

Added to and rebuilt over the years, there are now sufficient picnic facilities to cater for hundreds of families.

There are over 30 barbecue areas; 40 tables with benches; 3 undercover areas with BBQs, tables, hot and cold water for up to 40 people each; 3 clean and modern toilet blocks (paper supplied!) plus disabled facilities; a modern children's playground; heaps of garbage and recycling points; and acres of lawns for the kids to play on.

Get close to nature.

Our Edwardian forebears would have felt right at home here: the bush rolled back to allow for lawns and gardens; the rockeries and ferneries along the many bordered pathways and staircases down to the lookouts; little garden nooks to relax in at ease.

Close to the bush, but not too close for the city sensibilities of earlier times.

Today we feel more comfortable with the many native shrubs and flowers planted in the formerly exotic gardens.

(The grand homestead on the way to the dam is now a Conference Centre - unfortunately, not open to the public).


The spillway - Technical details.

Cataract Dam. Completed 1907. Basalt concrete faced sandstone masonry block.

The wall is 811 feet across, 684 feet high, 156 feet wide at base and 16 feet at top.

Dam is 950 feet above sea level, and when full the lake is 150 feet deep, 2,104 acres in area.

Average annual rainfall in catchment 56" per year.

The marvel visitors cannot see is that the waterflow is controlled into the river to a weir at Broughton Pass.

From here it is diverted through 2 miles of the Cataract Tunnel to the Upper Canal (about halfway between Appin and Douglas Park) where it flows some 57kms by gravity to the Prospect Water Filtration Plant near Prospect Reservoir.

From the water filtration plant it is reticulated throughout the city.

How to get there.

From Sydney. Take the M5 south from Sydney, then the Campbelltown exit.

To get to the Cataract Dam, take the bypass around Campbelltown southwards to Appin Road (southern outskirts of the city). At Appin turn left towards Wollongong. About 6 kilometres on, turn right then travel 4 kms to the Dam (all weather road.)

From Wollongong. Take the freeway north towards Sydney, then the Appin/Campbelltown turnoff; follow for about 15 minutes until you come to the Cataract Dam turnoff on your left. Follow road about 4kms to dam (all weather road.)

From Goulburn/Canberra. Take the freeway towards Sydney. About twenty minutes past the Mittagong turnoff to the Highlands, (just past the Roadhouse at Pheasant's Nest), take the Wilton/Wollongong exit. Turn right at the overpass, then follow for about 5 minutes then turn left to Wilton. Turn right at Wilton, following signs to Appin, down Broughton's Pass (your first glimpse of the Cataract River). At Appin turn right towards Wollongong. About 6 kilometres on, turn right then travel 4 kms to the Dam (all weather road.)

Cataract Dam is open 7 days a week 10.00am to 5.00pm. (Closes 7.00pm on weekends and Public Holidays during Daylight Saving Time.) Entrance is free.

For more information contact the Sydney Catchment Authority on (02) 4640 1200 during business hours Monday to Friday contact 13 20 52 or see their website - www.sca.nsw.gov.au.
Current use: Water supply reservoir
Former use: Water supply reservoir

