Hfa 1171 - Second-class Brake 'American' Car | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Hfa 1171 - Second-class Brake 'American' Car

Item details

Name of item: Hfa 1171 - Second-class Brake 'American' Car
Other name/s: Bb 1171, Fa 1171
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Broadmeadow Locomotive Depot, Broadmeadow, NSW 2292
Local govt. area: Newcastle
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Broadmeadow Locomotive DepotBroadmeadowNewcastle  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has heritage significance, as it is one of the relatively few surviving examples of the 'American-style' end-platform cars of the early twentieth century which were a common form of railway passenger vehicle on the NSW railway system. It illustrates the adoption of American design and construction techniques by the NSW Railways in the late nineteenth century and demonstrates the use of late nineteenth century features of carriage construction in its materials and design, particularly the use of timber for carriage underframes, into the early years of the twentieth century. It has performed as part of the early and mid-twentieth century suburban railway services in NSW and has strong period aesthetic qualities. The alterations to the car demonstrate how the railways adapted carriages in line with technological and commercial conditions. The car is one of the relatively few surviving examples of a redundant series of NSW Railway passenger vehicles. It is one of nineteen remaining examples of this type of Sydney suburban carriage, of which 856 entered service on the NSW Railways from 1877 to 1916.
Date significance updated: 18 Dec 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: NSW Government Railways
Builder/Maker: Clyde Engineering Ltd, Clyde, NSW
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Brake car HFA 1171 is a non-air-conditioned, second class suburban sitting carriage with Guard’s accommodation, riding on two bogies. The car has a timber body with a two-truss timber underframe sheathed with masonite and plywood sheeting. The carriage can be entered via the end platforms fitted with safety gates, which are accessible on both sides and from the adjacent carriage. It has a Mansard roof with canopy ends.

INTERNAL
The interior features a single seating saloon with a central aisle and a guard’s compartment and toilet at one end. The carriage features timber wall panelling and the ceiling is lined with longitudinal painted timber boards. The carriage has wooden framed single pane lift windows with timber shutters. The saloon has double roll over vinyl covered seats, small wire luggage racks, pendant light fittings, and water bottle and cup holders. The toilet compartment has a porcelain corner wash basin and toilet bowl with a wooden seat, a mirror is fitted to the wall, and there is an overhead gravity fed water tank. The guard’s compartment is fitted with a single padded seat, bench seat, table, electrical train lighting control board and emergency jack and equipment box. The floor is built of timber and covered with lino, with the exception of the Guard's compartment, which has single timber slats covering the floor.

MECHANICAL
Riding on two steel, timber spring-plank 2SB bogies with 8' x 4' plain journal bearings, oil filled axle-boxes and 4 spoked wheeled axles. The vehicle is fitted with Westinghouse air braking system, consisting of a 3 ½ inch (Bulb) triple valve and 12 inch brake cylinder acting on brake rigging to apply two brake shoes located on the outside of each axle. A mechanical hand brake on a pedestal mount is fitted on the end platform outside guard’s compartment. The vehicle is fitted with short linked hooked draw gear, standard passenger buffers on the No.2 end and short buffers on the No.1 end. There are two steel framed timber battery boxes hung from the underframe as well as an electrical distribution board and belt driven 24v generator.

Length 15.85m
Width 2.83m
Height 3.68m
Tare 20t
Capacity 44 Economy Passengers
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Operational
General Condition: Good Condition
External Condition: Good Condition
Internal Condition: Good Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
The external condition of the body is good with no major structural damage evident. There is minor cracking present in hardwood body components however this is common to these vehicles and does not affect structural integrity. Sections of the letterboard have rot present and require patching. The body sides have been sheathed with plywood and appear in good condition, however screw blow out is evident and requires patching and filling. The carriage's wooden framed single pane lift windows are in poor external condition requiring immediate action to prevent water penetration and decay. End platform decking has been replaced with plywood sheeting, with the end bulkheads, doors and canopy ceilings structurally sound and well sealed with paint. The roof is complete and sound with all ventilators present and secure. The platform steelwork, and railings are complete and in good condition.

The two-truss timber underframe is in sound condition with the timber headstocks and platform frame members exhibiting no structural damage. Truss rods are secure with the underframe and body appearing straight and parallel. There is general road grime over the whole underframe with minor surface corrosion on steel components. The 2SB bogies appear complete with spoke wheels retaining an acceptable profile and wear. The timber bolsters and spring planks appear sound with no cracking evident. Minor surface corrosion and heavy road grime are present.

External finish condition can be linked to past restoration work undertaken with the roof. Emerclad grey membrane and black painted gutter strips are 95% complete and serviceable, while the vehicle's sides have 85% paint coverage though in a chalky condition with exposed timber where screws have blown out. The letterboards and cover mould paint system is failing in places, letting water in and exacerbating the spread of rot. Window paint coverage is approximately 65% with many areas exhibiting peeling paint and exposed timber. End bulkheads, doors and canopy ceilings exhibit good surface finishes with no cracking or peeling paint present. End platforms, stairs and steelwork have a good coverage of paint in serviceable condition. Underframe components having less than 40% of their original black painted finish present, under heavy road grime.

Westinghouse air brake equipment is complete and operational while the remaining running gear, axle boxes and wheels are heavily encrusted with dirt and oil and although intact their condition is unknown, however this vehicle has been moved by rail to the current location in April 2009. The mechanical hand brake on a pedestal mount fitted on the platform outside the guard’s compartment is operational.

