Cph 18 - Rail Motor | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Cph 18 - Rail Motor

Item details

Name of item: Cph 18 - Rail Motor
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Thirlmere Railway Precinct, Thirlmere, NSW 2572
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Thirlmere Railway PrecinctThirlmereWollondilly  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Rail motor CPH 18 has heritage significance because it demonstrates the successful application of a comparatively comfortable and efficient form of passenger transport to the extensive country rail branch line network in the state. The CPH class pioneered the use of self-propelled passenger trains powered by internal combustion engines which remain the mainstay of country passenger services today. Rail Motor CPH 18 is aesthetically significant as it displays aesthetic and creative significance in the marriage of timber carriage-building techniques with mechanical components based on road vehicle technology to provide an attractive, somewhat diminutive passenger rail vehicle. The internal layout principles have been successfully applied to subsequent designs of rail passenger vehicles used in the state. The rail motor is technically significant as it is built on a modified Warren truss steel underframe, fabricated entirely by electric open-rod welding, claimed to be the first such use of this technique on a railway vehicle in Australia. There is considerable technical significance in the adaptation of relatively small engines and transmissions to rail use. The fitting of a one-off diesel engine in 1939 (removed in 1953) makes CPH 18 technically significant as the first diesel-engine rail vehicle in NSW. It is considered rare as it retains, without modification, some features of these rail motors as built (notably the crown lights and the tongue & grooved board ceiling), and is recognized as being the nearest to original example of a rail motor car extant. In its restored state it is representative of the CPH class of rail motors that operated successfully and economically on the NSWGR for over 60 years.
Date significance updated: 13 Nov 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: NSWGR (E. E. Lucy)
Builder/Maker: Eveleigh Carriage Workshops
Physical description: EXTERNAL
The vehicle is a small diesel-powered rail vehicle approximately 42 feet long, carried on two four-wheeled bogies. It is built on a modified Warren truss steel underframe, fabricated entirely by electric open-rod welding, in which two trusses are used longitudinally, with transverse members, cantilever arms, solid sills and headstocks welded into position.

The body of the car is of timber construction, using mostly Queensland yellow-wood, pines and cedars, and is finished externally with tongue and grooved timber below the window line and is painted in clear varnish. Three access doors are provided in each side. Standard sized passenger entry doors are provided at each corner in the sides (four doors), with a larger, single sliding door on each side in the centre allowing entry to the guard’s compartment. Side windows are provided in the outside body adjacent to all seats, in all doors and in the front and rear of the car. The driver’s window is in the centre of the front (and rear) of the car and each of the adjacent passenger seats, either side of the cab, has a smaller front window.

INTERNAL
The car is fitted with one first-class and one second-class compartment either side of a central guard's compartment. Accommodation is for 21 first-class and 24 second-class passengers. In addition, two passengers could be accommodated in seats adjacent to each driver’s cab. Seats are grouped as facing pairs in a 3+2 seating arrangement. The guard’s compartment separates the first-class passenger compartment from the second-class compartment, and extends the full width of the vehicle. Apart from accommodating the guard, parcels and mail and other small items of goods, nine second-class passengers could be seated on fold-down wooden seats. The accommodation of a standard ‘forty-two footer’ was 48 passengers, a driver, a guard and a quantity of parcels and mail.
A dry-hopper type toilet is provided at the second class-end of the vehicle, this small compartment also containing a wash basin. Originally, no running water was provided, and a large watering can, filled by the guard from the tank in his compartment, was used for necessary flushing.

MECHANICAL
The car is fitted with a General Motors 6-71 series, six-cylinder diesel engine of 165 hp, coupled to a Twin Disc torque converter, driving the inside axle of the bogie at the second class-end, via a Cardan shaft and final drive. The engine and transmission are mounted on a sub-frame which was bolted between the trusses of the underframe. Two radiators (originally mounted under the floor) are mounted on the roof at the No. 2 end of the car.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Operational
General Condition: Very Good Condition
External Condition: Very Good Condition
Internal Condition: Very Good Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
Rail Motor CPH 18 is fully operational and in excellent external condition with no damage evident to the car.