History

Historical notes: The Upper Nepean Scheme was commenced in 1880 after it was realised that the Botany Scheme was insufficient to meet Sydney's water supply needs. The Nepean project consisted of the construction of a weir across the Nepean River to divert of the rivers, Cataract, Cordeaux, Avon and Nepean, to the Prospect Reservoir. By 1902, the population had grown to 523,000 and a severe drought caused the water level in Prospect Reservoir to drop below the limit of gravitational flow to the canal. This drought was the worst experienced by the Water Board since its inception in 1888. The seriousness of the situation moved the Government in March 1902, to appoint a Royal Commission to inquire into and report upon the Sydney water supply system. The major finding was that a storage dam be constructed to a point just below the junction of Cataract Creek with Cataract River. The Act authorising the construction of the dam was passed in 1902, providing for a wall 48.7m high. The dam was built by the Public Works Department and the construction contract was let to Lane and Peters. The Principal Assistant Engineer, EM DeBurgh, was given special responsibility for construction. By June 1903, much of the area to be submerged had been cleared of timber and by the end of the year the foundation excavations were in progress.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Water Supply-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Cataract Dam is located within the Upper Nepean Catchment Area which was developed with the completion of the Cataract and Nepean tunnels in 1888, as the fourth source of water supply for Sydney. The potential of the Upper Nepean Catchment Area to supply water was fully developed through the construction of four major dams between 1903 and 1936. Cataract Dam is the first of these dams to have been completed. The Upper Nepean Catchment Area continues to supply the regions of Sydney and the Illawarra, with Cataract Dam providing a supply to the Sydney, region.
Cataract Dam was the first of the major water supply/irrigation dams constructed in New South Wales. The completion of the dam necessitated the introduction of methods of construction hitherto unseen in NSW in regard to dam engineering. The practices of construction developed at Cataract Dam set the pattern for the completion of all subsequent dams in NSW up to the 1940s.
Up until the completion of Cordeaux Dam in 1926, the impounded water of the Cataract Catchment Area provided the main reserve source of water for domestic and industrial consumption in metropolitan Sydney, the largest city in NSW.
In providing water for metropolitan Sydney during this era the dam, in ensuring security of supply, contributed to the extensive residential, commercial and industrial development of Sydney during the first decades of the twentieth century.
Cataract Dam is one of five dams situated in the local government area of Wollondilly, representing a major theme in the historical development of the area.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The design and construction of Cataract Dam was undertaken by the Water Supply and Sewerage Branch and Harbour and Rivers Branch of the New South Wales Public Works Department. The construction of the dam necessitated the dedication of the knowledge and experience of a number of engineers employed in the branches at the time including Cecil W. Darley (NSW Inspecting Engineer in London), Leslie A.B. Wade (Principal Engineer, Water Supply and Sewerage Branch), Henry H. Dare and Ernest M. de Burgh (Supervising Engineers). The successful completion of the dam and its continuation of use as a water supply dam are a lasting testament to the professional capabilities of the late Victorian/Edwardian era generation of engineers of the Public Works Department. The association of Thomas W. Keele with the initial dam proposal, and the subsequent problems associated with the cost and the ongoing Royal Commissions into the project was immortalised through Banjo Patterson’s poem ‘The Dam that Keele Built’.
The Manor was purpose built in 1910 as the quasi-private domain of the board members of the Water Board. The building and its grounds have particular associations with past identities of the Board.
The island and inlets of Lake Cataract are associated with past identities of the Water Board through memorialisation of their surnames. A well known example is Keele Island named after Thomas Keele, the president of the former Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and Sewerage at the time of the dam’s construction.
The construction of Cataract Dam between the years 1903 and 1907 necessitated the employment of a large body of labourers and tradesmen who lived at the construction sites with their families. The number of residents at ‘Cataract Village’ was upward of 1500, a number which represents a major influx to the local, predominantly rural, population of the local area.
The ongoing maintenance and supervision of Cataract Dam has been undertaken by generations of resident maintenance men. It is a pattern of working life that is of considerable interest in regard to the history of the local area.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The wall of Cataract Dam is an engineering work imbued with a sense of high aesthetic value expressed through a well proportioned high and straight wall set within the gorge of the Cataract River.
The design and finishes of the crest house, albeit substantially reconstructed c.1953, parapet and abutments were undertaken by the Government Architect’s Branch of the Department of Public Works, at that time under Walter Liberty Vernon. It exhibits stylistic traits which evoke the era of its construction and impart a park-like appearance to the dam.
The Manor, completed in 1910, is dramatically set within the platform of the cableway and quarry used in the construction of the dam. The sense of elevation and axial relationship to the wall is accentuated by the adjoining drive which is flanked by an avenue of Phoenix palms and Jacarandas and the flight of concrete and stone steps which provide the principle means of access to the wall. There is a high level of design and awareness in the planning of the grounds and the association with the Botanic Gardens in the layout and selection of species is of considerable note.