The vehicle is fitted with hooked draw gear and passenger buffers, which are, complete and secure. The are two steel framed timber battery boxes hung from the underframe are secure and complete with no rot evident. The belt driven 24v generator is complete although the leather belt is missing.

INTERNAL CONDITION
Internally the vehicle is in good condition exhibiting many original features, with all seats, windows, timber shutters, and doors complete and operational. The interior timber linings are sound and complete with little minor cracking and movement present. The floor is in sound condition beneath the failing brown linoleum covering. The toilet compartment is complete with all fittings appearing to be operational. The guard’s compartment is in good condition with all linings complete and painted. Some slats are missing from the timber shutters in the guard’s compartment. All internal surfaces are covered with a build up of dirt and grime.

Internally this vehicle exhibits good sound surface painted finishes 85% intact although suffering from service soiling, dirt and grime. The ceiling's Manilla paint finish is intact with minor peeling. The seat vinyl shows sign of minor cracking beneath a heavy layer of dust. The toilet paint finishes are sound with minor peeling and staining associated with water damage evident. The guard’s compartment finishes are more heavily soiled than those in the rest of the vehicle due to usage, however they are serviceable with 85% paint coverage.

The timber window shutters are complete and operational though soiled, with a number in the guard’s compartment missing slats that require replacement. The saloon double roll over vinyl covered seats are complete and operational, however the vinyl covering and frames are under a thick layer of dirt. Luggage racks, pendant lighting and water bottle holders are complete and secure. The toilet fittings, washbasin, mirror and toilet are complete and operational. The guard’s compartments single padded seat, bench seat, table, electrical train lighting control board, emergency jack and equipment box are complete.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Paint on body may contain lead due to age of vehicle.
Date condition updated:11 Nov 09
Modifications and dates: March 1907 - Entered service as BB 1171, a first-class independent American open saloon end-platform car.
December 1927 - Carriage fitted for electric lighting which included installing a belt driven axle generator and two battery boxes to hold 12 x2 volt carriage lighting batteries.
May 1941 - Modified to a second class car, and re-entered service as FA 1171.
November 1970 - Modifications including brake ends, guard's compartment, toilet and seating for 44 passengers. Re-coded to HFA
Further information: The design and construction of these vehicles makes their outside storage for any period of time extremely damaging to their timber components. Immediate action must be taken to move these vehicles into undercover storage before damage becomes irreversible. The fact that the NSWGR always stored these vehicles in carriage sheds even when in service should be recognised by the current custodians and taken into account when deciding on future locations for the storage of these extremely significant and historic vehicles.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Suburban locomotive hauled passenger carriage

History

Historical notes: Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 was built by Clyde Engineering Ltd as part of contract 3/06 for car sets 39-42, plus 10 loose cars, and entered service in March, 1907 as BB1171, a first-class independent American open saloon end-platform car. Electric lighting was fitted to the vehicle in December 1927 when it was included in Set 18. Removed from this set and modified by Eveleigh Carriage Workshops to a second class car it re-entered service in May 1941 as FA 1171. Out of use by May 1967 FA 1171 was again modified in 1970 with brake ends, guard’s compartment, toilet and seating for 44 passengers to replace HBB219 as terminal car in set 33 and re-coded HFA1171. It was withdrawn from service and condemned in December 1974, being transferred to the Rail Transport Museum as part of Set 33 for heritage operations. Between 1975 and 2008 this vehicle was used as part of Set 33 on heritage excursions. In April 2009 HFA 1171 was transferred by rail to Broadmeadow.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Creation of railway towns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Railway workshops-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has historical significance. The carriage is significant as one of the 'American-style' end-platform cars of the early twentieth century which were a common form of railway passenger vehicle on the NSW railway system. It is a relic of the adoption of American design and construction techniques by the NSW Railways in the late nineteenth century, and illustrates the use of late nineteenth century features of carriage construction in its materials and design, particularly the use of timber for carriage underframes.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has aesthetic significance. The carriage is an example of the stylistic approaches in vogue at the time of its construction, particularly the influence of American carriage design upon the Chief Mechanical Engineer E. E. Lucy. The decorative style utilised in the carriage is now out of fashion and the vehicle provides a physical record of this style.

Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has technical significance. Its exterior remains close to its original configuration and provides comparative evidence of the original manufacturing arrangements for American carriages of the late nineteenth century. The carriage is significant as one of the last to be built with a timber underframe and is a good example of timber carriage construction.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has research significance. The carriage has the potential to reveal information regarding late-nineteenth / early twentieth century timber railway carriage design and construction.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 has a moderate level of rarity significance. The car is one of the relatively few surviving examples of a redundant series of NSW Railway passenger vehicles. It is one of nineteen remaining examples of this type of Sydney suburban carriage, of which 856 entered service on the NSW Railways from 1877 to 1916.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 is an excellent representative example of the materials, appearance and methods of construction of railway carriages of the period in which it was constructed. The interior contains representative examples of the accommodation provided for travel on the NSW Railways. The carriage illustrates the standard of accommodation that was provided for passengers in a typical Sydney suburban train at the turn of the twentieth century, and the modifications made to meet the travel needs of its operating life.
Integrity/Intactness: Second-Class Brake 'American' Car HFA 1171 retains a high level of integrity and intactness. The carriage retains a large amount of original material, and remains virtually unchanged from the date of its final modification in 1970.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Assessment2000    No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenCooke, D; Estell. D; Seckold, D; Beckhaus. J.1999Coaching Stock of the NSW Railways
WrittenDepartment of Railways New South Wales Railway Institute Rail Carriage Building Trade Theory

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807061


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