INTERNAL CONDITION
Internally the rail motor is in very good overall condition following its 2006 return to service.
Date condition updated:26 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: 15 March 1926 - built by the NSWGR’s Eveleigh Workshops. Entered service in its original form with Leyland petrol engine and 4-speed gearbox, underfloor radiators, pressed-steel wheels in inside-framed bogies, fixed seating, small headlights, and varnished timber finish.
c.1928 - Radiators moved to the roof, large headlights fitted, painted khaki and red.
c.1931 - Bogies replaced with 2QG type, with cast spoked wheels.
1934 - Seating altered to include turn-over type seats.
1935 - Torque converters fitted to rail motors.
1937 - Re-painted in blue and silver.
1939 - Installation of the first diesel engine (a 90 kW Leyand).
c.1945 - Re-painted in the green and cream colour scheme.
c.1950 - Configuration maintained; re-painted in the Tuscan Red and russet scheme.
1953 - Fitted with GM 6-71 diesel engine and Twin Disc torque converter.
1960s - Gas heating fitted (later removed).
1964 - Bogies standardized using 2QG type, fitted to all rail motors, replacing some variations.
1971 - Sides re-sheeted with plywood. Indian Red colour scheme maintained.
1984 - Withdrawn. Placed on loan with the Rail Motor Society and stored at Paterson.
2003 - Moved to the NSWRTM at Thirlmere for restoration.
4 August 2006 - Returned to service.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Rail Motor Car

History

Historical notes: In the years leading up to WW1, experiments were carried out with various types of self-propelled rail vehicle on a number of the railway systems of the various states, but the New South Wales Railways did not participate in these attempts. In 1919, under the Commissioner’s direction, a five ton truck body was converted into an experimental rail motor by Eveleigh Carriage Works. The rail motor (known as Rail Motor No.1) successfully completed its trial on the Illawarra line in 1919 and was then shipped to the isolated Lismore line where after six years of continuous service, the vehicle was withdrawn and converted for other use. In 1922, a second attempt at providing a self-propelled rail passenger vehicle saw a suburban passenger car enter Eveleigh Workshops for conversion to a rail motor. Rail Motor No.2 entered service in October 1922 with seating for 53 passengers. In a remarkable demonstration of the engineering capability of the NSW Railways, it was powered by a six-cylinder petrol engine, completely designed and built by Eveleigh Workshops. The car entered service on the Tamworth-Barraba service, but in 1925 was sent to the Narrabri area where it provided service on the Pokataroo branch line. The car proved to be not as reliable as was hoped and it was withdrawn from service later in 1925. The car reverted to service as a locomotive-hauled passenger vehicle. The experiments with Rail Motors No.1 and No.2 provided valuable design input, with the result that a new design of rail motor entered service on 17 December 1923, after completing trials in early December of that same year.

Rail Motor No.3 was the first of the new standard type, to be eventually followed by 36 more of the class, with 37 in total entering revenue service. The rail motors were known at various times as ‘42-foot rail motors’, ‘42-footers’ or ‘Tin Hares.’ The two former names were a result of their imperial length, while the third name is said (D. Cooke) to be due to their introduction coinciding with the first use of mechanical ‘tin-hares’ into greyhound racing, though it has also been speculated that their speed and form of propulsion were the main reasons; early rail motors in some other states were similarly known. The two experimental rail motors (Nos.1 & 2) were withdrawn about this time and their numbers (1 &2) were later re-used by two new ‘42-footers’. The rail motors were later allocated a vehicle classification CPH and most references in official documents, timetables and other publications refer to this classification.

The first CPH was commissioned in 1923 and by 1930, the last of the class (CPH 37) had entered service with the NSW railways. The rail motors served the NSW railways, especially the extensive country branch line system for more than 50 years and could lay claim to being one of the most successful design of rail vehicles to operate in the state.