The Manor, which is constructed in stone and finished internally to a very high (almost vice-regal) standard, is complemented by four near contemporary stone workmen’s family cottages and a 1920s brick resident officer’s residence which are equally designed and finished to a high quality.
The dam is set within the valley of Cataract River; upstream of the dam wall there is a substantial area of native bushland characterised by the broad expanse of the pool of water bordered by the crests of the valley sides and Keele Island. Downstream of the dam wall the setting is characterised by the steeper inclines that graduate into the gorge created by the river’s flow over time. This topography in times of high water level imparts a picturesque scene viewed from selective vantage points above and on the dam wall.
The adjoining hill of approach to the dam is laid out with a plantation of Monterey pines, which in juxtaposition with the paths, drives, culverts, steps and cottages impart a park-like setting.
The grounds of the dam retain a major repository of planting and design which is evocative of post 1960s urban landscape practice in the local area, and are a reflection of the requirements of evolving recreation patterns undertaken in a manner which respects former construction era landscaping patterns.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The dam and grounds are recognised by the National Trust of Australia (N.S.W) as being a place which is part of the cultural environment of Australia which has aesthetic, historical, architectural, archaeological, scientific, social significance for future generations as well as for the present community of New South Wales.
The dam and grounds are recognised by the Heritage Council of NSW as a place which is of significance to New South Wales in relation to its historical, scientific, cultural, social, archaeological, natural and aesthetic values.
The dam wall is recognised by as an engineering feat of national significance by the Institution of Engineers Australia.
The dam wall and to a lesser extent the grounds are recognised on the Register of the National Estate as a place which is a component of the cultural environment of Australia that has aesthetic, historic, scientific and social significance for future generations as well as for the present day local community.
The dam and grounds are recognised by Wollondilly Shire Council as being part of the historic built environment of the local area.
The grounds of the Cataract Dam have provided a centre of recreational amenity for the region for a considerable period of time (from c.1910s). The picnic and lookout areas of the dam represent one of the major tourist destinations in the local area.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The grounds of the dam contain a yard of valves removed from Cataract and Woronora Dams, and items of plant and machinery used during the construction and maintenance of the Upper Canal.
The hillside overlooking the dam was the site of the original construction village and retains steps and engravings cut within the rock outcrops dating from this era.
The cyclopean masonry of the dam is an excellent example of this type of gravity dam construction and demonstrates the principle characteristics of this technology.
The lower valve house completed in 1907 and extended in 1913 is a unique early example of its type and demonstrates the principle characteristics of the design of such structures.
The water supply system completed in 1907 retains its gallery and rising main chamber in the dam wall which demonstrate the principle characteristics of the design of such a delivery system.
The grounds of the dam retain numerous tree plantings undertaken from the time of the completion of the dam and Manor in 1910. Collectively the diversity of these trees are an invaluable record of past horticultural practices.
Terraces and platforms adjoining the dam abutments demarcate the location of plant used in the construction of the dam, in particular the location of the cableway head tower.
The submerged basin of the reservoir is likely to retain remnant plant and equipment used during the construction of the dam, such as cuttings and terraces of the tramway.
The site of the dam retains a number of known archaeological sites which are associated with the dam construction and later upgrading of the spillway. These sites include a large curved masonry dam on a tributary of Cataract Creek off the Appin/Bulli Road, a potential stone quarry, the formation of a roadway adjacent to the road of access, powder magazines on Keele Island and on the adjoining west abutment of the dam wall, and fireplaces, horse yard drains and powder magazines on the abutment adjoining the spillway.
The catchment area in being relatively untouched bushland in close proximity to a major urban area has a high potential for further research into natural ecosystems.
The museum and associated records and displays provide an important interpretative role in the local area for an understanding of the historical development of the Upper Nepean Catchment Area and Upper Canal.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Cataract Dam was the first major dam situated within a large water supply catchment area constructed in NSW.
Cataract Dam is the oldest large cyclopean masonry dam constructed in Australia, and is believed to have been the largest work of its kind at the time of completion in the Southern Hemisphere.
The straight cyclopean masonry wall is unique within the context of other large cyclopean masonry dams constructed in NSW.
The lower valve house (completed in stages up to 1915) is the earliest and largest structure of its type constructed in NSW.
The screen tower (completed in 1907) is the earliest structure of its type constructed in NSW and includes a unique water intake system.
The crest house and valve tower retain unique penstock gate and operating gear (capstan connecting shafts and gate) examples of this type of machinery in NSW.
The terraces used in the construction of the dam represent the first of their type in NSW and are associated with a number of technological innovations such as the first cableways used in NSW.
The plant and equipment used in the construction was electrically driven, which was unique in NSW in regard to the date, extent of the installation and remoteness.
The dam retains items of ironwork which are part of the original water delivery system which are unique in NSW in regard to their date.
The building of the dam represents a unique episode in the history of NSW in being the subject of a number of Royal Commissions made into the building and cost of the project. The Commissions are likely to have influenced the method of construction of later dams.
The latter stages of the construction of Cataract Dam was completed by contractors Land and Peters. Cataract Dam is the only cyclopean masonry dam designed by the Public Works Department but completed under contract.
Cataract Dam is arguably the most decorative of all the major dams constructed in NSW in regard to its high standard of rusticated stone finishes on the crest wall, abutments and crest house, the ashlar pattern imparted by the precast concrete blocks on the straight upstream face of the wall, the unadorned functionality of the concrete facing to the inclined downstream face and lower valve house, and the setting of the high straight wall within the landscape of the Cataract River gorge.
The crest house and complementary elements such as the articulated arches on the crest wall in their innate sense of scale and composition rank with the best of all public works in NSW undertaken in the Federation era.
The four stone workmen’s family cottages constructed in 1912, and the 1929 brick officer-in-charge residence, consciously sited on the hillside overlooking the dam wall, impart a village like appearance which is unique within the context of dams in NSW.
The four stone maintenance men’s cottages are likely to be rare, within the context of a non-urban environment, Federation era examples of model working men’s houses.
The grounds of the dam contain an early 36 inch (0.9m) diameter gate valve (manufacturer not known) which was used to regulate the outlet flow of water which is considered the only extant example of such a valve in NSW.
The upgrading works to the spillway and dam between 1981 and 1989 to make the dam meet modern day safety requirements were undertaken in consideration of the unique heritage significance of the dam in NSW ensuring no visual impact on the dam, a milestone in remedial engineering works on this scale.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Cataract Dam is representative of a type of dam (cyclopean masonry gravity dam) constructed in New South Wales by the Water Supply and Sewerage Branch of the Public Works Department during the first half of the twentieth century. Key representative attributes of the dam's design and construction include the use of cyclopean masonry bedded in sandstone concrete, use of blue metal concrete facing, use of a spillway offset from the gravity wall, valve/crest houses attractively designed and finished to a high standard.
The upgrading of the valves within the dam wall and ancillary monitoring and operating equipment is representative of modern day safe operating practice.
The construction technologies used at Cataract Dam came to be the norm for all subsequent dams constructed in New South Wales well into the twentieth century. Key representative attributes of the dam’s construction techniques include the use of cableways, the building of temporary camps to house labourers and tradesmen, building of semi permanent cottages to house salaried staff, the construction of terraced platforms for plant and machinery, mechanisms of concrete production, the construction of a purpose built road of access to transport men, supplies and materials from the nearest railhead to the construction site, the building of permanent infrastructure such as water supply for plant and men and horses, and the use of electricity to power plant and equipment.
The rehabilitation of tracts of land scarred in the construction processes employed at Cataract Dam through beautification work is representative of practices undertaken at other dams throughout New South Wales. Key representative attributes of this practice include utilising the former camp as a picnic area, utilising the former terraced construction platforms as picnic areas and lookouts, and utilising the former construction roads and tramway for vehicular access to the dam site and dam wall.
The practice of ongoing maintenance of the Cataract Dam wall by resident staff and workshop facilities is representative of procedures undertaken at other dams and weirs constructed prior to and after Cataract.
The provision of public amenity at the dam site is representative of the use of large water supply and irrigation dams in New South Wales as places for recreation by the greater community.
Cataract Dam is one of about twelve items of recognised heritage significance associated with the provision of water supply to metropolitan Sydney located in the local government area of Wollondilly. This comparatively high number results from extensive tracts and sections of the Upper Nepean Catchment Area and Upper Canal and the Warragamba Catchment Area being located within this local government area.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementMetropolitan Dams CMP Jun 27 2003

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Local Environmental Plan  23 Aug 91 1197233

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Macarthur Region Heritage Study1985    No
Wollondilly Heritage Study1992WO0211JRC Planning ServicesJRC Yes
Wollondilly Shire Council Heritage Study Review20062690211Andrea OehmAndrea Oehm Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1985Water Board Diary
WrittenAird, W1961The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney
WrittenGraham Brooks & Associates Pty Ltd1996Sydney Water Heritage Study
WrittenMcCarthy, K1973Light Railways No,43
WrittenNick Jackson, Matthew Taylor and Jon Breen2003Metropolitan Dams Conservation Management Plan Vol. 2 Cataract Dam

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Local Government
Database number: 2690211


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