In common with the rest of the class, CPH 18 was built by the NSWGR’s Eveleigh Workshops, completed on 15 March 1926. Between the 1930s and 1945, a range of different engines were tried in the rail motors, including the experimental fitting in 1939, of the first diesel engine (a 90 kW Leyand) to CPH 18. Throughout its service life, CPH 18 received most of the various modifications common to the class, being fitted with its GM 6-71 diesel engine and Twin Disc torque converter in 1953. Rail Motor CPH 18 was one of a number of the class nominated in the 1962-period, by the recently formed New South Wales Rail Transport Museum as being worthy of preservation. The list was forwarded to the Railways Administration at the time and general agreement was forthcoming from them. However, the rail motors were still in everyday service (and would remain so for a further 20 years) so the acquisition of these vehicles was deferred pending their withdrawal. Rail Motor CPH 18 ran its final service in 1984 and was then placed on loan with the Rail Motor Society and stored at their premises at Paterson. In 2003 the car was moved to the NSWRTM at Thirlmere where it underwent a restoration by RailCorp rolling stock apprentices before being officially returned to service on 4 August 2006.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Making gas /generating electricity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Rail Motor CPH 18 has historical significance. It is historically significant because it demonstrates the successful application of a comparatively comfortable and efficient form of passenger transport to the extensive country rail branch line network in the state. The rail motor concept, whereby a self-propelled rail passenger vehicle was designed for specific country use in NSW, was first tried in 1919. The original design features were improved over the next few years, resulting in the ‘forty-two footers’ or CPH class rail motors entering service. The rail motors served the country branch lines, cross-country lines and outer suburban lines of Sydney and Newcastle for more than 60 years. The historical significance is increased when it is noted that the principle of self-propelled diesel trains serving the country areas of the state is exemplified and improved with the new Endeavour and Explorer Rail Cars. The fitting of a one-off diesel engine in 1939 makes CPH 18 unique as the first diesel-engined rail vehicle in NSW.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Rail Motor CPH 18 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Rail Motor CPH 18 has aesthetic significance. Rail Motor CPH 18 displays aesthetic and creative significance in the marriage of timber carriage-building techniques with mechanical components based on road vehicle technology to provide an attractive, somewhat diminutive passenger rail vehicle which provided relatively fast, efficient and comfortable transport for country New South Wales. Provision was made for different classes of rail travel to suit passenger travel, space was made available for small consignments and designs allowed for the crew to simply change ends at destinations and return in the opposite direction, rather than the need for turning. These principles have been successfully applied to subsequent designs of rail passenger vehicles used in the state.

Rail Motor CPH 18 has a high level of technical significance. It is built on a modified Warren truss steel underframe, fabricated entirely by electric open-rod welding, claimed to be the first such use of this technique on a railway vehicle in Australia. There is considerable technical significance in the adaptation of relatively small engines and transmissions to rail use. At first, petrol engines and standard gearboxes were tried, but the final arrangement of diesel engine / hydraulic transmission proved to be the most successful configuration. So successful was this drive mechanism, that larger, more powerful units were designed using this principle, continuing the tradition for 60 years. The fitting of a one-off diesel engine in 1939 (removed in 1953) makes CPH 18 technically significant as the first diesel-engined rail vehicle in NSW.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Rail Motor CPH 18 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Rail Motor CPH 18 has a high level of research significance. The rail motor has the potential to reveal information regarding the NSWGR attempts to provide fast and efficient rail travel to country areas of the state, in particular with regards to the adaptation of relatively small engines and transmissions to rail use.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Rail Motor CPH 18 has a high level of rarity significance. As one of a large number of survivors of the class, CPH 18 is not particularly rare. However because it retains, without modification, some features of these rail motors as built (notably the crown lights and the tongue & grooved board ceiling), it is considered unique. Prior to restoration, it was recognized as being the nearest to original example of a rail motor car extant. The fitting of a one-off diesel engine in 1939 (although removed in 1953) makes CPH 18 extremely rare as the first diesel-engined rail vehicle in NSW.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Rail Motor CPH 18 is an excellent representative example of a rail motor car in its original configuration. Prior to restoration, rail motor CPH 18 was very much representative of the class as it evolved and was able to demonstrate the majority of the modifications to the class. The restoration completed in 2006 has returned the rail motor car to its almost original configuration.
Integrity/Intactness: Rail Motor CPH 18 retains a high level of integrity and intactness. Despite having undergone a number of modifications throughout its service life and being subject to a full restoration, CPH 18 represents the most original and intact rail motor car still to exist. It is the only one of the type to retain both the crown lights and the tongue & grooved board ceiling.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Assessment2000    No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenDavid Cooke1984Railmotors & XPTs
WrittenNSWRTM2003Rail Motor CPH 18 CMP

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807201


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